East Riding of Yorkshire

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East Riding of Yorkshire county
East Riding Of Yorkshire.svg

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About this picture

Country United Kingdom
Part of the country England
region Yorkshire and the Humber

status Ceremonial County and Unitary Authority

Ceremonial county
surface 2,479 km²
Residents 600.259
was standing June 30, 2018

Unitary Authority
Administrative headquarters Beverley
ISO-3166-2 GB-ERY
surface 2,405 km²
Residents 339.614
was standing June 30, 2018
ONS code 00FB
GSS code E06000011
NUTS code UKE12
Website www.eastriding.gov.uk

! Districts /! Unitary Authorities
Location of the Unitary Authorities
  1. East Riding of Yorkshire
  2. Kingston upon Hull

East Riding of Yorkshire (English for 'Eastern Third of Yorkshire') is an administrative unit ( Unitary Authority ) in England . It borders the ceremonial counties of North Yorkshire , South Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and surrounds the city of Kingston-upon-Hull , which is also administratively independent. East Riding of Yorkshire is also a ceremonial county, which includes Kingston-upon-Hull.

The East Riding of Yorkshire is part of traditional Yorkshire county . The name comes from the earlier division of Yorkshire into Ridings (thirds). The riding was part of the former Humberside county from 1974 to 1996 .


Geographical location

The District East Riding bordered to the south by the autonomous Hull and at the estuary of the Humber , the districts at the opposite side North East Lincolnshire and North Lincolnshire are. In the southwest, the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster, which belongs to South Yorkshire, borders. The districts of Selby , York , Ryedale and Scarborough , which border further to the west and north , are all part of North Yorkshire. The North Sea borders the district in the east .


A black and white line drawing of the geological zones of the East Riding of Yorkshire
Geology of the East Riding

Geologically, the East Riding is divided into three parts. The western part consists of the eastern section of the Vale of York and the southern continuation to the upper part of the Humber estuary. In this area there is a sandstone belt overlaid by glacial alluvial soil. The central part, the Yorkshire Wolds , are a chain of limestone hills extending from North Ferriby near Hull to the headland of Flamborough Head . The southeastern third part is the low-lying Holderness Plain, which is bounded by the North Sea to the east and by the Humber estuary to the south. To the south of Flamborough Head is the Bridlington bathing area , and to the south of it is the Spurn peninsula . Before the last ice age, the coastline was even further west at the foot of the wolds, where remains of beaches had been discovered. When the glacier ice receded at the end of the Ice Age, it left behind large amounts of boulder clay and formed a wet, swampy soil that is now the Holderness. Another glacier, covering today's Vale of York, left boulder clay on its ground moraine. Like the Holderness, the Vale of York is now characterized by swampy soil. The wolds, on the other hand, were almost ice-free. After the Ice Age, the tundra was gradually populated by plants, which made the development of fauna in the area possible. Since the ice of the North Sea had still bound a lot of water, the sea level was well below today's level for a long time, and the coastline was further to the east.


A line of white cliffs topped with green turf protruding into the sea.
Flamborough Head

The wolds are in the form of a gently sloping plateau towards the Holderness, intersected by some deep, but flat valleys of glacial origin. The limestone ensures good drainage of the soil, which means that there is hardly any surface water in the form of streams and lakes. At Flamborough Head the wolds rise in the form of a sheer cliff; there are rock towers and eroded caves along the shore. Flamborough Head is a designated nature reserve. The progressive erosion along the cliff poses a threat to walkers.

The Holderness consists of layers of clay from the Vistula Ice Age . They form a relatively flat plain with some peat-filled depressions, which indicate the earlier existence of lakes. The fertile soil in the plain allows intensive farming; However, there are hardly any forest areas.

Coastal erosion near Hornsea

The coast suffers the greatest rate of erosion in Europe: around 1.5 m or two million tons of land mass is lost every year. 3% of this mass is deposited further south on the Spurn Peninsula. Many settlements have fallen victim to erosion over the past 2000 years. The port of Ravenspurn, which sank in the 14th century, is an example of this . Since 1951, attempts have been made by the East Riding Authority to contain the progressive erosion. The Holderness is mainly drained via the Humber , the area north of Hull via the tributary of the same name .

