As hydraulic engineering are measures technical interventions and buildings in the area of groundwater , the surface water and the seashores designated. The term hydrotechnology is less common today for this field.
Hydraulic engineering carries out surface and subterranean interventions on the site as well as on bodies of water and creates hydraulic structures in the form of technical, water management systems .
A key area of hydraulic engineering is water and urban water management . As part of the supply technology, it manages drinking and service water and ensures sewage drainage and purification . Water development and river engineering as further core areas deal with water maintenance, water quality and flood protection .
The hydraulic engineering uses the inland and coastal waters for ship transport through port, canal and coastal protection structures. The energy of the water is developed in hydraulic energy engineering through dams, hydropower systems and storage basins.
The diverse fields of work in hydraulic engineering can be subdivided based on the tasks and objectives:
- Observing and analyzing departments: hydrology , water volume management (especially groundwater), (in technical connection with meteorology , geology and geography ),
- Protective and preserving specialist areas: drinking water and groundwater protection, flood and coastal protection, water maintenance and expansion (in professional connection with ecology ),
- Water supply departments: water supply with drinking water extraction and treatment, urban water engineering with drinking water supply and wastewater treatment (in technical connection with microbiology , biochemistry , environmental and process engineering ),
- Infrastructure-forming specialist areas: hydraulic engineering with canal , lock and port construction and the associated coastal protection measures (in close connection with earthworks and foundation engineering ).
As part of civil engineering , the subject areas of hydraulic engineering fall back on the basic engineering calculation and planning methods. The basis for the assessment of surface and underground water levels are detected using methods of hydrology, to which the hydrometry and hydrology are. This subject is closely related to meteorology , geology and geography .
The hydraulic calculation methods for water at rest ( fluid statics ) and in motion ( fluid dynamics ) are of particular importance for hydraulic engineering . These computational methods are supplemented by a distinctive hydraulic engineering test system, in particular for the exploration of basic hydraulic processes, for the exploration of runoff conditions in multi-part river systems and at port facilities, as well as for exploring the dynamics of ocean waves, since these processes are closed to purely mathematical-analytical assessment. These physical models are being supplemented or replaced by computer-aided modeling, which has become possible in recent years as the performance of mainframe systems has increased.
Word combinations with the syllable Hydro indicate the connection with water (from the ancient Greek word nὕδωρ (hudōr) for water). In technical applications, combinations are used, for example, as hydrology or hydraulics . Hydraulic engineering is also characterized by hydraulic engineering, although its technical use has become less common. Further word combinations with Hydro have been used by companies to give names to identify their own main areas of activity in water management (Hydrotech, Hydrotechnik). In English-speaking countries, word combinations with Hydro are more widely used in technical terms and are particularly common in the field of energy generation.
Today's main directions of hydraulic engineering have developed with the history of human settlements: Evidence for hydraulic engineering measures can therefore be found in all cultures around the world. The first major human settlements and cities in Europe around 3000 BC. Chr. Led to a need for water that could only be met by artificial interventions in the natural water cycle. To this end, the first dams were built as reservoirs in hollows and valleys made of earth dams, which served to supply the settlements with water and for irrigation. For irrigation it is said that as early as 600 BC Technical systems in the hanging gardens of Babylon may have been used.
The irrigated agriculture has left too early testimonies of hydraulic engineering activities with memories, feed channels and Regelungsbauten. The settlements also had to be protected from flooding , especially near rivers . An early example is the flood protection in the city of Tiryns in the Peloponnese around 2000 BC. Chr.
With increasing trade and fishing, port construction and coastal protection tasks had to be solved. The use of water as an energy source was developed early on through the construction of mills . Hydraulic engineering measures were of particular importance in mining - both for the drainage of the pits and for the energy supply.
