Kingston upon Hull
|City of Kingston upon Hull|
|Residents||260,645 (as of June 30, 2018)|
|surface||71.45 km² (27.59 mi² )|
|Population density:||3648 inhabitants per km²|
|ZIP code section||HU|
|Part of the country||England|
|region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Shire county||East Riding of Yorkshire|
|District||Kingston upon Hull|
Hull West and Hessle
Kingston upon Hull [ ˌkɪŋstənəpɒnˈhʌl ], Hull for short [ hʌl ], is an English city (City) on the north bank of the mouth of the River Hull in the Humber . It is a unitary authority within the ceremonial county of East Riding of Yorkshire and in 2012 had a population of about 257,000. In 1299 the city was by Edward I by King's Town named. At that time Hull was a minority town , had an important port for the military and was a center of trade, fishing, whaling and industry. Hull was also an early site of the English Civil Wars. In the 18th century the city was the scene of the events that led to the abolition of the slave trade in Great Britain through MP William Wilberforce .
The city had its own telephone system and telephone booths as early as 1902, making it unique in the United Kingdom. After suffering severe damage during World War II, it faced a period of post-industrial downturn, which had detrimental social, educational and political effects. However, the city has embarked on an extensive program of economic regeneration and renewal.
Hull is home to some famous poets such as Philip Larkin ; many of his poems have Hull as the setting. Here you can experience both classical and popular music and various museums offer an insight into the history and development of the city of Hull. Along with a lively nightlife and popular arts festivals, Hull draws visitors from a wide area.
Sporting spectator events include professional football as well as two rugby clubs. Amateur sports clubs also offer a wide range of active participation.
The University of Hull and the Hull-York Medical School are located in the city. To continue the city's maritime history, the long-standing Hull Trinity House School offers sailor training.
The local accent differs significantly in its vowel tones from the rest of the Yorkshire region; it is similar to that of Lincolnshire and is associated with that of the former county of Humberside.
Kingston upon Hull is 248 kilometers north of London on the north bank of the mouth of the Humber in the North Sea . The city center is west of the Hull and close to the Humber. The city's subsoil consists of alluvial alluvial soil and glacial deposits. Below is limestone , which however has no influence on the local topography. The urban area is generally very flat and is only 2 to 4 meters above sea level. The places Drypool, Marfleet and Sculcoates and most of the districts of the parish of Sutton were incorporated into Hull in the 19th and 20th centuries. Much land in between has been cultivated since then; in social and economic areas too, the places have long since become inseparable from the city. Only Sutton retained an independent townscape until the late 20th century, although the town was reached from the south and east through the development of other suburbs. Until they were incorporated into Hull, the four places were independent communities with an urban character. Drypool and Sculcoates were incorporated in 1837, Maryfleet in 1882, and Sutton in 1929. The city's current boundaries are tight, excluding many parts of the metropolitan area, of which Cottingham is the largest. The city is surrounded by the urban county of East Riding of Yorkshire .
Some areas of Hull are below sea level. The Hull River flood barrier is located at the mouth of the Humber Delta and is lowered when unusually high storm surges are expected. This happens 8 to 12 times a year and thus protects around 10,000 people from flooding. Because of the city's low altitude, it is believed that global warming will increase the risk of flooding. Hull was hit hard by the floods in 2007, because the topography meant that the water hardly drained off and stayed in place for a long time. Around 20% of all buildings and 90 of 105 schools in the city were affected. At this point, the city's location was largely overlooked by the media, who focused more on the far worse flooding in Sheffield and Doncaster . This led Council President Carls Minns to say that Hull was the "forgotten city" of the floods. The damage to the schools alone amounted to the equivalent of around € 115 million.
With its location in northern England, Hull has a temperate oceanic climate, which is characterized by the passage of low pressure areas. The weather changes almost every day; Due to the influence of the Gulf Stream , the region is very mild in terms of its latitude. Rain falls on about 109 days a year, the average annual precipitation is 565 millimeters. January is usually the coldest month and November is the wettest. The warmest month is August while February is the driest.
