Social work

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Social work is the name of an applied science that has been used since the 1990s as a generic and collective term for the traditional disciplines of social education and social work . Nando Belardi was one of the first to use this term in a four-volume textbook from 1980. He was editor and main author and advocated the connection between the two formerly separate subject areas through joint professional practice, the underlying scientific disciplines (sociology, psychology, social policy, medicine, etc.) as well the integrated courses of study started at that time, for which he proposed the generic term social affairs . He also wanted to use the umbrella term social workthanks to its easy translatability, promote the connection to the internationally used term social work (Belardi, Soziale Arbeit. Volume 1, 1980, pp. 90 f.). Social Work also summarizes the activities of the social workers and social workers designated profession as well as the scientific discipline together.




Since 2001, social work has also been officially recognized as a specialist science in Germany by the German Rectors' Conference (HRK) and the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK) , while in many other European and non-European countries (especially the USA) it has been an independent scientific discipline for many decades and over has numerous chairs and research projects. Social work sees itself as a profession that tries to solve, alleviate or prevent practical social problems based on science. Your knowledge of change relates Social Work from the science of social work as a discipline. This in turn generates its disciplinary knowledge through research projects.

In addition to this epistemological consideration, social work can also be understood functionally as a form of practiced social policy . In an international context, the following basic definition was proposed in Melbourne in 2014 by the international social work association, the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW):

“Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledge, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing. "

“Social work is a practice-oriented profession and a scientific discipline, the aim of which is to promote social change, social development and social cohesion as well as strengthening and liberating people. The principles of social justice, human rights, shared responsibility and respect for diversity form the basis of social work. Based on theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledge, people and structures are involved in social work in order to overcome existential challenges and improve well-being. "

The German Professional Association for Social Work (DBSH) has adopted this definition and noted that "practice-oriented" is understood in German as "action-oriented", that "liberation of people" in the figurative sense translates as "self-determination of people", that "diversity" also includes heterogeneity and that “theories of social work” also includes empirical knowledge, and has added further explanations on indigenous knowledge and the justification of social work. A previous version was presented in Montreal in 2000 by the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) and the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) and adopted in a slightly modified form by the DGSA.

In the course of the ongoing development of independent occupational fields in social work and action systems with increasingly less clearly differentiable sub-areas, the generic term social work , which has a long tradition, has emerged. In the same way, the academic courses are increasingly referred to with the terms social work or social affairs . The classic difference between social education and social work was that social education “acted”, “offered” and “initiated” preventively. The social work “reacted”, “intervened” on request and became “administratively active” when an abuse was reported. Another version of the term distinguishes between helping people to change their living conditions (social work) and changing their way of life (social pedagogy). This understanding is based more on the history of the term, according to which “social pedagogy” was used more for pedagogical theoretical drafts and for youth welfare institutions, while “social work” referred to non-pedagogical fields of activity such as poor relief. The confusing use of the terms was and is confusing. Sometimes an attempt is made to subordinate one work to the other by definition or to derive one of the forms from the other. Newer approaches use social work as a generic term for both equally important areas of work. In addition, social work is understood to be a separate intervention system that can be distinguished from other professions and is based on rules of action science.

Social work mandates

Social workers and social work scientists have different mandates, i.e. orders to act by certain interest groups. Classically, the “double mandate” includes the mandate of the clientele and the mandate of the state. According to this, the skilled workers are just as committed to the needs of the individual and the microsystems as to the conditions of the state legal system or current social policy . These various social work mandates create a field of tension in which conflicts of interest between the individual points of view can arise. In this way, a professional autonomy could be established within which the skilled workers weigh up their professional decisions within the framework of various interests. Specifically, there is a tension between help on the one hand and control on the other. Ulrich Oevermann assumes a “structural dilemma”, that of having to be both an “agency of social control ” and “quasi-therapeutic” support for the client.

The sociologist Silvia Staub-Bernasconi has formulated an additional mandate with the obligation of specialists to their own profession. This includes a scientific analysis of the topic and an associated ethical assessment of the situation. The code of ethics for social work and human rights are decisive for this assessment. This extension of the double mandate (often referred to as the “triple mandate” for short) makes social work, according to Staub-Bernasconi, a human rights profession that is politically independent.

Example: A client for whom the youth welfare office is examining whether the child's welfare is at risk. It is important for the client to support her in leading a successful life so that the child can grow up in a protected manner. For the youth welfare office, the requirements and definitions according to BGB and SGB VIII apply and to receive the lowest costs for the state. For social work professionals, it is important to understand the situation under the circumstances described above and then to make a decision. If this does not match the framework conditions, action can also be taken against individual actors, such as an appeal to the Federal Constitutional Court in the event of a human rights violation through legislation.

The social pedagogue Karin Lauermann emphasizes freedom as the goal of human development and uses it to formulate a "mandate to social work to optimize the freedom of action and decision-making of all people for their maximum possible development".

Social learning and social work

In contrast to Germany, in Austria “social work” in the form of “ social learning ” is also carried out in schools and for every age group. The Austrian school system is very different from the German one; it is mostly used with the inclusion of so-called autonomous and open learning .

Current developments and influencing factors in practice

The past few years have increasingly seen a trend in social work that is oriented towards business principles. In addition to pedagogical considerations, considerations on quality testing, quality maximization, efficiency enhancement, standardization, etc. are becoming more and more important, in particular through the pressure to save (funding cuts) and also through the increased obligation to provide evidence of the cost-effectiveness of services through the introduction of Section 93 BSHG.

In view of neoliberal processes, the social policy “according to market economy and competitive strategy points of view”, and thus also social work, restructured, more and more voices are heard in the professional world that deal with social conditions. The profession of social work can be located again and again due to the current developments in the area of ​​tension between society, the individual and social worker. The field of action must be defined in particular by the company, which is to be viewed as both the client, the cause of the problem and the part-owner of the problem-solving process. In 2006, 70 departments for social work at German universities adopted a “qualifications framework”.

Social work is sometimes referred to together with other professional groups with the acronym SAHGE (social work, household services , health and education professions ).

Social Work Theories

Educators, social workers, social work scientists and others have developed diverse theories of social work. These are “some self-contained theories” and often “drafts, approaches or preliminary work for a theory”.

Alice Salomon named numerous personalities in social work in her book Social Leaders and highlighted their contributions to theory. Numerous other authors have named other people who have been important for the formation of theories in social work. A canon of people emerged who are mentioned again and again in this context, but there are no generally accepted criteria for which statements are to be regarded as scientific, nor for who is to be regarded as the author of a theory of social work. Some authors, such as Ernst Engelke , Stefan Borrmann and Christian Spatscheck in their book Theories of Social Work , classify theories of social work according to the time of their creation.

Heiko Kleve differentiates theories of social work such as lifeworld orientation and social space orientation , which were developed from the field of scientific social work for this field of practice and science, from theories about social work (especially sociological theories) in which social work alongside other social spheres is thematized, and theories in social work such as psychoanalysis or attachment theory , which are used by professional specialists in their practice as a reflection or action film. (See also: Social Work Science # Theories of Social Work Science .)