The Vale of York in the western part of the district is drained via the Derwent . The area, which is characterized by heather and forest cultures, is mostly flat, but some smaller elevations ensure a diverse topography. On the Derwent, there are also some unspoilt meadows.


Winter in the Yorkshire Wolds

The East Riding has cool summers and relatively mild winters due to the influence of the Gulf Stream . The weather conditions change almost every day. Due to the latitude, the area is often influenced by low pressure areas with their fronts approaching from the west. The lows are responsible for changeable and windy weather, especially in winter. Due to its location in the lee of the Pennines, however, large amounts of rain are the exception. Intermediate high influences with dry weather are also often possible. In summer, extensive high pressure areas can even lead to periods of drought, especially in the wolds.

Due to their altitude, it is generally cooler in the Wolds than in the Vale of York and Holderness. Closed snow covers are not uncommon in winter at high altitudes.


As the last Ice Age came to an end, the Paleolithic hunters and gatherers followed the herds of animals across the land between continental Europe and Great Britain. The milder climate made for an increasing diversity of animals, and the migration of people decreased. They increasingly tried to make flora and fauna controllable for themselves. Pollen finds show that the area of ​​the East Riding was covered by large forests before it was cultivated. Because of their wide range of natural resources, the Yorkshire Wolds became a focus of human settlement in the Neolithic . The oldest monuments in the area are Neolithic barrows . Two of these are near the parishes of Wold Newton and Kilham . By means of radiocarbon dating , the date of origin was established in 3700 BC. Estimated.

From 2000 to 800 BC The people of the Bronze Age placed 1400 bronze graves in the Wolds. They were found both individually and en masse in the form of cemeteries. Even today they can be seen as a special feature of the landscape. Up until the late Bronze Age, large parts of the forest were cut down and the land reclaimed in the form of pasture and arable land. The wetlands in the lowlands around the Wolds were also used for livestock. During the Iron Age , the distinct Arras culture emerged , named after a place near Market Weighton . Tombs were found here that are arranged in a manner similar to those of the La Tène culture in continental Europe. The area became the empire of the Celtic people of the Parisians .

A testimony to the Iron Age is Hasholme's dugout canoe .

After the Romans invaded Great Britain in 43 AD, they reached the historic Parisian-owned territory of Northumbria in 71 AD after crossing the Humber . On the northern bank they built a fort and laid roads that led from here via Derventio , today's Malton , to the bank of the Ouse . There they built another fort called Eboracum , from which the city of York later emerged. There is evidence of a sustainable use of the soil through grain cultivation in the Roman era. The remains of several Roman houses have been discovered in the Langton and Rudston area . In the areas around the Wolds, the number of settlements increased between 500 BC. Chr. And 500 AD, as the land mass increased more and more due to a falling sea level. The lowlands were mainly used for livestock. During the last years of the Roman occupation, more and more Anglo-Saxons invaded the area and established their own settlements in the second half of the 5th century. Place names with the endings -ing , -ingham and -ham indicate an Anglo-Saxon origin of the place. When Christianity spread in the area from the 7th century onwards , pagan customs were abandoned . In 867, the Great Pagan Army, coming from Denmark, with its leader Halfdan Ragnarsson, took the Anglo-Saxon city of York and made it the capital of the new Kingdom of Jórvík . From 876 the Danes began to establish permanent settlements in what is now Yorkshire. Place names with the endings -by and -thorpe indicate a Danish origin of the place. With the death of Erik I in 954, the rule of the Danes over Northumbria and the surrounding areas ended; the Kingdom of Jórvík thus dissolved.

After the Norman conquest of England by William I in 1066, William I handed over the area of ​​today's East Riding to the new Norman king and church institutions. If there was resistance from the population and the counts who had ruled until then, this was always suppressed by Wilhelm I. This policy of oppression is now known as the Harrying of the North . The rule of the Normans lasted well into the 16th century.