On February 27, 2008 at around 1 a.m. local time, Hull was approximately 30 miles (48 kilometers) north of the epicenter of an earthquake measuring 5.3 on the Richter scale . The quake lasted about 10 seconds and was an unusually strong quake for these latitudes.
On April 1, 1299, Hull was granted town charter and named " Kings Towne on the River Hull " by King Edward I of England , who needed a port to the north to support his wars in Scotland . The 700 year old charter is now in Hull City Hall . Before the re-establishment, the port and settlement were known as Wyke.
In 1642, shortly before the beginning of the English Civil War , Governor Hulls openly sided with the parliamentary side and denied King Charles I access to the city and the militarily important arsenal . He was declared a traitor and executed despite being pardoned by Parliament . The siege of the city in particular was one of the reasons for the open outbreak of war.
Whaling played an important role for the city until the mid-19th century. Hull's prosperity extended into the decades before the First World War. In 1897, Hull was granted city status. The whaling industry as the most important branch of deep-sea fishing declined further and further after the Second World War, which ultimately led to the so-called cod war of 1975/1976. The agreements made on this led to a further decline in Hull's economy.
During the Second World War the port, industrial facilities and large parts of the city center were destroyed by heavy bombing. 95% of Hull's buildings were either damaged or destroyed, making Hull the second most heavily bombed British city after London.
Of a population of around 320,000 at the beginning of the war, 192,000 were left homeless due to the severe destruction. The most violent bombardment took place in 1941. Little was known about its destruction, as most newspaper and radio reporters did not name the city, but only referred to it as the "city on the coast in the northeast". In the spring of 1944, the city was attacked again by German bombers as part of the Steinbock enterprise . Most of the city center was rebuilt in the post-war years.
The administrative status of the city has historically changed several times. As a former district , Hull was part of the administrative county of Humberside from 1974 to 1996 . When it was dissolved, Hull became a Unitary Authority .
Fisherman widows rebellion
Around 6,000 Hull fishermen have died at sea over the decades . When three fishing trawlers and 58 men sank from Hull within four weeks in the winter of 1968 , fishing widows united in their grief and anger against the negligence of the owners. Their aim was to improve working conditions and safety regulations. Because many trawlers drove into the North Atlantic without radio operators or medical care, the fishermen had to pay for their equipment themselves for the trips in temperatures down to minus 15 degrees. The women demanded full crews, safety lines on deck, weatherproof warm protective clothing, emergency signal systems, escort ship with doctor, modern aids to prevent icing and that no trawlers should drive into storm areas in winter. When they drove to London to present their demands to the British government, they were received "by a cheering crowd as if they were the Beatles" at London's Kings Cross . They presented to Ministers for Commerce, JPW Mallalieu and Ministers for Fisheries, Fred Peart, and obtained a pledge instructed by Prime Minister Harold Wilson . Two days later the Ministry of Fisheries and the representatives of the fishing industry approved a catalog of conditions "of historic proportions". All regulations were effective immediately, so all British deep-sea trawlers were ordered back. A commission of inquiry found in its report, among other things, that there was a fatalistic attitude towards the danger at all hierarchical levels in industry and that many considered the high accident rate to be more or less avoidable. On the other hand, the majority of the accidents could have been avoided.
According to the UK census in 2001, Hull had a population of 243,589 people spread across 104,288 households. The population density was 34.1 inhabitants per hectare. 47.85% of all apartments in Hull were rental apartments, the national average was 31.38%. The population has shrunk by 7.5% since the previous 1991 census and was officially estimated at 256,200 people in July 2006.