To typify theories that are based on different scientific concepts of knowledge and different object definitions, Helmut Lambers identified five reference problems that are crucial for the formation of theories in his book Theories of Social Work and assigned the theories developed by certain authors from the beginning of the 20th century to these reference problems:

  1. Behavior adjustment - represented by Christian Jasper Klumker , Mary Ellen Richmond , Hans Scherpner , Lutz Rössner ;
  2. Upbringing, education and qualification - including questions about an ideal society, cultural identity, the professionalization of the social and subject development - represented by Paul Natorp , Herman Nohl , Klaus Mollenhauer , Karam Khella , Marianne Hege , Hans-Uwe Otto , Bernd Dewe , Michael Winkler ;
  3. Poverty and social injustice - represented by Alice Salomon , Jane Addams , Ilse Arlt , Lieselotte Pongratz , Silvia Staub-Bernasconi ;
  4. Coping with everyday life - represented by Louis Lowy , Carel B. Germain , Alex Gitteman , Wolf Rainer Wendt , Hans Thiersch , Lothar Böhnisch ;
  5. Communication and lifestyle - Wolf Rainer Wendt , Heiko Kleve , Tilly Miller , Wilfried Hosemann , Wolfgang Geiling , Wolf Ritscher , Albert Scherr , Peter Sommerfeld , Dieter Röh , Jan V. Wirth , Björn Kraus , Bringfriede Scheu , Otger Autrata , Werner Schöning .

Lambers emphasizes that especially modern theories of social work are mostly attempts to “synthesize one's own theory formation from different epistemological and philosophical traditions” and that a clear assignment or classification according to epistemological standpoints is not possible. Lambers speaks of a “theoretical pluralism” and emphasizes the value of new theoretical approaches for the formation of disciplines.

Methods of social work

Social work is about strengthening, restoring and securing the autonomy of individuals in everyday life through upbringing , education , assistance and welfare state intervention . Since the ability of an individual to participate in social and public life is not the same for everyone, social work also has the task of reducing social disadvantages .

The subject of social work is generally socially and professionally considered relevant human "problem situations". These include predominantly problems with coping with everyday life, "life practice" - everyday "getting along and finding your way around". However, social pedagogy does not just mean promoting individual skills and resources ; In social education there is also a social objective of “getting along with one another”. Social pedagogy looks at the individual in its interrelationship with the social environment . Social workers speak of life situation in order to express the totality of person and social framework in a sociological way.

With regard to the forms of work, the following three classic methods of social work can be distinguished:

As a result of the methodological criticism in the 1970s, internal differentiation increased significantly and a large number of derived and new concepts, methods and techniques developed. A mono-methodical approach is seldom found in professional practice; approaches that include several methods predominate.

Paradigms of Social Work Science (selection)

Zurich School - A Theoretical Model of Social Work

Systems theoretical paradigm of the discipline and profession of social work

The Zurich School has worked out the systems-theoretical paradigm of the discipline and profession of social work since the 1980s . The structure of social work is broken down as follows:

I. Metosciences

  1. Nouns meta- sciences : history, sociology , economics and political science of the science of social work;
  2. Metatheory : ontology , axiology / ethics, epistemology and science theory, philosophical theory of action.

II. Object theories biology, psychobiology / psychology, social psychology, sociology, economics, political science and ethnology.

III. General normative theory of action

  1. Determining a practical problem as a description;
  2. Description (in terms of empirical and theoretical terms, which are components of explanatory theories = not integrated conceptual image);
  3. Explanation (by means of theories = explained, i.e. integrated conceptual image);
  4. Prognosis (using explained picture and theory = future picture);
  5. Practical problem (comparison of future picture with target value: difference = problem);
  6. Action goal (using prognosis, values ​​and presumably effective rules of the intervention depending on the situation = picture of a desired future state);
  7. Action plan (using present-day image and goal, as well as intervention rules);
  8. Realization (using present-day image, goal and action plan);
  9. Evaluation (comparison between the new image of the present and the goal, as well as explanation of deviations using theory).

IV. Special theories of action Resource development, awareness-building, model change, action skills training, social networking , dealing with sources of power, criteria and public relations work and social management.

Subject of social work

Various theoretical approaches to social work are currently being discussed in German-speaking countries. This approach of the Zurich School , which has been worked out by Silvia Staub-Bernasconi , Werner Obrecht , Kaspar Geiser and others since the early 1980s , is considered the consistent and most extensively developed theoretical model (from metatheory to object theories to intervention knowledge), which is also compatible with the international definition of social work. According to this, the object of social work is to solve, alleviate or prevent practical social problems that result from insufficient integration of individuals in their social systems , which is equivalent to being unable to meet one's biopsychosocial needs in the long term.

From the point of view of the system-theoretical paradigm of social work, a “social problem” is a practical problem that a social actor has with his interactive involvement and position ( role status) in the social systems of which he is a member. Such a problem manifests itself as a state of tension (need) within the nervous system as a result of the divergence between an actual value registered in the organism in the form of an image or internal model of the individual in his situation and an organismically represented target value (satisfaction of needs). This state of tension cannot be reduced with the available internal (motivation, knowledge and ability) and external resources (for the time being or finally). The central basis for the explanation of a social problem is the needs theory conceived in outline by Staub-Bernasconi and formulated by Obrecht .

Needs theory

In the system-theoretical paradigm, people are psychobiological systems who, thanks to their psychobiological equipment - more precisely, the plastic, adaptive regions of the brain - know that they know, feel, judge, think and act and that they can understand psychological, social and cultural conditions also thanks to their knowledge - and be able to develop and redesign skills.

People have needs. The need is according to Obrecht defined as an internal state which is more or less far away from the satisfactory for the body state (well-being). This is registered within the nervous system and the resulting state of tension motivates the organism to compensate for the deficit that has arisen through an outwardly directed (“overt”) behavior.

It is therefore a matter of restoring internal “target values”. As a result of learning processes, this behavior tends to compensate for the deficit. If the situation is judged to be obstructive or threatening, there is an inner reaction of need suppression or need delay .

Every behavior is usually motivated by several needs at the same time. Wishes, on the other hand, are needs that have become conscious and defined in terms of the respective individual - in the form of more or less concrete goals. As a rule, the formulations refer to external situations and resources (needs), from which the individual - consciously or not consciously - promises to satisfy certain wishes or needs. Wishes are (culturally) learned, needs are given by the structure of the psychobiological individual.

Since the needs of an organismic nature - that is, anchored as target values in the human organism - they are universal , in contrast to the norms and values ​​as well as the resources and (social) policies that develop within societies to satisfy them .

It is not the case that a person perceives precisely and consciously that need X is not satisfied to this or that degree. Rather, (unsatisfied) needs such as affects act as unconscious, internal motivators for people to do something about the unsatisfactory state. As a result, the person begins to act in whatever way he hopes or knows through experience that it will help him to change the unsatisfactory state towards a better one. In doing so, people can be wrong in their approach and take actions that only simulate satisfaction of needs (use of psychoactive substances).