With the dissolution of the English monasteries by Henry VIII in the middle of the 16th century, the land formerly belonging to church institutions was confiscated and passed into private ownership. The ownership structure of the East Riding that came about at that time lasted partially into the 20th century.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, first the canals and then the railway connections were expanded. The Derwent was straightened downstream from Malton and received a canal connection to Pocklington . The towns of Beverley and Driffield received canal connections to the Hull . The construction of the Market Weighton Canal created a direct connection between the city and the Humber estuary . A first rail link was opened in 1847 between Filey and Bridlington . The first route across the Wolds from Malton to Driffield was completed in 1853. The railway lines were primarily used to export agricultural goods to markets in the industrialized West Riding of Yorkshire . In addition, the tracks were used to transport holidaymakers to the growing beaches of Bridlington, Hornsea and Withernsea . The landscape changed little as a result of the enclosure movement . Only hedges and rows of trees were removed in the course of the 20th century to enable the use of large agricultural machines .

Population development

Religions in the East Riding 2001
UK 2001 census East Riding Yorkshire and
the Humber
Christian 79.67% 73.07% 71.74%
without religion 11.90% 14.09% 14.59%
Muslim 0.27% 3.81% 3.1%
Buddhist 0.13% 0.14% 0.28%
Hindu 0.18% 0.32% 1.11%
Jewish 0.13% 0.23% 0.52%
Sikh 0.06% 0.38% 0.67%
other religions 0.16% 0.19% 0.29%
not specified 7.50% 7.77% 7.69%

Until April 1, 2009, the East Riding was the largest district , the largest unitary authority and the second largest non-metropolitan district in terms of population in England. Due to an administrative reform, it then fell back to fifth and sixth place.

The district has an area of ​​2408 km², a population of 335,049 ( ONS ; status: 2008) and a population density of 140 inh. / Km². This makes it the unitary authority with the lowest population density behind the Isles of Scilly , Rutland and Herefordshire . According to the 2001 census, the largest cities were Bridlington (34,000 inhabitants), Goole (17,000), Beverley (17,000), Cottingham (17,000), Hessle (15,000), Driffield (11,000), Anlaby with Anlaby Common (10,000), Hornsea (8,000) , Willerby (8,000), Pocklington (8,000) and Elloughton-cum-Brough (7,000). About half of the district's population lives in these eleven cities, the other half in the remaining 260 cities and towns. At the same time, the city of Kingston upon Hull bordering the district had 243,589 inhabitants alone.

The East Riding has a higher percentage of people over 40 years of age than the overall English section. This is due to a deficit among younger people. Although 36.4% of all households do not own a car, there are overall more car owners than on average. Less than 5% of all people use public transport to get to work, which is significantly less than the English average of 15%. The district has the highest percentage of white people in England at a rate of 98.8%. Even Hull has a very high proportion of 97.7% whites for a city of this size.

The crime rate is quite low compared to the English average.


After a competition in April 2013, the East Riding of Yorkshire now has an official flag. The flag consists of two vertical stripes of equal size: blue on the left and green on the right. In the center is the white rose of the House of York . The design comes from Trevor Appleton and his son Thomas from Kirkburn . The flag was first hoisted on April 22, 2013 at Beverley Minster .



Limits of East Riding
- until 1974: pink + blue
- since 1996: pink + red
The coat of arms of the East Riding of Yorkshire, created in 1945 and used until 1974