In 2001, about 53,000 people were under 16 years old, 174,000 were between 16 and 74 years old, and 17,000 were 75 years old and older. 97.7% of the total population were white; the largest ethnic minority was a group of 749 people who consider themselves Chinese. Only 3% of the people living in Hull were born outside of the UK. In 2006 Iraqi Kurds were the largest ethnic minority and were estimated at 3000 people. Most of these people were housed in the city by the Immigration Service while their asylum applications were being processed. Regarding their religious affiliation, 71.7% of the population were Christians in 2001. Another 18% said they did not belong to any religion, while 8.4% did not see themselves as belonging to any particular religion. In 2001 the city had the lowest church attendance in the UK.
In the same year, the city had a high rate of employable unemployed at 6.2%, making it 354th out of 376 parishes in England and Wales. For 64,578, i.e. around two thirds of all 95,957 employed employees, the distance to work was less than 5 km (3.1 mi). Another 18,031 people drove between 5 and 10 kilometers to get to work. 12,915 people used public transport to get to work, while 53,443 people drove by car.
The table on the left shows the results of the individual censuses since 1801. From 1901 they are listed every 10 years.
According to the Local Government Act of 1888, Hull became a county borough , i.e. an administrative district that was independent of East Riding of Yorkshire and was equated with it. This district in turn was dissolved by the Local Government Act of 1972, which came into force on April 1, 1974. Now Hull became a district of the newly formed county of Humberside . The county and its council were abolished on April 1, 1996 and Hull eventually became a unitary authority .
The city's local authority is now the Hull City Council , based in the City Hall in the city center. In 2004 and 2005 the city council was given the dubious honor of being the UK's worst performing agency. Since then, however, the work of the city council has improved enormously.
The 2007 local elections were won by the Liberal Democrats by a large majority and entered the city council. The election ended a phase of several years in which neither party could achieve a majority on its own. In the 2008 election that followed, the Liberal Democrats defended their power and even expanded their majority.
The city sends three MPs to the British House of Commons . In the last general election in 2005, she elected three Labor Party MPs : Alan Johnson , Diana Johnson and John Prescott , who was Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom until his resignation on June 27, 2007. William Wilberforce is Hull's most celebrated former MP in the House of Commons. The son of the town, he was a member of the Hull Council from 1780 to 1784 before moving into the House of Commons as an independent member for Yorkshire County .
Kingston upon Hull has partnerships with
- Freetown , Sierra Leone
- Greifswald , Germany
- Niigata , Japan
- Raleigh , United States
- Reykjavík , Iceland
- Rotterdam , Netherlands
- Szczecin , Poland
Culture and sights
Hull doesn't have a particularly good reputation in England. This is reflected in the saying " Hull is dull " (German: " Hull is dreary "). But it also has the reputation of producing “ tough guys ” (German: “ tough guys ”).
In the extensive museum district of Hull are the " Wilberforce House ", the " Hull and East Riding Museum ", the " Ferens Art Gallery ", the " Maritime Museum " and the " Streetlife and Transport Museum ". The art collection of the University of Hull is also worth seeing .
Further sights are the "Queens Gardens", The Deep , a marine aquarium that calls itself the world's only " Submarium " and is built around a huge aquarium tank. This aquarium contains 2.5 million liters of water, 87 tons of salt and has a glass elevator.
Since 1999 the trawler Arctic Corsair can be viewed as a museum ship in Hull.
Significant churches in Hull are:
- the Holy Trinity Church (Dreifaltigkeitskirche), built 1320–1500, largest parish church in England , based on the floor plan, honored in 2017 with the honorary title "minster" ( Münster )
- St Mary Lowgate from the 15th century, restored in 1861,
- St Charles Borromeo , founded in 1829, renovated in 1894, and
- the Charterhouse (1778–80), chapel of a retirement home that emerged from a medieval charterhouse .
Hull offers a wide range of sports clubs and organizations, both for spectators and active participants. Sports are for example professional football, golf, darts and athletics, but also pigeon racing.
Kingston upon Hull is home to the Hull City Football Club . The club plays its home games in the KC Stadium, which opened in 2002 . On May 5, 2013, the club was promoted to the Premier League by beating Cardiff City 2-2. The previously league-less, newly founded club Hull United hit the headlines after owner and manager Jamie Waltham announced at the team's first home game in 2014 that every spectator should get two pounds in cash.