Due to the function of needs with regard to the maintenance of the internal structure of human organisms and thus human well-being, three superordinate classes of needs can be distinguished:

Biological needs

Needs in the narrower sense, which are caused by the fact that organisms are self-directed, autopoietic systems:

  1. for physical integrity;
  2. according to the substitute materials required for autopoiesis;
  3. after regeneration;
  4. after sexual activity and after reproduction.

Biopsychic needs

Needs that are conditioned by the fact that the control is carried out by a complex and plastic nervous system, the proper functioning of which depends on a certain quantitative and qualitative basic sensory stimulation and - in relation to the current needs of the brain - sufficient information:

  1. after perceptual sensory stimulation;
  2. for beautiful forms in specific areas of experience;
  3. after alternation / stimulation;
  4. for information relevant to orientation and action that can be assimilated;
  5. according to subjectively relevant (affectively charged) goals and hope for fulfillment;
  6. according to effective skills, abilities, rules and (social) norms for coping with (recurring) situations, depending on the subjectively relevant goals;

Biopsychosocial needs

Needs due to the fact that people are self-aware and regulate their behavior within their social environment via emotio-cognitive processes:

  1. after emotional affection (love, friendship, active or passive);
  2. after spontaneous help;
  3. according to social (cultural) affiliation through participation;
  4. according to distinctiveness (identity);
  5. according to autonomy;
  6. according to social recognition (function, performance, rank);
  7. for (exchange) justice;

There are also needs that cannot be satisfied or only little delayed without the organism collapsing, such as loss of oxygen, food ( inelastic needs ), and others that can remain unfulfilled for a long time without major damage to the organism ( elastic needs ), like recognition, justice.

However, it would be a fallacy to assume that if the latter are not satisfied, this is less of a problem. Unsatisfied needs can always have negative consequences for the individual's well-being and often also for the socio-cultural environment of the individual.

Exchange and power relations

According to the Zurich School, social problems arise in the context of social interactions on two levels (horizontal: (ideal-typical) exchange relationships and vertical: (ideal-typical) power relationships).

Problems in the area of ​​exchange relations

  • Involuntary loneliness, missing memberships, ultimately social isolation: The need for relationships and exchange is not met.
  • Being bound in ultimately burdensome duty relationships such as strong family ties, non-separation from parents or previous partners - not being able to influence such relationships: the need for autonomy is not met.
  • Social exclusion due to cultural differences, a lack of language skills, a lack of orientation about communities and institutions - in extreme cases, discrimination based on age, gender, skin color: The need for social (cultural) belonging / membership is not met.
  • Unjust, permanently one-sided or unequal exchange relationships in the private and / or professional area (“being exploited”, privileging others): The need for (exchange) justice is not met.

Problems in the area of ​​power relations (social position)

  • Impossibility of influencing access to resources that are essential for satisfying needs - powerlessness in the face of illegitimate power (absolute poverty with no legal right to help): The need for competence and control in relation to social contexts is not met.
  • Low status (e.g. insufficient education, no employment, no income earned through personal performance). Status incompleteness (2) (e.g. good education, but no employment and therefore dependent on social assistance) and status imbalance (3) (e.g. employment and income do not correspond to the educational status ): The need for membership / membership is not met.
  • External determination (heteronomy) such as slavery, but also through the artificial shortage of essential goods or through threats and violence: The need for autonomy is not met.
  • Social downgrading, permanent lack of social recognition, possibly social contempt (possibly due to cultural characteristics): The need for social recognition is not met.

Model of the systemic figure of thought

The model of the systemic figure of thought, which was differentiated by Kaspar Geiser on the basis of the process-systemic theoretical approach developed by Silvia Staub-Bernasconi , is a professional structuring tool to describe psychosocial issues from the perspective of social work. Social problems are divided into individual equipment problems, social exchange relationships, social power relationships, and value and criteria problems:

Equipment problems

People have individual characteristics that are also of social importance. These properties represent resources or deficits in social relationships (exchange and / or power relationships). The following areas are socially relevant in terms of individual equipment:

  • Missing, socially restricted or prevented development of cognitive skills (= limited information processing): Rigid and / or one-sided mode of experience. Incoming stimuli are processed unilaterally into either good / bad, pleasant / unpleasant or true / untrue. Modes of experience that are not effective with regard to the situation or problem solving also appear problematic (= normative, cognitive or emotional-aesthetic mode of experience that is inappropriate to the situation). The need for perceptual, sensory stimulation and information relevant to orientation is impaired; for understanding what is going on in and around you.
  • Deficiencies or excesses in terms of physical conditions and processes that impair health, physical integrity and physical performance : Often social disadvantages arise due to biological properties. Examples are hunger, illness, disability and, above all, their psychological and social consequences; also body characteristics that do not correspond to the social “norm” (too big, too obese); also physical, psychological and social consequences of direct violence, including self-harm. The need for physical integrity is impaired; according to the substitute substances required for autopoiesis, according to social recognition.
  • Lack of equipment with forms of knowledge = problematic images of self, others and society : sub-complex images of self and the environment, which can be expressed in lack of perspective, self-depreciation, depreciation of other individuals or social categories, as well as in a lack of knowledge of values ​​and actions and in prejudices, produce im social context often socially problematic issues that express themselves in racism, sexism, ethnocentrism, classicism or other non-humane interaction relationships (power and exchange relationships). The need for meaning, for subjectively relevant goals and hope for their fulfillment is impaired; for social recognition, for subjective certainty in subjectively relevant questions.
  • Lack of, socially impaired or hindered development of competencies - especially socially deviant behavior : People show themselves unable to behave appropriately to the situation, problem, goal and / or role. Inadequate knowledge of forms of knowledge usually also implies a lack of practical skills. Often the skills necessary to complete a task are lacking. The dominance of a certain course of action, regardless of the problem at hand and / or the social context, is problematic (torrent of speech; not being able to listen; running away in the event of a conflict; violence; bureaucracy). The need for skills and rules to cope with recurring and unpredictable situations is impaired; Control / competence need.
  • Insufficient or missing socio-economic resources (for the satisfaction of individual needs, which are only possible through participation in the socio-economic resources of a society (education, gainful employment, income)); and the associated social integration at a low level or incomplete social integration (low level of education, employment, income level; lack of educational qualifications / school dropout, unemployment, poverty, debt without income).
  • Missing, socially restricted or prevented social memberships : social isolation or forced exclusion from social systems. The need for socio-cultural belonging, social memberships and recognition is impaired.

