The experiential learning is a topic of education . It deals with group experiences in nature to develop personality and social skills . Experiential education is now an integral part of holistic upbringing and educational concepts . Originally rooted in reform pedagogy , it has recently been gaining importance again, as key qualifications such as social skills, willingness to take risks and personality are playing an increasing role in society .
The history of experiential education is closely related to developments in philosophy , psychology , sociology and pedagogy . Experiential education, even if not yet under this term, has always been a method that has tried to counteract the educational methods of the respective time, which were felt to be in need of reform.
Experiential education developed in the context of schools and their educational mandate and was closely linked to the concept of holistic learning. The experiential history can be sketched using the important historical representatives from education and philosophy. The view over millennia reveals a common thread from Plato's doctrine of upbringing , which is based on comprehensive support for young people in a healthy area, to holistic ideas about upbringing in young people from Aristotle to Jean-Jacques Rousseau . He is considered to be one of the founders of the experiential concept. In the 20th century in particular, reform and experiential educational approaches merged with influences from pre-military education.
Pioneers and important representatives of experiential education
"Everything is good as it comes from the hands of the Creator, everything degenerates in the hands of man."
This first sentence from Emile clarifies the main idea of the work right at the beginning, which is often expressed with the catchphrase Back to Nature . Rousseau's goal is an education without an educator , which through natural punishment (logical consequences ), that is, the negative consequences of inappropriate actions, leads to a free person .
According to Rousseau, humans are brought up by three influences:
“Nature or people or things educate us. Nature develops our abilities and our powers; people teach us to use these skills and powers. But educate things and through the experience we have with them and through the perception. "
The order in which nature , things and people are mentioned shows their importance. Accordingly, learning is not so much oriented towards the person of the educator, but rather towards the effects that result from dealing with objective things in nature. Education by people has the sole aim of strengthening the educational power of nature and things and preventing negative influences such as society , science , art and civilization .
Rousseau can be seen as a representative of action-oriented teaching :
"Life is not about breathing, it is about acting"
Experience and immediacy are the two most important pillars of Rousseau's educational utopia. With this, Rousseau erected the foundation walls for the thought structure of experiential education as early as the 18th century.
Henry David Thoreau
100 years later this work was continued by Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862). Thoreau's aim was the original and immediate life without intermediaries. Thoreau, like Rousseau, made the then prevailing zeitgeist, such as luxury , comfort , fashion , civilization and technology responsible for the loss of immediacy. He assumed that an experience in the form of a break from familiar social surroundings and everyday obligations can trigger an inner change of perspective.
"Most of what is summed up under the name of luxury, and many of the so-called comforts of life, are not only to be dispensed with, they are downright obstacles to the rise of the human race."
Thoreau looked for the real needs of people and tried to lead a needless life for two and a half years in a self-built log cabin on Lake Walden near his hometown Concord in order to get on with what was really important. In addition to nature, where anyone could learn for free at any time, Thoreau believed that the establishment of community colleges should give people the education and worldview. He documented these experiences in his key work of 1854: Walden or Life in the Woods (English original title Walden; or, Life in the Woods)
For another important representative, John Dewey , the concept of experience is central:
“The active side of the experience is trying out, trying - you gain experience. The passive side is suffering, an acceptance. When we experience something, we act on this something at the same time, we do something with it, in order to then suffer the consequences of our actions. We act on the object and the object reacts on us. "
The process of learning is in the foreground, this learning is related to the social activities of the child, his environment and challenges the child, but must not overwhelm it.
Lord Baden-Powell and the Boy Scouts
In 1907 Robert Baden-Powell founded the first boy scout group in England . With the scout method, he is one of the spiritual fathers of modern experiential education. The educational motto of the scout movement “learning by doing” comes from the American reform educator WH Kilpatrick , a contemporary of Baden-Powell. The concept, specifically responsible for transmitting and children and young people "something be trusted" was in the puritanical and conservative dominated European new companies around the turn of the century. In 2006, more than 38 million children and young people from 216 countries belonged to the scout movement worldwide. The method was adopted by many other youth associations and has influenced youth work and social pedagogy. Many elements were transferred to outdoor training and are still used today in management training and team training.