Hull also has two clubs that play in the Super League and is therefore also a center of rugby . Hull FC , like Hull City football club, plays its games at KC Stadium, while Kingston Rovers are based in Craven Park in East Hull. There are also several clubs that play in the lower leagues, such as East Hull , West Hull , Hull Dockers and Hull Isberg , all of which play in the National Conference League . To Rugby Union , the association takes care of Hull Ionians , who in Brantingham Park plays.
Cycling is practiced at the Hull Cycle Speedway Club , which is located at Hessle Raceway near the Humber Bridge. Other cycling clubs like Hull Thursday practice their sport across town.
The city also has the Hull Arena , a large ice and concert hall, which is home to the Hull Stingrays ice hockey club . He currently plays in the Elite Ice Hockey League . There is also the American Football Club Hull Hornets , which has been a member of the British American Football League since November 5, 2006 . In mid-2006, Hull hosted an event by One Pro Wrestling , a professional wrestling association that hosted the Devils Due Event on July 27th at the Gemtec Arena .
The city is hosting the Clipper Round the World Yacht Race , a yacht racing competition organized by Clipper Ventures . It extends over a distance of 56,000 km (35,000 mi) across the globe. The start took place on September 13, 2009 in Hull Bay, and the race ended in July 2010.
Economy and Infrastructure
Despite the declining fishing industry, the city's port has not lost its importance; Nowadays 13 million tons of goods are handled here every year. Thanks to an investment in an improved rail link , which Network Rail completed in mid-2008 , the capacity was increased from 10 to 22 trains per day. The port is operated by Associated British Ports Holdings and other companies and employs approximately 5,000 people. Another 18,000 jobs are created indirectly through the port activities. The port area has changed a lot since the declining importance of fishing and is now designed for ferry connections to continental Europe. Over a million passengers are transported annually by ferry. Of greater concern to Hull today is the leisure industry; a marina with 270 berths for yachts and small sailboats was opened in 1983 at Humber Street Dock in the city center.
The main focus of the urban industry is in the medical and chemical sectors. Some well-known British companies such as BP , Smith & Nephew , Seven Seas and Reckitt Benckiser have a location in Hull. Local industry is supported by research facilities at Hull University in collaboration with the Institute of Woundcare and Hull York Medical School . The Yorkshire Drydock Company produced ships of the Yorkshire Drydock Box series .
As the largest city and transport hub of East Riding of Yorkshire, Hull is also a hub of retail trade; Areas of the city are becoming attractive again for retail. This includes projects in Quai West and St Stephen’s .
In 2013, an extension of the existing Princes Quai shopping center was built on a wasteland. The center stands on stilts above Princes Dock from 1829 and is built around a central atrium where events, activities and community projects take place regularly. It includes a further 60 shops, two new department stores, restaurants and various leisure facilities. A cinema opened on December 21, 2007 as the first purely digital cinema in Europe.
St Stephens is a new 52,000 m² shopping center that was built on the site of the old bus station . It includes shops, u. a. a supermarket open around the clock, as well as residential units and a parking garage. Next to it is the new bus station and the renovated train station.
A new office complex was built on the other bank of the Humber. The first part of the project included two office buildings and 51 new apartments, the second part a 4-star hotel with 200 beds, a restaurant and additional high-quality office space.
A residential complex with over 600 apartments, shops, boutiques, cafés, a luxury hotel with 120 beds, as well as health and educational facilities will be built on the east bank of the Hull. It is to be connected to the city center by a new pedestrian bridge over the Hull. The city's commerce has an annual turnover of nearly eight billion pounds; Over five million visitors contribute nearly £ 210 million to the city's sales each year. Since the beginning of 2017, SiemensGamesa has been operating a plant in Hull for rotor blades for their offshore wind turbines with, according to the company, up to 1000 employees.