Exchange problems

The respective individual properties (resources or deficits) of the equipment dimensions are in exchange relationships with the respective (exchange) exchange media. (Social) problematic are exchange relationships that are not mutual (reciprocal) and equal (equivalent) and therefore not symmetrical over a longer period of time. A member of the social system suffers when it is permanently not possible for him in his social context to satisfy his basic biopsychosocial needs. Problematic exchange relationships can show up on the following levels:

  • physical: unsatisfactory sexual-erotic relationships; forms of sexual violence (violation of the need for sexual activity and physical integrity);
  • socio-economic
    • unequal, unfair exchange of goods, resources of all kinds (violation of the need for fair exchange);
Concerning the psychological level of experience / recognition:
    • hampered or prevented common knowledge / empathy / reflection processes (violation of the need for fair exchange);
Concerning the psychic level of knowledge:
  • cultural barriers to understanding, one or two-way labeling and stigmatization, ethnocentrism (violation of the need to respect uniqueness / uniqueness, love and recognition);
Concerning the level of action:
  • impeded or prevented cooperation processes (e.g. violation of the need for recognition of performance).

Power problems

The respective individual properties (resources or deficits) of the equipment dimensions are in power relationships with the respective sources of power. It becomes evident that the extent of the respective equipment dimensions of an individual provides information about the extent of his respective sources of power. Powerless people mainly have their bodies at their disposal, while those in power have in principle all sources of power at a high level:

  • the physical equipment or the body becomes a source of power (for example for demonstrations, strikes, absenteeism up to hunger strikes);
  • the socio-economic equipment (money / capital, educational title) and other resources become a source of socio-economic power;
  • the endowment with cognitive skills including language / competence becomes the source of articulation power;
  • the endowment with systems of meaning / knowledge becomes a source of power of definition;
  • the endowment with agency becomes a source of authority and positional power;
  • the endowment with informal social relationships and formal memberships becomes a source of organizational power.

Problematic rules of the social and power structure as criteria and value problems

  • social rules of resource distribution that cause injustice, in particular discrimination and privilege in connection with social stratification (e.g. gender or class-related educational, wage, and career discrimination as unfair stratification);
  • social rules of arrangement or division of labor between people, which bring about domination, in particular functionalization of the body, socio-economic exploitation, cultural colonization, psychological and socio-technological manipulation;
  • Social rules / norms for the arrangement of socialized, supreme ideas to justify and thus legitimize orders of injustice, i.e. a) unfair stratification and b) rule over people, e.g. nature, history, God / religion, succession, tradition, the whole of the people , Gender, the invisible hand of the market, etc. as inviolable, unchangeable legitimation patterns that find their way into constitutions, laws, emergency laws, ordinances, etc. (culturally legitimized structural violence);
  • Social rules of control and enforcement of the listed social rules (social control, sanctioning power): arbitrary procedures and exclusively repressive sanctions.

Social work and its intervention knowledge (methodical action)

Social work as a discipline explores the connections between the emergence of social problems and problem solving. Social work as a profession works on the solution and the possible prevention of these problems. Silvia Staub-Bernasconi emphasizes the technical mandate of social work as (a) human rights profession, which is to recognize and name the violation of human rights (with regard to organismically anchored bio-psychosocial needs) locally, nationally and globally and as a value and need-oriented discipline and profession should participate in minimizing human rights violations. See also: Human rights and children's rights . According to Silvia Staub-Bernasconi, special problem-related working methods (= special theories of action) will have to be systematically worked out in the future:

  1. Awareness raising (in connection with problematic endowment with experience and knowledge skills),
  2. Action skills training and participation promotion (in connection with problematic equipment with action skills),
  3. Criteria (values ​​and norms / standards) and public relations (in connection with missing and / or problematic socially codified values) resource development (in connection with problematic socio-economic equipment),
  4. Model / identity and culture change (in connection with problematic endowment with self and environmental images),
  5. social networking (in connection with problematic exchange relationships),
  6. Dealing with sources of power (in connection with problematic power relationships).

In the post-war period until the late 1980s, individual aid, social group work and community work were considered the three methods of social work. Today it is only used to describe the social level at which certain practical social problems are to be solved by individuals, i.e. individual, micro, meso, macro system or society. The approach to solving social problems, i.e. methodical action, is based in the Zurich School on the general normative theory of action (Obrecht) and finds its equivalent in the methodology of medicine or psychology . The general normative theory of action is also known in practical application as the so-called "W questions":

  1. Establishing a practical problem as a description ( anamnesis , symptoms , WHAT question)
  2. Description (in terms of empirical and theoretical terms that are components of explanatory theories = not integrated conceptual image) ( diagnosis , WHAT question)
  3. Explanation (using theories = explained, i.e. integrated conceptual image) ( etiopathogenesis , WHY question)
  4. Forecast (using an explained picture and theory = future picture) ( forecast , WHERE TO question)
  5. Practical problem (comparison of future picture with target value: difference = problem) (WHAT IS (NOT) GOOD question)
  6. Action goal (using prognosis, values ​​and presumably effective rules of the intervention depending on the situation = picture of a desired future state);
  7. Action plan (using present-day image and goal, as well as intervention rules) ( therapy , HOW question)
  8. Realization (using present-day image, goal and action plan) (WHAT question)
  9. Evaluation (comparison between the new image of the present and the goal, as well as explanation of deviations using theory).

Model "Analysis of Social Systems" and "Systemic Social Work"

In the model of Michael Bommes and Albert Scherr , social work is described as mediation of inclusion, avoidance of exclusion and management of exclusion . It expresses an agreement according to which social work is assessed as “organized help”. It is not individuals who determine who is in need, but rather instances of the political system. These determine auxiliary claims and distinguish them from illegitimate claims; social problems are separated from “normality”. This theory refers to Luhmann's analysis of social systems. Modern societies do not include people and their needs as a whole, but rather they consist of many functional systems, each of which has certain entry requirements. Everyone must first work out their affiliation to functional systems. People can adhere to these rules or access requirements or deviate from them.

Exclusion risks such as the labor market or the health system of the welfare state are covered by the system of social insurance. For people who fall out of this system, social work takes on a second / fall arrest (Spiegel, 2004).

From the point of view of systems-theoretical sociology, Jan V. Wirth (cf. 2013) presented a system-theoretical system theory of lifestyle that describes the relationship between the biopsychosocial individual and a functionally differentiated society. H. analyzed as a condition and communication relationship. The question in which respects society, social systems and communication allow one to be a "person" without being observed and treated as an autonomously thinking and feeling individual etc. is also instructive. According to Wirth, problematic inclusion precedes problematic exclusion, so the inclusion conditions and modes of lifestyle should primarily be the focus of social and labor science research. In this respect, in addition to mediation of inclusion, avoidance of exclusion and management of exclusion , the social functions and tasks of social work also include support for inclusion . There is a strategic deficit of the welfare state here (Wirth 2013).

Systemic social work is based on Wirth's consideration of resources and services, particularly with a view to enabling inclusion and exclusion in social systems of society that are valued for lifestyle. From this perspective, new options for action are developed together with their addressees and clients. Methodologically, it is based on a colorful range of procedures from various advisory, educational and therapeutic approaches, all of which are based on this basic idea: namely, to direct attentions, observations and interventions to the relationships and relationship patterns between the various systems involved in lifestyle . According to Scherr and Wirth, “social problems” (such as social security or order problems) are not the excellent subject of modern social work, but rather the conceptual framework “lifestyle problems” can guide and instruct social work.