Martin Luserke and the natural upbringing
In 1925 the reform pedagogue Martin Luserke founded the boarding school by the sea on the North Sea island of Juist . The term experiential education was by no means formulated at that time, but its reform pedagogical concept was already based on giving the students a first-hand experience through a "natural education", an "education by the sea". This hands on method found its expression in particular in his idea of “life education”, a practice-related education that was based on real life and not exclusively on theoretical knowledge as in state schools of the time. The school by the sea emphasized the musical, physical and handicraft areas as well as a daily encounter with nature. Each student and teacher was independently involved in this concept of the “school community” organized on a grassroots basis . Luserke developed the school amateur play during his pedagogical work in the Free School Community of Wickersdorf from 1906 onwards , which gave every pupil the opportunity to express themselves through acting and dancing. As the only German school at the time, the Schule am Meer built its own theater hall for this purpose. A school's own choir, an orchestra and theater performances with Germany-wide appearances were just as much elements of Luserke's educational experience as the active participation of the pupils and teachers in the further expansion of the school, in the establishment and maintenance of thirty seawater aquariums and eleven school gardens, in protecting the island from dunes , building your own sailing boats and sailing as well as exploring the East and West Frisian waters and the Wadden Sea of the North Sea .
Experience therapy according to Kurt Hahn
Kurt Hahn was a German experiential educator who is considered the forefather of experiential education and lived from 1886 to 1974. With his concepts, he continues to influence the development and implementation of experiential education. His understanding of experience and of experiences, the pictures he chose for illustration have an impact on today's school models that are offered at the Schloss Salem School . The Outward Bound Schools also stand for the educational institutions with an educational focus that are widespread around the world.
Kurt Hahn has no conventional career as a teacher or educator. He is often referred to as the “father of experiential education”, even though he was neither a qualified pedagogue nor a politician with a mandate . Nevertheless, he has decisively influenced sub-areas of education.
Experience pedagogy had its first high point in Germany around 1930 with Hahn. It became an important pillar of the understanding of teaching in reform pedagogy. This became clear in the dissertation of Waltraut Neubert (1930), an academic student of Herman Nohl ( University of Göttingen ).
The experience was understood as a "methodological basic concept of modern pedagogy" alongside that of work, with school being regarded as the "child's field of experience".
Hahn himself was a confidante and political advisor to Prince Max von Baden, and from 1920 to 1933 he was in charge of the state educational home Schule Schloss Salem . In 1934 in British exile he founded the “British Salem School” in Gordonstoun ( Scotland ) after he was no longer safe in Germany due to his ideas and his Jewish origins . In 1941 he founded a short school with courses lasting several weeks, which took on the character of an experiential educational model. With his pedagogy Hahn turned against the signs of decline of his time diagnosed by observations :
- Lack of human concern
- Decline in physical fitness
- Lack of initiative and spontaneity
- Lack of care
He was of the opinion that it is not the duration, but the intensity of an experience and personal commitment that are decisive for successful learning. These diseases should be combated in society with an experiential therapy concept in order to help healing powers to develop. Kurt Hahn always tried to reach as many young people as possible. He began with a series of courses with young people focusing on physical training , before he founded the first educational institution called Outward Bound in Aberdovey, together with the shipowner Laurence Holt , in which only short-term educational courses were carried out. The participants in the four-week courses were students aged 16–20.
Kurt Hahn countered the four identified deficiency and deterioration phenomena with elements of his experience therapy:
- physical training (including through athletic exercises and nature sports such as sailing , canoeing , mountain hiking )
- the service of the neighbor (here explicitly done by his students, depending on the location, coast guard , sea or mountain rescue service )
- the project (task with high, but achievable objectives with independent planning and implementation in the craft-technical or artistic area)
- the expedition (mostly multi-day mountain or ski tours, raft trips, etc., which, in addition to the nature sports activity, should also be about practical everyday experiences, such as taking care of yourself, transporting, preparing camp for the night.)