The administrative division of the East Riding had its origins in antiquity. In contrast to most counties, which were originally divided into so-called Hundreds , Yorkshire initially consisted of three so-called ridings , which in turn consisted of a large number of so-called Wapentakes . For the purpose of collecting population statistics, a so-called Registration County was founded, which consisted of the places Beverley, Bridlington, Driffield, Howden, Hull, Patrington, Pocklington, Sculcoates, Skirlaugh and York. A county board was first set up in 1889; the newly established East Riding had the same boundaries as the historic Riding, with the exception of the town of Hull. However, the Local Government Act of 1972 provided for the incorporation of ridings into the new county of Humberside , and so the riding was abolished on April 1, 1974. However, the existence of such a county across the Humber met with little acceptance, and so it was dissolved again in the mid-1990s. Since April 1, 1996, the part of the old county north of the Humber consists of two new unitary authorities - the East Riding and the independent city of Kingston upon Hull. At the same time, the ceremonial county of East Riding of Yorkshire (to which Hull also belongs) was reintroduced with the Lord Lieutenant as the chief representative. The district consists entirely of so-called parishes as the lowest administrative unit. The city of Hull, which is equated with the district, has no further subdivisions.


The County Hall in Beverley ,
the parliament building of the
East Riding of Yorkshire

The East Riding of Yorkshire Council is based in Beverley . It meets in the same building as the previous East Riding and Humberside county councils. Every four years, people from 26 constituencies in the district elect a total of 67 MPs to the assembly. The first elections for the newly formed council took place in 1995, but it came to power a year later. Until 2007, no party could win an absolute majority of the seats. Only the Conservative Party managed to do this in the local elections that year. In the election commission's audit report, the council was awarded four stars, making the agency one of the best in England.

Local elections 2015

The 2015 local elections brought the following results:

Political party be right % Be right Seats +/− seats *
Conservative 67.241 37.1% 510 - 2nd
Liberal Democrats 17,900 09.9% 2 - 1
Labor 39,700 21.9% 6th ± 0
UKIP 34,069 18.8% 3 + 3
Indipendent 15,799 08.7% 5 + 2
Green 03,544 02.0% 0 -
East Yorkshire Independents - - 0 - 1
Social Democrats - - 0 - 1
Total: 178,253 - 67

* : Difference from the 2011 election

Most of the East Riding is divided into the three constituencies Beverley and Holderness , East Yorkshire and Haltemprice and Howden . One of Hull's three constituencies, Kingston upon Hull West and Hessle , extends a little into the East Riding; at the same time a second, Brigg and Goole , covers a small part of North Lincolnshire . While the East Riding Council is dominated by the Conservatives , all seats on Hull City Council belong to the Labor Party . Hull East is the constituency of MP and former Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott .

Election to the European Parliament in 2014

The East Riding is in the Yorkshire and the Humber constituency of the European Parliament . In the 2014 European elections , two MPs each from the Conservatives , the Labor Party and the UK Independence Party were elected to parliament.

Culture and sights

Beverley Minster

There are many attractions in the East Riding, including historic buildings such as the mansions of Burnby and Sewerby , the manor and manor of Burton Agnes , the former Skipsea Castle and Fort Paull . Religious sites such as the Rudston Monolith , Beverley Minster , Beverley Abbey and Howden Minster can be visited year round.

Another attraction is the intact Skidby windmill , which can be seen grinding the grain. Nature lovers are drawn to the Spurn peninsula , the cliff of Bempton , the Hornsea Mere (the largest natural freshwater lake in Yorkshire), the Humber estuary and the rivers Hull , Aire , Trent and Don , some of which are protected over long stretches.

There are some canals that are now touristically developed such as the Driffield Canal , the Leven Canal , the Market Weighton Canal and the Pocklington Canal . Stamford Bridge was the site of a major battle and the Yorkshire Wolds Way is a long distance hiking trail that runs from Hessle to Filey across the Yorkshire Wolds and is one of the UK's National Trails .


Hull is the regional center for sports at the national level. The football club Hull City rose in 2008 after defeating Bristol City in the Premier League . Bridlington Town plays in the ninth-tier Northern Counties East League Premier Division . With Hull FC and the Hull Kingston Rovers there are two rugby league playing rugby clubs that are represented in the Super League . The Rugby Union playing club Bridlington Rugby Union Football Club plays its home games at Dukes Park from. The ice hockey club Hull Stingrays plays in the Elite Ice Hockey League , the top division of its sport. Horse racing is practiced at Beverley Racecourse and the Kiplingcotes Derby , the oldest event for the sport in England. There are more than a dozen golf clubs in the East Riding and the Royal Yorkshire Yacht Club is based in Bridlington.