Other theoretical models

International comparison of social work

The type and scope of public social benefits vary widely across the world. In social work, the degree of professionalization also varies greatly from state to state.

Social work in Germany

The teaching of social work in Germany is very different from country to country. The social system also differs to the same extent from country to country in terms of different social policies . Education policy is a matter for the federal states, but university policy is also a federal matter . As a result of the Bologna Process, the focus is shifting more and more in the direction of social work sciences, with other areas of knowledge, such as law or education, being increasingly dealt with from a social work science perspective.

These subjects are taught at all faculties: history of social work , theories of social work , methods of social work, social law , organizational theory , empirical social research . In addition, there are various areas of specialization in task or clientele- related subjects (such as deviant behavior, youth work , senior work , clinical social work, etc.). This is very different from faculty to faculty.

The academic teaching also combines knowledge from other related sciences , in particular gerontology , history , cultural studies , neurosciences , economics , education , psychology , philosophy , political science , business administration , but also from medicine , law , of sociology and theology . Through the transdisciplinary interlinking of the levels of observation of the related sciences (individuals as biological and psychological systems, social systems, culture), it receives its own perspective and a transdisciplinary professional profile.

Media networking is also changing social work. On the one hand, users of social work benefit from this network, and on the other hand, the working methods in social work are also changing in the course of this development. In response to this development, the social informatics department emerged, which is now an integral part of the course catalog at various universities . From a social perspective, social work is an institution alongside parents , school , health care , employment promotion , the police and the judiciary .

The classic degrees in the social work profession are diploma social pedagogue (FH) and diploma social worker (FH). The new name in the course of the Bologna Process is social pedagogue / social worker (BA). The diploma pedagogue degrees with a specialization in social work that were passed as part of the educational science course have now been transferred to master’s courses. There are now a large number of Bachelor's and Master's degrees in the field of social work at German colleges and universities; in the summer semester of 2007, the first German graduates with a Bachelor of Social Work entered the labor market, with all universities switching to the Bologna Process. The bachelor's degree is reduced by one practical semester compared to the diploma degree. Module-oriented teaching content and holistic forms of teaching are increasingly playing a role when they come from adult education . As a result of the Bologna Process, more and more graduates with a master’s degree will work in professional practice, an indicator of the increasing academization of social work.

The Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung formulated in its series Basic Knowledge of Local Policy that the terms social pedagogy and social work are increasingly used synonymously and are grouped together under the term social work that their tasks “are all derived from a constitutional norm, the central goal of Pursue 'social security' and stand for offers, services and events that advise , educate, educate, help and maintain, and ultimately contain the same or similar concepts, methods and procedures ”.

Social work in Austria

Until 2007, social work and social pedagogy were separated in training. Since then, social work training has encompassed both the field of social work and social pedagogy. In the course of history, both professional groups have claimed certain areas for themselves, and as a rule social pedagogues cannot work at the youth welfare office and social workers cannot work in inpatient youth welfare. In general, however, there is a strong overlap in the fields of action.

If one looks at the history of the practice of social work, it can be seen that there are fields of work with a high educational component, which are then summarized under the heading "social pedagogy", and fields of work with low pedagogical components, which are referred to as "social work" will. Both fields of work occur in different situations and age groups.

A fundamental characteristic of social education is care. The home is the most important institution. The basic areas of responsibility of social education can be found in the protection, care and counseling of those affected. Since the reality of society, with all its strengths and weaknesses, necessarily always becomes the subject of socio-pedagogical theory, it is said that social pedagogues emanate the most violent social criticism.

The training for social work is organized as a course at universities of applied sciences, at the FH Campus Wien , the FH Joanneum in Graz, the FH Carinthia, the FH St. Pölten, the FH Vorarlberg, the FH Upper Austria, the Management Center Innsbruck (MCI), from the Salzburg University of Applied Sciences or the Burgenland University of Applied Sciences . The training concludes with a Mag (FH) , or after the changeover in the course of the Bologna Process with a Bachelor . The training in social pedagogy is organized as a ten-semester secondary training and as a post-secondary training in colleges. Locations are Salzburg, Baden, St. Pölten, Stams, Linz, Graz and Vienna. These trainings are either publicly (free) or privately (with semester fee) and are given public rights through the Federal Ministry of Education after they meet state criteria . In Vienna, three private schools offer training as an extra-occupational college. The "Wiener ARGE für Sozialpädagogik" has existed since 1992 and is the oldest and largest part-time college in Austria. The other two institutions (the Bildungsakademie, Institut Dr. Rampitsch) have offered the training since 2012. The St. Pölten University of Applied Sciences also offers a master’s degree. Graz also offers its own master's degree and master's degree in social pedagogy at the Karl-Franzens University.

Social work in Switzerland

In Switzerland, the term also includes the field of sociocultural animation . The teaching of social work is completed at universities of applied sciences with a bachelor's degree. In 1995, 725 diplomas were awarded according to the previous system, which were distributed across the various disciplines as follows: 404 social pedagogy, 224 social work, 19 double diplomas SA / SP and 80 socio-cultural animation. The training can be completed full-time or part-time, then often part-time, and usually lasts three or four to five years. It comprises at least 5,400 lessons, of which at least 1,500 are practical training. There are numerous aptitude tests when you are admitted to the course. The minimum entry age is 20 years. The proportion of foreign students in Switzerland is around 5 percent, well below the foreign population of 18 percent. The course ends with a bachelor thesis. At the Bern University of Applied Sciences , Zurich University of Applied Sciences and the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland , a so-called generalist course is offered, which covers all three areas and at the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences three individual courses. The academic degree awarded after completing the course is Bachelor of Science (BSc) / Bachelor of Arts (BA) Social Work. Recently, a master's degree in social work has also been offered after the bachelor's degree. Various universities of applied sciences have come together to offer the consecutive master’s degree. The degree is called (MSc) Master of Science. The University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland FHNW also offers a consecutive Master’s degree in social work with a focus on social innovation. Graduates of the master’s degree are awarded the title Master of Arts (MA).

Social work in the UK

Until social work was invented in the slums of London at the end of the 19th century, there were only a few decrees, including “poor laws”, with provisions on poverty, old age and mental illness. These edicts were more or less the result of the inability of the municipalities, established churches and monasteries to continue to provide poor relief. The Friendly Societies , Mutual Insurance Companies, Oktavia Hill and the Charity Welfare Organization (COS) are just a few of the striking features in the history of social work in Britain.

The understanding of social work in Great Britain is based on the recognition of the British welfare state, which was invented at the end of the Second World War. He wanted to address the main problems: poverty, disease, neglect, lack of education, unemployment and poor work ethic. In 1946 the Curtis Report on Orphans introduced an understanding of the needs of the real needs of children and established social work with children in Britain. Social workers in Great Britain are obtained through the “Diploma in Social Work”. This normally means two years of study at a university, either on an "undergraduate" or a "postgraduate" level (comparable to Bachelor and Master). The diploma in social work is often integrated into a three or four year course of study, such as in social work, social policy or "applied social studies". Before the end of the millennium, however, there was a decline in the number of students studying social work. One reason for this is certainly a change in university funding, which brought high costs for students and debt through studying. The length of study was also increased. The content of the training will also be revised during this time, in particular the areas of child care and mental health. Since 1992, there is the Institute of Health and Community Studies at the University of Bournemouth that five academic segments: Nursing (Nursing), midwifery education (Midwifery), social and community (Social and Community Studies), general social practice (General Practice) and research and consultancy (research and consultancy).