The effectiveness of the experience therapy essentially depends on the quality of the experience of the actions. Because the more the participant perceives the actions as extraordinary experiences, the more profound the healing effect. Healing memory images, which can still be called up years later, should have a controlling effect on later trials. Hahn incorporated sailing into his concept of experience therapy early on. His school at Schloss Salem, for example, acquired its own sailing ship in the 1950s, which was stationed on Lake Constance and was used as an element of community ties and risk education . At the end of the 50s a rowing boat (later fitted with sails) was added, which had been acquired by the sea rescue. Just like the motor cutter that was put into service a little later and was used to drive operations on Lake Constance in bad weather, e.g. B. to hide overturned sailing boats. (Operated by the Spetzgart branch school, which employed its own captain.) At the beginning, sailing projects were also used to rehabilitate drug-addicted young people who had committed offenses.
Kurt Hahn understood the natural and cultural landscapes as the first and important fields of action in his upbringing. The prerequisite and condition for him were the seriousness and immediacy of the situation.
In German educational science after 1945, experience therapy according to Kurt Hahn was only marginally perceived. Today, his approaches of real-time, directness and authenticity are more in demand than ever in a high-tech and well-mediated world. Physicality and the feeling of experiencing physical and psychological exertion as pleasurable are the starting points of contemporary, modern experiential education.
Experiential education after 1945
The instrumentalization of experiential educational elements and the mixing with National Socialist content by the National Socialists was one reason that experiential educational approaches were initially not taken up. The Allies tried hard to intervene in the education of German youth. To this end, a program was put in place to erase the existing impressions of nationalism . Youth associations were initially forbidden to organize themselves supraregionally, probably due to the Allies' reservations about German groups carrying the “gap”, such as the boy scouts.
Experiential education after 1980
Under the slogan “ experience instead of talking ”, new approaches to experiential education developed. One of their representatives, Franz Pöggeler, expanded the term in two directions. On the one hand, he also saw experiential education as a pedagogy of cultures and promoted a world pedagogy based on mutual understanding of cultures. To others he recognized that experiential education should not be restricted to children and young people. He was therefore committed to the common experience of parents and children and entire families. He expanded the term experiential education to a leisure education . One expression of this effort was the establishment of a comprehensive youth hostel network. For many years he was federal chairman of the German Youth Hostel Association .
At the end of 1989, the then Inspector of the Army , Lieutenant General Henning von Ondarza , prompted by the adventurous training of the British Armed Forces , ordered his command staff to submit a draft for experience-oriented training (EOA) for the Army as an investment in the attractiveness of military service and in the chances of survival of soldiers in action. EOA was defined as a program that confronts the respective military community in the free, as far as possible unknown nature with tasks that demand extraordinary things from each participant in terms of courage, physical performance and “enterprising spirit”.
The aim of the EOA is to strengthen the intellectual and character powers of the individual soldier - especially those of the Führer, as well as the cohesion of the soldier community in order to be able to cope with the stresses of a possible deployment and - in relation to the military leaders - to enable them to be able to design a correspondingly demanding training in peace. Nature with its elements offers the exercise facility "free of charge". That is why experience-oriented training is primarily based on activities in particularly demanding areas of nature such as mountains, inland waterways and the sea, caves and the airspace: mountaineering and climbing , ski mountaineering , white water rafting , e.g. B. rafting , cave visits , parachuting - also free fall -, deep sea and coastal sailing . At around 70%, the focus is on the use of the “training medium” mountains
The concept envisaged a training organization covering the entire army in the training of leaders and troops. The draft bill "Concept for experience-oriented training in the army" was presented in April 1991. The implementation of the presented program was suppressed by the reunification and merging of the German armed forces and the diverse tasks that resulted from it. Nevertheless, elements of experience-oriented training have found their way into leadership and troop training to a lesser extent.
Modern experiential education
Since the 2006/07 winter semester, in addition to the Philipps University of Marburg, a number of domestic and foreign universities have been offering the Master's degree in experiential education. This is the first time that the decades-long experimental field of experiential education is placed on a scientific basis and on a mutually measurable level. Sailing has become an integral part of experiential education since the 1950s . Even today, nature sports with their diverse experiences are the center of adventure education. Modern experiential education is flanked by other experiential educational approaches. These are u. a. the theater , the adventure , the play , risk education , the part of the risk education , and the circus education . Similar approaches can also be found in nature and environmental education , in play mobiles , forest kindergartens , barefoot paths and adventure playgrounds .