Economy and Infrastructure

Aerial view of the gridiron arrangement of buildings and pipes beside the curving Yorkshire sea coast.
Easington gas terminal
Brightly colored canvas tops of many market stalls in a town setting.
Beverley Market

Apart from the area around the city of Hull, the district is generally rural. There are several small towns scattered across the country such as Beverley , Driffield , Goole , Market Weighton and Pocklington as well as Bridlington , Hornsea and Withernsea along the coast. Agriculture and its dependent economic sectors make up one fifth of all sales tax revenues and thus play an important role. At the same time, however, mergers and closings reduced the number of farms by 40% between 1997 and 2003.

In Easington boasts one of three gas terminals in Britain. Natural gas is transported here from Nyhamna in Norway via the Langeled Pipeline . The terminal belonging to the BP group consists of three systems. One of them is operated by Centrica and the other two by BP.

The following are the district's gross value added figures in millions of pounds sterling:

year Gross value added a Agriculture b Industry c Services d
1995 2,708 299 896 1,513
2000 3,006 209 1,090 1,707
2003 3,783 233 1.106 2,444
a rounded values
b including hunting and forestry
c including energy and construction industry
d including financial brokerage

The East Riding is characterized by a low unemployment rate. At 4.3% it is 1.2% below the English average. Yet there are areas of high unemployment with Bridlington, Goole and Withernsea. The employment situation is subject to enormous fluctuations during the year due to the many seasonal jobs in tourism and the food industry.

On a former Royal Air Force airbase near Leconfield is now the Defense School of Transport , where 14,000 British Army , Royal Air Force and Royal Marines are trained. With over 1,000 civilian jobs, it is also one of the region's larger employers.

Renewable energy

An area of ​​flat green fields with five starkly white wind turbines standing out from the background of a blue sky.
Wind farm near Easington

The East Riding has an above-average potential for the use of renewable energies due to wind power . Initially, it was planned to generate 41 MW annually in the district by 2010 and 148 MW annually by 2021 using renewable energies. Wind farms are already in operation at Lissett in Holderness and at Easington on the banks of the Humber estuary. In addition, wind projects with an annual capacity of 140 MW had to be approved by February 2009. If other forms of renewable energies such as If, for example, biomass is added , the target of 148 MW set for 2021 would have been exceeded by then. The construction of a tidal power plant in the Humber estuary is also planned. If the project is successful, the construction of larger models that could supply 70,000 households with electricity is already being considered.


The East Riding is just a short stretch of freeway . This is where the M62 ends , which connects the metropolitan areas of Liverpool , Manchester and Leeds with the district in a west-east direction and offers further connections to the national motorway network. The M18 branches off at Goole just before the border to the south and leads via Doncaster to Sheffield , from where there is a connection via the M1 to London . The network of A-Roads comprises the A63, A164, A165, A166, A1033, A1034 and A1079.

The Humber Bridge is part of the A15 and connects Hessle (west of Hull) with Barton-upon-Humber in Lincolnshire . Further west at Goole, three bridges cross the Humber tributary Ouse : the M62 motorway bridge, the A614 bridge and a railway bridge.

The Spurn Point Military Railway operated here in the 20th century .

Hull Paragon Interchange , Hull's main train station, is the starting point for numerous railway lines: Sheffield to Hull Line can be reached via Doncaster, the York – Beverley railway connects Hull with Beverley , Selby and York , and Driffield can be reached via the Yorkshire Coast Line , Bridlington and Scarborough .