With the introduction of the Bachelor in Social Work, an academic as well as a professional qualification is now offered, which leads to the achievement of the Diploma in Social Work after two out of three years. The Social Work Degree offers students the chance to study the philosophy of social work in order to develop a professional identity and to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to work under UK social law. Furthermore, the students are enabled to critically deal with the topics of racism, discrimination and disadvantage and to apply research results in the field of social work to practice. During their studies, students complete two full-time internships, which are accompanied by practical instructions. These are served in the government sector or in a variety of independent institutions.

Social work in China

University education in social work as a science has existed in China since the 1920s and then again in the 1950s. Some graduates who had studied in Europe or the USA built the “ Sociology and Social Servicesfaculties at Beijing Yanjing University , “Social Work” at Nanjing Jinling University for Women, and “ Social Welfare and Services ” as early as the 1920s Administration ”at Nanjing Jingling University and“ Social Management ”at Suzhou Academy of Social Education . Due to the war, the development of the courses stagnated.

In 1952 the courses in "Sociology" and "Social Work" were abolished again. This interrupted the training in the social sciences for over 30 years. Only through the cadre academies of the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the mass organization was there training for employment in Chinese social and welfare services .

At the end of the 1980s, the ministry recognized that social work needed a renewed professionalization . After allowing international advice, the decision was made under the approval of the National Education Commission, the study "Social Work and Administration" (shehui gonzuo yu guangli Zhuanye) at Beijing University, and later at the Jinling University and Xiamen University to found . Since then, social work has been taught as a science at three different institutions: the cadre schools of the Communist Party and Youth League, the cadre schools of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, and general colleges and universities.

The "China College for Youth Politics" (zhongghuo qingnian zhenshi xueyuan) (the former cadre academy of the Communist Youth League) founded the first "social work" faculty in China in 1993 after the war. Today it is the largest training center in social work. By 2004, 455 social workers had obtained a bachelor 's degree there. There are now social workers or related professions at almost 100 academies, colleges and universities. Eight-semester courses leading to a bachelor's degree take place at a total of 79 universities. Some universities have their own “Social Work” faculty, but more often it is in one faculty together with “Sociology”.

Social work in the USA

Many areas of social work have been developed and refined in America in the history of social work, such as modern community work and the group theories of social group work . In the USA, the study of social work is just as different as in Germany. However, the universities there, influenced from the outset by the American university system, are more specific. Some universities are already specified to certain groups of addressees.

International social work - intercultural social work

The profile of social work is increasingly shaped internationally, intercultural and interreligious . Diverse perspectives on human life and coexistence are seen as an international responsibility to improve local life chances.

Social work in development cooperation

Especially in international social work, many social workers are also active in development cooperation in economically less developed countries. The problem areas range from street children projects in Brazilian favelas to well construction projects in India or Africa. The focus here is on project work .

Occupational fields

Furthermore, in Germany with a university degree in the field of social work, one is entitled to train as a child and adolescent psychotherapist . Often social workers also have special therapeutic additional training that qualifies them to work with people suffering from an addiction syndrome.

Previous job titles

Up until the beginning of the National Socialist era , welfare workers were spoken of. During that time, the term Volkspflegerin was introduced with a different meaning.

Care worker is no longer a common job title . From the 1960s, the job title in West Germany was replaced by the one that is common today, in the GDR it existed until the transition to the Federal Republic.

The work of the welfare workers represented the tasks of the youth welfare office (and health office), at this time in particular with the focus on the sovereign tasks of the "state guard office", as it was named in the constitution. Today the job title is social worker in the general social service (ASD) of the youth welfare office . The work is based on the Social Code VIII (SGB VIII) and the BGB (Civil Code), as well as criminal law and juvenile criminal law. The main activities of social workers in the ASD are youth court assistance, advice and assistance with separation and divorce, assistance (care) for multi-problem families, protection of the child's well-being and intervention in the event of threats to the child’s welfare (removal) as well as the preparation of expert opinions for the family court and accompanying family court proceedings. Carrying out these activities requires a quick grasp of the law, sound knowledge of the law, crisis resistance, high psychological resilience and a good ability to delegate, because social workers in the ASD must quickly recognize and classify situations (also legally with all legal conflicts) and be able to suggest help, which at most in the The initial phase will be accompanied in a coordinating manner, but will then be carried out by the help system used, whereby the (also criminal) responsibility for the measures lies entirely with the social workers of the ASD. You have to check and act again if necessary. In addition, a good ability to cooperate with a wide variety of specialist disciplines (own professional group, police, court, doctors, psychologists, psychiatrists, lawyers) is required. In terms of type, ASD social workers must not be anxious or unclear. Such work is not possible without a stable character, because as a rule you work alone in socially marginal areas and with corresponding families.

Training in social work

Social work is mainly studied at universities of applied sciences or vocational academies , and occasionally also at universities , for example at the universities in Lüneburg, Kassel or Vechta. Some colleges teach the disciplines still separated as social work or social, or only one of them. Most universities of applied sciences now offer a joint course of study. In some federal states you have to choose one of the two qualifications during the main course , in others you receive the double title of " Diplom-Sozialpädagogin / social worker " or "Diplom-Sozialpädagoge / Social worker". Many universities of applied sciences, which offer both courses of study, call themselves “University of Applied Sciences for Social Work” or “University of Applied Sciences for Social Work” .

At some, mostly church-run universities of applied sciences, the course "Diplom-Heilpädagogin" is offered. This is part of the educational sciences. The main focus of the study is on knowledge of dealing with mentally handicapped people as well as developmental disorders and delays.

Since studying social work at technical colleges or universities is often criticized for inadequate practical teaching content, studying at a vocational academy tries to combine theory with practice continuously and as intensively as possible. The vocational academies in Wilhelmshaven or Lüneburg should be mentioned here, for example .

As a result of the Bologna Process, the previous diploma degrees have now been converted to the Bachelor and the advanced Master’s degree . The bachelor's degree entitles - like the FH diploma - to work in the senior service or in higher positions. A master’s degree qualifies for managerial administrative functions, research and doctorate. A bachelor's degree or a diploma degree in social work is a prerequisite for admission to a master’s degree. There are also consecutive master’s courses in social work.

In order to get state recognition as a social worker , most federal states require an internship after the bachelor's degree. In some federal states, a university degree is sufficient.


In Austria, social work and social education are separated in training. In the course of history, both professional groups have claimed certain areas for themselves, and as a rule, for example, social pedagogues cannot work at the youth welfare office and social workers cannot work in inpatient youth welfare. In general, however, there is a strong overlap in the fields of action.