The central term in all experiential educational approaches is the experience .
"Experiences are processes of consciousness in which the person is deeply inwardly and holistically gripped by the wealth of meaning and value of an object."
A distinction is made between experience-oriented and experiential education. The experience-oriented offers activities in nature, which processes of the individual can trigger, but are not the focus. Modern experiential education is not based on experience, but on educational goals. This means that the experiential educator and the clientele first narrow down and clearly formulate the objectives in the conversation. Then the appropriate “medium” (terrain, environment, location) is selected in which it is possible that the clientele will encounter experiences that will bring them to their goals. Sustainability is then particularly important so that the newly learned strategies can be implemented in everyday life. In experiential education, the experience includes group-dynamic , socio-educational , sociological , psychological and educational dimensions.
Characteristics of experience
If you deal with the term "experience", you will find two understandings of terms that differ according to the degree of personal involvement: On the one hand, experience simply stands for an immediate personal experience. This can also be an everyday experience . On the other hand, experience is often equated with the special experience that arouses extraordinary emotions. The second is associated with terms such as activity, immediacy, tension, emotionality, variety and authenticity. They express the special, the unusual and are usually associated with high demands on personality, adventure and risk, and must be worked out (sometimes with sacrifice). This is where most of the numerous experiential educational concepts come into play. Accordingly, Bernd Heckmair and Werner Michl see the experience and everyday life as "two poorly tolerated things".
In contrast to events , experiences arise only from the subjective and individual view of the individual. Individual situations only become experiences when they are perceived by the viewer as something special or something out of the ordinary. People tend to associate experiences with the new, the unfamiliar and the unknown, although from a psychological point of view the experience is defined as neutral. Both mundane everyday things and intense, extraordinary impressions are included here. In psychology, experience relates to a wide variety of things, for example to environmental impressions , to one's own actions, to mental and physical processes or to interpersonal influences. Contents of the experience that are seen as meaningful are processed into impressions that can produce positive or negative feelings or memories. For humans, experience represents something personal and subjective that is immediately perceived.
In pedagogy, experiences cannot be planned or predicted because they are subjectively conditioned. Experiences are accidental, perhaps even unintentional occurrences, which only become special features through personal classification in individual categories, through reflection and comparison - in retrospect. A frequent point of criticism of experiential education becomes clear here. Only the framework conditions, opportunities and thus certain conducive conditions for the personal experience can be planned. Since experiences arise subjectively and involuntarily, they cannot be brought about precisely. However, this is the pedagogical approach of modern experiential education. An educational setting can be designed in such a way that learning goals , effects and experiences are possible or very likely. The effect of experiential learning offers does not result directly from the adventurous fields of experience, but from the specific way in which they are used, presented and combined. To be taught to be able to assess oneself and to perceive oneself in order to find one's own position in the personal as well as in the social environment.
Implementation example: diving
Since the mid-1990s, diving education offers have been developing increasingly. A scientific discussion takes place that no longer only deals with the sport of scuba diving itself, but also with related psychological, educational and even psychiatric issues. The findings from diving psychology have made a significant contribution to this . Emotional psychological and experiential studies have shown astonishing success and confirm the practical experience of the pioneers in this field. People with intellectual disabilities can also benefit from these results.
Implementation example: role play
In recent years, experiential education has increasingly made use of role play (LARP = Live Action Role Playing ). LARP makes it possible to slip into the role of a fantasy hero , a noble knight , a queen or even a simple maid in the late Middle Ages . In the role of your choice you can solve an adventure designed by an organizational team, explore your own world and get to know nice fellow players.