The main route to and from Hull is the M62 . As part of the E20 , it is one of England's most important axes in an east-west direction. It provides connections to major cities such as Liverpool , Manchester and Leeds, as well as to the rest of Great Britain via its motorway network . The M62 itself ends a few kilometers from the city; The rest of the route is covered on the A63 expressway.
Hull is close to the Humber Bridge , which provides direct connections to the area south of the Humber. It was built from 1972 to 1981 and during this phase it was the longest single-cable suspension bridge in the world. Now the toll bridge is the fifth longest of its kind.
If you want to do without the bridge, you have to get to the other side of the river via Goole .
The public transport is mainly by two bus transport companies guaranteed: Stagecoach in Hull and East Yorkshire Motor Services . A smaller company, Alpha Bus and Coach offers one of two P + R options in the city - the other is served by East Yorkshire Motor Services .
The central transfer station between buses and trains, the Hull Paragon Interchange , opened on September 16, 2007. It is expected that around 24,000 people pass through the station complex every day. From here there are connections to all of Great Britain; First Hull Trains even offers direct trains to London.
P&O Ferries offers daily ferry connections from King George Dock in Hull to Zeebrugge in Belgium and Rotterdam in the Netherlands . The connection from Hull to Rotterdam is operated by the Pride of Rotterdam and the Pride of Hull ; the ferries are the two largest to operate regularly in the UK.
The nearest airport is Humberside Airport, 32 kilometers (20 miles) away in Lincolnshire . Mostly charter flights are offered there, but there are also four KLM scheduled flights to Amsterdam and Aberdeen per day. The Robin Hood Airport in South Yorkshire is located 77 kilometers (48 miles) south of the city center and provides cheap flights to various destinations.
Hull's daily newspaper is the Hull Daily Mail , which was named Yorkshire's Daily Newspaper of the Year in 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007. Mail News and Media also has an Internet presence and offers its own pages for local news, sports and nightlife. Event and program information for the city of Hull can be found in the city magazine Tenfoot City Magazine . The BBC has set up its new regional broadcaster for Yorkshire and Lincolnshire at Queen's Gardens in Hull. The regional news channel Look North is broadcast from here . In addition, the radio stations BBC Radio Humberside , Viking FM , KCFM , Magic 1161 , Hull University Union's Jam 1575 and Kingstown Radio are broadcast from Hull .
Kingston upon Hull owns the University of Hull with around 16,000 students today. It was founded in 1927. The Hull York Medical School has been associated with the university since 2003 , through which the British government is trying to promote more doctors.
The University of Lincoln went from the University of Humberside out and was formerly a polytechnic university based in Hull. She moved to Lincoln in the 1990s and managed it in 2001. However, she still owns a small campus in downtown Hull.
Hull has over 100 schools. 71 primary schools and 14 secondary schools are funded by Hull City Council. One of them is the Roman Catholic St Mary's Sports College . Schools run independently from the city are z. B. Hymers College and Hull Collegiate School . The latter is operated by the Ring of United Church Schools and was created through the merger of Hull Grammar School and Hull High School . With Hull College there is also a school for further education and two large high school schools , Wyke College and Wilberforce College . The Hull Trinity House School has offered training as a seaman since 1787 .
The city has had a low pass rate on school exams for many years and is often at the bottom of the GCSE table. After briefly moving up to the penultimate place in the table in 2007, it was lost a year later.
- Nick Barmby (born 1974), footballer
- William Barnes Steveni (1859–1944), journalist and writer
- Samuel Boden (1826–1882), chess master
- Trevor Bolder (1950-2013), rock bassist
- Patricia Bredin (* 1934), singer, actress and book author
- Thomas Brooks (painter) (1818-1892), painter
- Ernest William Brown (1866–1938), mathematician and astronomer
- Amos Burn (1848–1925), chess master
- Karl Bushby (* 1969), extreme athlete
- Luke Campbell (b.1987), boxer
- Ian Carmichael (1920-2010), actor
- Thomas Frederic Cheeseman (1846–1923), botanist and naturalist
- Tom Courtenay (born 1937), actor
- Lionel Davidson (1922-2009), writer
- William de la Pole (of Hull) († 1366), merchant, financier and banker of the king and later baron
- Ronald Dearing (1930–2009), Chairman of Post Office Ltd.