First Hull Trains departures from
Brough Station

Railway companies operating in East Riding are Northern Rail , East Coast and TransPennine Express . First Hull Trains is a rail company of the First Group , which offers regular connections on the Hull – London ( King's Cross ) route. Stops on this route in East Riding are Brough and Howden . First Group is also one of several bus companies. It provides services from the East Riding to York and Goole to Doncaster and serves the inner city bus service from Goole. Stagecoach operates the East Riding to Hull and Lincolnshire bus routes, and EYMS offers many connections within the East Riding. The Yorkshire Coastliner , which also operates regular services, connects Bridlington with Malton, York and Leeds.

The closest airport to East Riding is Humberside Airport . It is located a few miles south of the Lincolnshire border and is easily accessible via the Humber Bridge.


Regional TV channels BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and ITV Yorkshire are broadcast in the region. The area's radio programs include BBC Radio Humberside , Galaxy Yorkshire , KCFM , Viking FM and Yorkshire Coast Radio .

The area's daily newspapers include the Hull Daily Mail and the East Riding Mail . Other newspapers include the Bridlington Free Press , the Beverley Guardian , the Driffield Times , the Driffield Post , the Goole Times, and the Holderness Gazette .


A gray and red, very angular and clean looking prefabricated building of two bays.
Hornsea Fire Station

The East Riding is part of the Humberside Police as well as the Humberside Fire and Rescue Service . Yorkshire Water is responsible for both the supply of tap water and the maintenance of the sewer system . About 1% of the population (who usually live in remote areas) uses water from private sources, such as drilled wells or natural springs. The NHS East Riding of Yorkshire provides health services such as nursing, school medical care and therapy. He works with pharmacists, dentists, opticians and emergency services in England to provide basic services. The Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust hospitals are Castle Hill Hospital , Hull Royal Infirmary , Princess Royal Hospital in Hull and Westwood Hospital in Beverley. The Scarborough and North East Yorkshire Healthcare NHS Trust operates the hospital in Bridlington, and the NHS East Riding and NHS North Yorkshire and York operate the hospitals in Driffield and Malton. There are smaller health centers in Hornsea and Withernsea.

In fiscal 2004/05, 210,112 tonnes of trash was collected in East Riding and 154,723 tonnes in Hull. Compared to the previous year, this was an increase of 4.8 or 1.77%. Target 45+ is the name of a sustainable, collaborative waste recovery strategy between the East Riding and Hull. The strategic goal is to recycle or compost 45% of the waste generated by 2010 and to increase this percentage further later. The Waste Recycling Group is the local company responsible for waste recycling. She plans to build a waste incineration plant near Salt End (in the Preston parish ) to generate energy to supply 20,000 households with electricity with 240,000 tons of waste per year. The necessary permit for this was granted in June 2009 by the Environment Agency .


The East Riding School Board is responsible for a total of 150 schools, of which 131 are elementary schools and 19 are secondary schools. Net per capita spending on schooling increased from £ 578.08 in the 2006/07 school year to £ 632.88 in the 2007/08 school year. The East Riding slipped eight places in elementary school performance results in 2009 to 28th place in the national rankings.

The performance level of the secondary schools in the district slipped seven places to 39th place in the national comparison, although the GCSE degrees are the best since the beginning of the new East Riding in 1996. The percentage of students who achieved at least five grades from A to C on the GCSE rose from 50.8% in 2007 to 52.5% one year later. This rate was well above the national average of 47.6%.


  • KJ Allison: The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape  (= The Making of the English Landscape). Hodder and Stoughton Limited, London 1976, ISBN 0-340-15821-2 .
  • Robert Van de Noort: The Humber Wetlands  (= Landscapes of Britain). Windgather Press, Macclesfield, Cheshire 2004, ISBN 0-9545575-4-9 .
  • Richard Muir: The Yorkshire Countryside. A Landscape History. . Keele University Press, Edinburgh 1997, ISBN 1-85331-198-7 .
  • Vernon Wilson: East Yorkshire and Lincolnshire  (= British Regional Geology). HMSO, London 1948.