The training courses for social work are organized as courses at universities of applied sciences. The training concludes with a Mag (FH) and since the changeover in the course of the Bologna Process with a Bachelor or Master. The following universities in Austria offer bachelor's and master's degrees in the field of social work: Danube University Krems, University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, University of Applied Sciences Carinthia, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, University of Applied Sciences Salzburg, University of Applied Sciences St. Pölten, FH Campus Wien, FH Joanneum, FH Vorarlberg, MCI - Management Center Innsbruck, University of Education Vienna. The training for social pedagogy is organized as a five-year secondary training and as a college. Locations are Baden, Salzburg, St. Pölten, Stams, Linz, Graz and Vienna. Graz also offers its own Magistra or Master’s degree for social pedagogy at the Karl-Franzens University.

Sub-areas of the course

The following subdivisions are depending on the training center more or less important part of the study .

  1. corporate social work
  2. Adult education
  3. Didactics and methodology of social work
  4. empirical social research (qualitative / quantitative)
  5. Educational science / pedagogy / game pedagogy / curative pedagogy
  6. Ethics / axiology, values ​​and norms
  7. specialized foreign language teaching
  8. Specialized in social work / social work science
  9. Gerontology (within this especially geragogy and social gerontology)
  10. History of social work ( social history , history of social and health care)
  11. international comparative social work
  12. international and intercultural social work (see above)
  13. clinical social work
  14. Concept forms such as social management , project management , knowledge management and case management
  15. basic economic questions, social policy , social economy , organizational theory and / or administration and organization
  16. Psychology (general psychology, social psychology, organizational psychology, clinical psychology)
  17. Social medicine , health promotion
  18. Law , political science , socioculture and community work , social informatics
  19. social cultural work ( aesthetic education , media education , theater education )
  20. Sociology (sociological aspects of social work)
  21. statistics
  22. Social Work Theories
  23. Values ​​and norms (covers topics of ethics and theology )
  24. Science and Epistemology

Associations and professional societies


  • 24/7 magazine of TelefonSeelsorge Deutschland
  • Affects girls
  • Sheets of welfare - journal for social work
  • The youth welfare office - magazine for youth welfare and family law
  • deutsche jugend - magazine for youth work
  • DJI Bulletin
  • Forum Educational Aids
  • Social Forum (Association journal: DBSH)
  • Information for educational counseling centers (association journal: bke)
  • Youth-Profession-Society
  • Youth welfare
  • Clinical Social Work - Journal for Psychosocial Practice and Research
  • Migration and Social Work
  • Neue praxis - magazine for social work, social education and social policy
  • new caritas - politics, practice, research
  • SozialAktuell - specialist journal for social work
  • Social Extra - magazine for social work
  • Social work
  • Sozialmagazin - magazine for social work
  • Social economy
  • Social science literature review
  • SP - Soziale Passagen - Journal for empiricism and theory of social work
  • Standpunkt.Sozial - Hamburg Forum for Social Work and Health
  • SUCHT - magazine for science and practice
  • TUP - Theory and Practice of Social Work
  • Our youth magazine for the study and practice of social pedagogy
  • Journal for Social Pedagogy - ZfSp
  • ZKJ - magazine for child law and youth welfare


  • Nando Belardi (Ed.): Pedagogy. Socio-educational fields of work (= social work. Volume 1). Moritz Diesterweg publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1980, ISBN 3-425-07751-1 .
  • Nando Belardi (ed.): Psychological foundations. Psychoanalysis, psychiatry. Social and developmental psychology (= social work. Volume 2). Moritz Diesterweg publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1980, ISBN 3-425-07752-X .
  • Nando Belardi (Ed.): Social development and sociological foundations (= social work. Volume 3). Moritz Diesterweg publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1980, ISBN 3-425-07753-8 .
  • Nando Belardi (Ed.): Didactics and methodology of social work (= social work. Volume 4). Moritz Diesterweg publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1980, ISBN 3-425-07754-6 .
  • Rudolf Bieker, Peter Floerecke (Ed.): Supporters, fields of work and target groups of social work. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-17-021380-7 .
  • Stefan Borrmann: Social work with right-wing youth cliques . Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-34823-X .
  • Ernst Engelke , Stefan Borrmann, Christian Spatscheck: Theories of social work. An introduction. 6th edition. Lambertus, Freiburg im Breisgau 2014, ISBN 978-3-7841-2122-2 .
  • Ernst Engelke, Christian Spatscheck, Stefan Borrmann: The science of social work - career and basics. Lambertus, Freiburg im Breisgau 2009, ISBN 978-3-7841-1893-2 .
  • Michael Galuske: Methods of Social Work. 10th expanded edition. Juventa, Weinheim / Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-7799-1441-9 .
  • Bettina Hünersdorf: The clinical view in social work. System-theoretical approaches to a reflection theory of the help system. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaft, Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-531-16322-2 .
  • Hugo Maier: Who's who in social work. Lambertus, Freiburg im Breisgau 1998, ISBN 3-7841-1036-3 .
  • Bernhard Rathmayr: Poverty and Care. Introduction to the history of social work from antiquity to the present. Barbara Budrich Verlag, Opladen 2014, ISBN 978-3-8474-0161-2 .
  • Brigitta Michel-Schwartze : Methods book social work. Basic knowledge for practice. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaft, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-531-15122-9 .
  • Sascha Neumann: Critique of the socio-educational reason . Field theoretical studies. Velbrück Wissenschaft, Weilerswist 2008, ISBN 3-938808-43-8 ( full text ).
  • Winfried Noack: Social Pedagogy. A textbook. Lambertus, Freiburg im Breisgau 2001, ISBN 3-7841-1335-4 .
  • Jan V. Wirth: Lifestyle as a system problem - draft of a theory of lifestyle . PH Freiburg , Freiburg im Breisgau 2013 (dissertation; PDF; 3.0 MB (PDF)).

