Job creation measure

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Job creation measures (short ABM ) were in Germany at times of high unemployment from the employment agency subsidized activities in the so-called secondary labor market to help to job seekers in the reintegration into employment or to secure a low income.

In contrast, we mean by job creation state investments that directly the labor market boost.

Since April 1, 2012, no new job creation measures have been funded. According to the justification of the law, this is the result of the greatly reduced practical relevance of job creation measures. The number of participants in December 2010 was only around 1,000. In addition, labor market research has found negative effects of job creation measures in the form of a delayed transition to unsubsidized employment.


ABM were temporary jobs (a few days to several, mostly six to twelve, months) and usually comprised unskilled or very low-skilled jobs. ABM were mainly used in municipalities and associations for additional charitable work.

So-called ABM carriers were municipal employment companies, associations, social associations or institutions that came into being in the 1990s in particular.


Work areas of the ABM employees in 1988 in the Federal Republic of Germany

working area Employees Percentage
social services 34,531 30.3%
Agriculture, horticulture and landscaping 22.309 19.6%
Office and administration 17,118 15.0%
Building, industrial and leisure site development, building construction 7,261 6.4%
forestry 5,007 4.4%
Transportation 1,891 1.7%
Supply systems 829 0.7%
Coastal protection and land reclamation 389 0.3%
Others (including environmental protection) 24,605 21.6%
All in all 113.940 100.0%

Source: Federal Employment Agency, Nuremberg

After reunification , the measures in the structurally weak eastern federal states were used to combat high unemployment . In 1995 there were 205,800 unemployed in East Germany and 70,100 unemployed in West Germany in job creation measures. In 1996, the Federal Labor Office 9.282 billion DM for job creation measures.

Since 2004, due to a change in SGB ​​III, it has no longer been possible to gain a new entitlement to unemployment benefit through an ABM job .

With the introduction of ALG II and the more heavily used “ work opportunities ” (such as work opportunities with additional expense allowance , so-called 1 euro jobs), the ABM funds were largely changed in favor of cheaper jobs. The use of funds was decided by the sponsors of the job center (older name ARGE) in the local business policy. Since January 1, 2009, the job creation measures fell entirely from the area of SGB ​​II .

As ABM, MBM and RBM were increasingly used in social and cultural areas, they could also make a contribution to society. Hardly any social institution worked without such measures.


Critics complained that the ABM should only serve to improve the unemployment statistics and to keep the reported unemployment rate lower than it really is. Participants in a job creation measure were not listed as unemployed in the statistics.

Another point of criticism was that the job creation measures created a second labor market that was supposed to satisfy the demand for low-paid workers at the expense of the poorly paid participants. A user of such subsidized work could offer the services in general demand below real costs and thus below market prices ( dumping ), which in turn would deprive companies in the primary labor market of the competitive basis.

It was also criticized that the participants did not receive an adequate income for their work and were therefore dependent on supplementary state transfer payments.

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Job creation measure  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Removal of Chapter Six (Sections 260 to 271) of SGB III through Article 2 No. 19 of the Act to Improve Chances of Integration on the Labor Market of December 20, 2011, Federal Law Gazette I, pp. 2854, 2908.
  2. ↑ Draft law of the federal government of June 24, 2011, Bundestag printed matter 17/6277, p. 109.