Web links

Commons : East Riding of Yorkshire  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Mid 2018 Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
  2. ^ Vernon Wilson: East Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. In: British Regional Geology. 1948, p. 81.
  3. ^ Vernon Wilson: East Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. In: British Regional Geology. 1948, p. 9.
  4. ^ Richard Muir: The Yorkshire Countryside. A Landscape History. 1997, pp. 10-11.
  5. ^ Driffield Online - The Digital Community for the Yorkshire Wolds. . Stephen Harrison, BA, MPil Phd, Consultant Archaeologist to Driffield Online. 2000. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  6. The Yorkshire Wolds Natural Area Profile (PDF; 429 kB) Natural England. November 1997. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved on December 9, 2009.
  7. Heritage Coast: Flamborough Headland . Natural England. Retrieved on August 3, 2009  ( page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / p1.countryside.gov.uk
  8. ^ Walkers warned of coastal erosion . In: BBC News Online , BBC, March 6, 2006. Retrieved February 5, 2008. 
  9. The Plain of Holderness Natural Area Profile (PDF; 406 kB) Natural England. Pp. 6, 11-12. November 1997. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved on December 9, 2009.
  10. Holderness Coast United Kingdom (PDF; 604 kB) EUROSION Case Study. Pp. 5-6. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
  11. ^ George Poulson: The history and antiquities of the seigniory of Holderness: in the East-Riding of the County of York . In: Google Books . books.google.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
  12. GENUKI: Easington Parish information from Bulmers' 1892 . Genuki. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  13. ^ Withernsea Coastal Erosion . University of Hull. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
  14. ^ Vale of York and Mowbray Natural Area Profile (PDF; 287 kB) Natural England. Pp. 12-13. March 1997. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved on December 11, 2009.
  15. ^ Met Office: Regional Climate: Eastern England . The Met Office. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
  16. ^ Driffield Online - The Digital Community for the Yorkshire Wolds . Stephen Harrison, BA, MPil Phd, Consultant Archaeologist to Driffield Online. 2000. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  17. ^ Driffield Online - The Digital Community for the Yorkshire Wolds. . Stephen Harrison, BA, MPil Phd, Consultant Archaeologist to Driffield Online. 2000. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  18. ^ Robert Van de Noort: The Humber Wetlands. Landscapes of Britain. 2004, p. 50.
  19. ^ Richard Muir: The Yorkshire Countryside. A Landscape History. 1997, p. 58.
  20. ^ KJ Allison: The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape. The Making of the English Landscape. 1976, p. 38.
  21. ^ Robert Van de Noort: The Humber Wetlands. Landscapes of Britain. 2004, p. 53.
  22. a b K. J. Allison: The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape. The Making of the English Landscape. 1976, p. 47.
  23. ^ KJ Allison: The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape. The Making of the English Landscape. 1976, p. 49.
  24. ^ KJ Allison: The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape. The Making of the English Landscape. 1976, p. 479.
  25. ^ Richard Muir: The Yorkshire Countryside. A Landscape History. 1997, pp. 148-149.
  26. ^ KJ Allison: The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape. The Making of the English Landscape. 1976, pp. 114-146.
  27. ^ KJ Allison: The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape. The Making of the English Landscape. 1976, p. 214.
  28. ^ KJ Allison: The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape. The Making of the English Landscape. 1976, p. 217.
  29. ^ KJ Allison: The East Riding of Yorkshire Landscape. The Making of the English Landscape. 1976, p. 257.
  30. a b 2001 Census: Census Area Statistics: Key Figures: Area: East Riding of Yorkshire (Local Authority) . In: Neighborhood Statistics . Office for National Statistics . Archived from the original on June 14, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
  31. T 10: Mid-2004 to Mid-2005 population estimates; components of population change for local authorities in the United Kingdom; Mid-2005 Population Estimates . Office for National Statistics . Retrieved February 5, 2008.
  32. a b c d e Key facts and figures (PDF) East Riding of Yorkshire Council. October 2009. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved on December 12, 2009.
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Coordinates: 53 ° 52 ′  N , 0 ° 29 ′  W