Web links

Wiktionary: Social work  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ( Memento from June 10, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  2. ^ German version: Coordinated German translation of the DBSH with the Fachbereichstag Sozialer Arbeit. In: German Professional Association for Social Work, accessed on December 3, 2020 .
  3. Social work: service or human rights profession? On the self-image of social work in Germany with a sideways glance at the international discussion landscape. Retrieved January 4, 2020 : “Social work is a profession that promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships, and the empowerment and liberation of people to improve their wellbeing. By relying on theories of human behavior and social systems as an explanatory basis, social work intervenes at the interface between the individual and the environment / society. The principles of human rights and social justice are of fundamental importance for social work. "
  4. ^ Basics for the work of the DBSH eV In: German Professional Association for Social Work, October 2009, accessed on December 3, 2020 : “Social work as a profession promotes social change and the solution of problems in interpersonal relationships, and it enables people to make their own life better. Based on scientific knowledge about human behavior and social systems, social work intervenes where people interact with their environment. Social work is based on the principles of human rights and social justice. (Definition of social work, Montreal 2000) "
  6. ^ Christoph Ried: Social pedagogy and image of man. Determination and determinability of social pedagogy as a form of thought and action. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2017, p. 343-387 .
  7. Helmut Lambers: Theories of Social Work. A compendium and comparison. Barba Budrich, Opladen / Toront0 2013, p. 210-225 .
  8. ^ Christoph Ried: Social pedagogy and image of man. Determination and determinability of social pedagogy as a form of thought and action. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2017, p. 349 ff .
  9. Hugo Mennemann, Jörn Dummann: Introduction to Social Work . 2nd Edition. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2018, ISBN 978-3-8487-4616-3 , p. 56, 74 f .
  10. Ulrich Oevermann (2000), Services of the social bureaucracy from the perspective of professionalization theory . In E.-M. Harrach, T. Loer & O. Schmidtke (Hrsg.): Administration of the social. Forms of subjective management of a structural conflict, pp. 55–77, Konstanz: UVK, 2000, p. 72. Quoted from Nina Thieme: Help and Control , p. 22, in Fabian Kessl, Elke Kruse, Sabine Stövesand, Werner Thole (eds .): Social work - core topics and problem areas , Verlag Barbara Budrich 2017, ISBN 978-3-8252-4347-0, pp. 17–24.
  11. ^ Silvia Staub-Bernasconi: Social work as action science . Verlag Barbara Budrich, Opladen / Toronto 2018, ISBN 978-3-8385-4793-0 , p. 111 ff .
  12. Silvia Staub-Bernasconi: Human dignity - human rights - social work. Turning human rights upside down , Verlag Barbara Budrich, Opladen, Berlin & Toronto 2019. ISBN 978-3-8474-0166-7 , pages 83-97.
  13. Karin Lauermann: Freiheit , doi : 10.2378 / ot6a.art041 , short text. In: Hans-Uwe Otto , Hans Thiersch , Rainer Treptow, Holger Ziegler (eds.): Handbook of Social Work: Basics of Social Work and Social Pedagogy. Ernst Reinhardt Verlag , 6th edition, ibid. 2018, ISBN 978-3-497-02745-3 .
  14. [Rund, Mario: Government of the room - government of the social. On the governmentality of post-Fordist social space policies . Göttingen 2015. ], p. 190: With the increased spread and anchoring of the economic rationality of neoliberalism, a change in the form and function of statehood and an associated restructuring of the welfare state is taking place in the western industrialized countries. The transformation of the Keynesian welfare state to the Schumpeterian workfare regime (Jessop 2002a; 1994) was expressed in a reorientation from Keynesian demand management to a supply-related economic and financial policy, along which other areas of society, including social policy, are restructured according to market-economy and competitive strategies .
  15. [Hartmann, Meike; Herzog, Kerstin: Thoughts on the function of social work. On the way to a critical self-image - inspired by Walter Hollstein (1973/1980) . In: Soz Passages . tape 2 , no. 5 , 2013, p. 267-283 . ], P. 268: Thinking about the function of social work is inconceivable without a diagnosis of the social conditions within which it is located and within which it is located.
  16. Expert Commission on the Federal Government's Second Equal Opportunities Report: Jointly redesigning gainful employment and care work: Employment and care work. In: Expert opinion for the second equality report of the Federal Government. 2017, accessed August 28, 2020 .
  17. Helmut Lambers: Theories of Social Work. A compendium and comparison , 5th edition, Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2020, ISBN 978-3-8252-5476-6 . P. 317.
  18. Alice Salomon: Soziale Führer , 1932. Quoted from Ernst Engelke, Stefan Borrmann, Christian Spatscheck: Theorien der Sozialen Arbeit. An Introduction , 7th Edition, Lambertus, 2018, ISBN 978-3-7841-3100-9 . P. 17.
  19. Ernst Engelke, Stefan Borrmann, Christian Spatscheck: Theories of social work. An Introduction , 7th Edition, Lambertus, 2018, ISBN 978-3-7841-3100-9 . P. 19.
  20. Ernst Engelke, Stefan Borrmann, Christian Spatscheck: Theories of social work. An Introduction , 7th Edition, Lambertus, 2018, ISBN 978-3-7841-3100-9 . P. 27.
  21. Heiko Kleve: Postmoderne Social Work Science On Practice and Science in Ambivalence and Diversity . In: Bernd Birgmeier, Eric Mührel (Ed.), Social Work Science and Its Theory (s). Positions, controversies, perspectives , VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2009, ISBN 978-3-531-16137-2 , pp. 101–112.
  22. Helmut Lambers: Theories of Social Work. A compendium and comparison , 5th edition, Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2020, ISBN 978-3-8252-5476-6 . P. 314.
  23. Helmut Lambers: Theories of Social Work. A compendium and comparison , 5th edition, Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2020, ISBN 978-3-8252-5476-6 . Section “4.6 Re-typing according to pre-scientific observations”, pp. 300–316.
  24. Helmut Lambers: Theories of Social Work. A compendium and comparison , 5th edition, Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2020, ISBN 978-3-8252-5476-6 . Pp. 365-366.
  25. Helmut Lambers: Theories of Social Work. A compendium and comparison , 5th edition, Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2020, ISBN 978-3-8252-5476-6 . Pp. 396-398.
  26. ^ Michael Galuske: Methods of social work. An introduction. Juventa Verlag, Weinheim / Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7799-1441-9 , p. 71 ff.
  28. The system-theoretical paradigm of social work (SPSA) ( memento of the original from August 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  29. Werner Obrecht: Outlines of a biopsychosociocultural theory of social problems. (PDF) University for Social Work Zurich. Version dated April 2002.
  30. See the long-term study on the unemployed von Marienthal , as well as more recent studies that show that continuous, systematic degradation, lack of recognition in childhood and adolescence can lead to above-average careers in violence; B. Sutterlüthy 2002.
  31. Teaching materials on the theoretical approach “social work”. Faculty of Applied Social Sciences at Munich University of Applied Sciences
  32. ^ I. Weiss-Gal, P. Welbourne: The professionalization of social work: a cross-national exploration . In: Int J Soc Welfare . tape 17 , 2008, p. 281-290 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1468-2397.2008.00574.x .
  33. Teaching canon and areas of study . ( Memento from April 22, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) In: Social work studies.
  34. ^ Sozialpä ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  35. Reiner Prölß: Chapter 8 of the series Basic Knowledge of Local Policy . Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, accessed on January 24, 2021 . Pp. 11-12.
  37. ^ Anna Hutchings, Imogen Taylor: Debate: Defining the profession? Exploring an international definition of social work in the China context . In: Int J Soc Welfare . tape 16 , 2007, p. 382-390 , doi : 10.1111 / j.1468-2397.2007.00494.x .
  38. ( Memento from July 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
  39. Ralph Christian Amthor: "Upbringing, Education and Human Rights" - On the role of the educator and other social professions during the National Socialist terror years . In: Martin Textor (ed.): Das Kita-Handbuch (online manual ).
  40. Bachelor Social Work - Leuphana University Lüneburg
  41. Study Guide Social Work on Studis Online
  42. ISSN  0490-1606 , ed. German Central Institute for Social Issues