In addition to the creative, technical and artistic possibilities that can result from the preparation and the activity in live role play (learning to sew, tinker, write, act, organize, ...), the fascination of LARP is certainly mainly due to the actual experience. As part of an exciting story, the player can determine the course or outcome of the game through his own actions. So it is not surprising that when dealing with unusual and unexpected situations, among other things, teamwork, communication and finding solutions are actively promoted and demanded. Not least because of this, around 100,000 children and young people in Denmark now take part in publicly funded live role-playing games every year. In Germany, too, LARP is becoming increasingly popular in experiential education.
Definition, demarcation, criticism
A comparative look at reference works and specialist encyclopedias shows how important and extensive experiential education has become in the last 20 years . A general definition of the term experiential education is not easy for the following reasons:
- There is now a number of terms, some of which are used synonymously and some of which are used in competition, and which all aim to describe the relationship between experience and upbringing.
- At some points in the experiential discussion, a tendency towards delimitation can be observed, according to which every action-oriented learning arrangement is referred to as experiential education.
- Nowadays there is a larger range of offers, which on the one hand includes short-term measures of a few days and on the other hand long-term projects such as several months of sailing trips or travel projects for young people abroad.
The following definition by Heckmair and Michl tries to take into account the problems mentioned above:
"Experiential education is an action-oriented method and aims to promote their personal development through exemplary learning processes in which young people are confronted with physical, psychological and social challenges and enable them to shape their living environment responsibly."
Another definition, which is now frequently cited, is provided by the Freiburg-based NEW Institute of pedagogues Leif Cornelissen and Stephan Straub:
"Experiential education describes a methodical and experience-oriented approach that uses diverse and natural settings to confront the participants with real tasks, challenges, questions and problems and even experience-rich impressions, the implementation, solution or internalization of which simultaneously aims to promote positive change and further development of one's own personality . "
This attempt at a definition cannot hide the fact that an unambiguous definition is still missing, which is not surprising since a solid foundation of experiential education is still missing.
Based on Hufenu's attempt at identification, Galuske derives certain characteristics that are characteristic of modern experiential education:
- Action orientation and holism
- The focus of the learning process is the active engagement with a task, whereby experiences have to be made. Knowledge, skills and values are acquired and conveyed through direct experience. Holistic means that all dimensions of the human being are addressed, i.e. body, mind and soul .
- Learning in serious situations
- The serious nature of a situation is of particular importance for the setting in an experiential educational measure. Learning situations have to be found whose character is such that tasks and the structure of requirements result as a natural constraint.
- Group orientation
- Experience character
- The features mentioned so far can also be constructed in everyday situations. It is characteristic of experiential education that the learning situations are extraordinary, i.e. they have to be diverse, not everyday, real and serious in order to enable borderline experiences. Unusual and extraordinary situations increase the chance that an event will become a lasting experience. That is why experiential education takes place at a distance from everyday life.
- Everyone has to decide for themselves whether they want to take part in an experiential education measure or not. The principle of voluntariness assumes that learning successes cannot be forced and are therefore dependent on the motivation and freedom of choice of the individual. The task of the experiential educators is to encourage and spur the participants to venture into the learning situation. The final decision is made by the participant and must be accepted by the educator.
- Educational arrangement
- Experiential situations only become an experiential educational arrangement when they are instrumentalized educationally. This includes, on the one hand, targeted planning and implementation of offers, on the other hand - which is important for the success of the measure - the accompaniment of companions trained in adventure education.
Learning is an important part of human life. We learn from birth through a natural “coexistence” and everyday “being there”. It is a concern of pedagogy in the context of initiated learning to convey content, values and skills to young people for personal development and social integration . Simon Priest assumes that all learning is based on experience. They become experiences when what is experienced is reflected and transferred. Experiential learning happens when the reflections are responsible for the change. The different learning and transfer models of experiential education are presented below.
In modern experiential education, three theoretical models can be distinguished, which are the result of a historical development, but in practice exist side by side and are not mutually exclusive. The same process is shown from different angles.
The Mountains Speak for Themselves
This model is based on Thoreau's motto: "Nature is the best teacher" . It assumes the general efficiency of experiential educational measures in nature with regard to changes in behavior. It completely relies on the practical constraints of nature. The situation stands for itself and is constructed in such a way that what has been learned is a necessary consequence of acting. It is not necessary to come to terms with what has been experienced through reflection.