|Hydraulic structures||Hydraulic basics|
|v. Chr.||v. Chr.|
|from approx. 5000||Domestic and domestic water supply (fishing, transport, recreation)|
|approx. 3200||Jawa dam (Jordan) for drinking water storage|
|approx. 3100||System of dams, canals and water reservoirs in the Yangtze Delta as flood protection and irrigation in the Chinese Liangzhu culture|
|approx. 2600||Construction of the Sadd-el-Kafara dam in Egypt for flood protection|
|circa 1600||Shipping canal on the 1st cataract of the Nile|
|1055||Sewer pipes in Jerusalem|
|5th century||Han Canal , first part of the Imperial Canal , which is still in operation today , China|
|427-347||Plato : water cycle, erosion, sedimentation|
|approx. 200||Drinking water system with pressure pipes in Pergamon||287-212||Archimedes : Fundamentals of hydrostatics, buoyancy and stability of floating bodies|
|134||Aqueduct with a pressure pipe made of lead pipes in Alatri , Italy|
|104-102||Rhone-Marseille Canal ( Fossa Marina )|
|100||Proven use of hydropower to operate mills|
|10||Canals and dikes in Holland|
|60||Attempt to pierce the Isthmus of Corinth by Emperor Nero|
|783||Charlemagne tries to build a canal between the Rhine and Danube regions ( Fossa Carolina )|
|1100-1200||Construction of dykes and drainage systems on the Oder and Vistula rivers|
|1325||Construction of the first chamber lock in Germany|
|circa 1450||Introduction of cast iron water pipes in Germany and England|
|1564-1642||Galileo Galilei : the effect of forces in flowing liquids|
|1650||First torrent control in Tyrol||1577-1644||Benedetto Castelli : Flow determination and continuity|
|1660||First water closets in France and England||1642-1727||Isaac Newton : Movement Theorems|
|1784-1833||Construction of the Rhine-Rhône Canal||1700-1782||Daniel Bernoulli : Conservation of Energy|
|1836||Start of construction for a canal between the Main and Danube ( Ludwig-Donau-Main Canal )|
|1830-1890||Expansion of the Danube|
|1859-1869||Construction of the Suez Canal|
|1873||Use of electricity from hydropower (lighting Linderhof Palace, Bavaria)|
|1891||Commissioning of the first German drinking water dam near Remscheid|
|1895||First clarifier in Germany in Frankfurt am Main|
|1904-1914||Construction of the Panama Canal|
|1934||Niederfinow ship lift opened to traffic|
|1924||Walchensee power plant put into operation|
|1931-1936||Construction of the Hoover Dam on Colorado (Nevada / Arizona)|
|1939||Construction of the Great Ferghana Canal to irrigate the Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan)|
|1960-1970||Construction of the Aswan High Dam|
|1960-1992||Construction of the Main-Danube Canal|
|1962||Completion of the Grande Dixence dam , Switzerland (height 285 m)|
|1993-2008||Three Gorges Dam , China|
Specialists in hydraulic engineering
Hydraulic engineering tasks are mostly performed by hydraulic engineers who have specialized in this area as part of their civil engineering or environmental engineering studies, and are often carried out by hydraulic engineers .
The diverse tasks are usually solved in interdisciplinary cooperation with other departments and specialists, such as computer scientists, process engineers, microbiologists, biochemists or earth and foundation engineers, landscape planners, geologists and geographers.
A parliamentary group “Free flowing rivers” was formed in the German Bundestag in mid-2007 . Their common goal is to prevent the Danube and other rivers from expanding. In the 17th legislative period (2009-2013) it had around 41 members of the Bundestag.
- Federal Institute for Hydraulic Engineering
- Federal Institute for Hydrology
- Federal waterways and shipping administration
- Theodor Strobel, Franz Zunic: Hydraulic engineering: current principles - new developments . Springer Verlag, Berlin 2006 ISBN 3-540-22300-2
- Michael Hütte: Ecology and Hydraulic Engineering - Ecological Basics of Water Management and Hydropower Use , Parey-Buchverlag, Berlin 2000
- Federal Institute for Hydraulic Engineering (BAW) - hydraulic structures. Retrieved September 21, 2018 .
- Federal Institute for Hydraulic Engineering (BAW) - Research & Development in Hydraulic Engineering. Retrieved September 21, 2018 .
- BfG - tasks. Retrieved September 21, 2018 .
- English-language Wiktionary: hydro
- Josef R. Ritter Lorenz von Liburnau: What does hydraulic engineering need ?: Proposals for the progress of hydrotechnology in teaching and service organization , Faesy & Frick-Verlag, Vienna 1879
- see English-language Wikipedia Hydropower , Hydroelectricity
- Günther Garbrecht: Hydraulic structures in the Kingdom of Urartu, 9th to 7th century BC , writings of the German Water History Society , Volume 5, Siegburg 2004, ISBN 3-8334-1502-9
- Discovered a huge hydraulic engineering system from ancient China. In: The Standard . December 9, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2017 .
- Günther Garbrecht: Masterpieces of ancient hydrotechnology , Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-8154-2505-0
- City of Frankfurt am Main: Historical sewage treatment plant with photos Internet presentation, Frankfurt 2012
- Kurt Lecher, Hans-Peter Lühr, Ulrich Zanke: Taschenbuch der Wasserwirtschaft , 8th edition, Parey-Buchverlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-8263-8493-8