- John Deighton (1830–1875), steamship captain and bar owner
- Keith Devlin (* 1947), mathematician and science journalist
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- Francis Durbridge (1912–1998), writer, playwright, radio play and screenwriter
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- Thomas R. Ferens , a philanthropist , industrialist, and MP for East Hull from 1906 to 1918 was one of the city's greatest benefactors, donating funds to Hull University and the Ferens Art Gallery, among others.
- Peter Flanagan (1941-2007), rugby league player
- Luke Fox (1586–1635), navigator looking for the Northwest Passage
- Liam Garrigan (* 1981), theater and television actor
- Joseph Henry Gilbert (1817–1901), agricultural chemist
- Nathan Gill (* 1973), politician
- Sydney Goldstein (1903-1989), mathematician
- Phillip Goodhand-Tait (* 1945), singer-songwriter
- George Goulding (1885–1966), track and field athlete
- John Hall (1824–1907), Prime Minister of New Zealand
- Adrian Hardy Haworth (1768–1833), entomologist and botanist
- Dave Hemingway (born 1960), musician
- Ronnie Hilton (1926-2001), singer
- Everard Home (1756–1832), physician and member of the Royal Society
- Mike Hookem (born 1953), politician
- Thelma Hopkins (born 1936), track and field athlete
- Rob Hubbard (born 1955), musician
- Amy Johnson (1903–1941), an aviation pioneer, was the first person to fly alone from England to Australia
- Alex J. Kay (* 1979), historian
- Joseph Malet Lambert (1853–1931), an educational reformer who recognized general schooling as a relevant economic factor
- Philip Larkin (1922–1985), one of the greatest English poets of the 20th century, chief librarian at Hull University from 1955 until his death.
- Ethel Leginska (1886–1970), pianist, conductor and composer
- Dorothy Mackaill (1903–1990), actress
- Ronald Magill (1920–2007), stage, film and television actor
- Andrew Marvell (1621–1678), poet born near Hull
- William Mayne (1928-2010), children's author
- Jordan Metcalfe (born 1986), actor
- Edward Arthur Milne (1896–1950), mathematician and astrophysicist
- Poppy Morgan (* 1983), model and porn actress
- Stuart Pearson (born 1949), footballer
- Chris Priestley (* 1958), author, illustrator and cartoonist
- J. Arthur Rank (1888–1972), industrialist and film producer
- Marjorie Rhodes (1897–1979), actress
- Mick Ronson (1946–1993), guitarist, composer, multi-instrumentalist, arranger and producer
- Charles Sheffield (1935–2002), mathematician, physicist and science fiction author
- Ernst von Siemens (1903–1990), German industrialist and son of Carl Friedrich von Siemens
- Henry B. Sloman (1848–1931), Hamburg merchant and shipowner
- Stevie Smith (1902–1971), writer
- Thomas Somerscales (1842–1927), painter and teacher, best known for his paintings depicting the saltpeter war and seafaring off the coast of Peru and Chile .
- Jack William Stocks (1871 – after 1933), cyclist
- Joe Tasker (1948–1982), mountaineer and author
- Brandon Thomas (1850–1914), ship's carpenter, actor and author
- Gerald Thomas (1920-1993), film director, mainly for carry-on ... film series is known
- Ralph Thomas (1915–2001), film director
- Cosey Fanni Tutti (* 1951), artist and musician
- Dave Ulliott (1954-2015), professional poker player
- John Venn (1834-1923), mathematician
- David Whitfield (1925-1980), singer
- William Wilberforce (1759–1833), one of the leading activists for the abolition of slavery
- Vic Wilson (1931-2001), racing car driver
- Dean Windass (born 1969), football player
- Scott Wiseman (born 1985), soccer player
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