Outward Bound Plus
This model is based on the idea of "The Mountain speaks for itself". However, it provides for a subsequent reflection.
The metaphorical model is considered to be the model of the future, which is also being used in this country. One of the criticisms of the “Outward Bound Plus” model was that experiential education is developing into a conventional therapeutic method due to the shift towards reflection. The metaphorical model was developed to encourage reflection, but at the same time not to talk to death or to overload the experiences. The learning situation should be designed as similar to the real life of the participants as possible. The learning direction of the participants can be influenced by examples, stories and metaphors , among other things .
Transfer is a decisive factor in learning from experiential activities and measures and means the transfer of learning experiences into the life contexts and everyday situations of the participants. There are three different types of transfer in experiential education:
- The subject-specific transfer
- During the subject-specific transfer, concrete behaviors and learning content are internalized to the extent that they are available in other learning situations. (Example: belaying while climbing can be transferred to belaying while abseiling.) These experiences usually have little relevance for everyday life.
- The interdisciplinary transfer
- Here, specific learning experiences are generalized about future attitudes, principles or behavior. It does not transfer skills, but basic patterns. (Example: problem-solving and conflict management strategies are transferred from an experiential challenge to everyday life.)
- The metaphorical transfer
- A metaphorical transfer takes place when learning experiences are made that can lead to changes in behavior in an experiential educational situation that is analogous or “isomorphic” (of the same shape) to everyday life. The transfer takes place here either during the activity using similar structures or after the activity with the help of reflection.
The transfer represents the "central problem" of experiential education. The following transfer obstacles must therefore be observed or prevented:
- The everyday situation is often much more complex than the learning situation.
- Long-term learning processes cannot be initiated with short-term educational measures.
- The participants are often not accompanied in the transfer process.
- The feeling of leisure - often caused by the implementation of experiential educational measures in vacation regions - blocks the transfer motivation.
The transfer problem can be counteracted by clear agreements on objectives and expectations, conscious composition of the participant groups, long-term preparation and follow-up work and the conscious use of transfer techniques.
Other forms of experiential education
In the "Christ-centered experiential education" according to Hans Peter Royer , God and creation are also made individually "tangible" in nature. A comparable approach from the Evangelical Youth Office in Württemberg is the approach of “experiential education in a Christian context”.
In a high-tech world it is becoming more and more important to do justice to this basic human urge, the urge for adventure . In the field of adult education , experiential education has found its equivalent in so-called suggestopedia , in which the most important elements are used for the fast and brain-friendly transfer of learning in the connection of cognitive and affective skills. Another approach in experiential education according to Michael Birnthaler is the attempt to synthesize experiential and Waldorf education under the name of experiential education
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Emile or about education. (1762) Stuttgart 1963.
- Henry David Thoreau: Walden or Life in the Woods. (1854), From the American by Emma Emmerich. 22nd edition. Diogenes, Zurich 2007, ISBN 978-3-257-20019-5 .
- John Dewey: Democracy and Education. An introduction to philosophical pedagogy. Hirt, Breslau 1930; Beltz, Weinheim 2000, ISBN 3-407-22057-X .
- Rainald Baig-Schneider: The modern experiential education. Stories, characteristics and methodology of an educational counter-concept , Ziel Verlag Augsburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-940562-58-6 .
- Michael Birnthaler (Hrsg.): Praxisbuch Erlebnispädagogik. Free Spiritual Life Publishing House, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-7725-1837-9 .
- Michael Birnthaler: Adventure education and Waldorf schools. A foundation (= human knowledge and education. Vol. 93). Free Spiritual Life Publishing House, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 3-7725-1693-9 .
- Thomas Eisinger : Adventure education compact (introduction to adventure education; profile of the adventure teacher), Ziel Verlag, Augsburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-944708-32-4 .
- Torsten Fischer, Jens Lehmann: Study book experiential education. Introduction to theory and practice (= UTB 3191 experiential education, educational science ). Klinkhardt u. a., Bad Heilbrunn 2009, ISBN 978-3-7815-1646-5
- Torsten Fischer, Jörg W. Ziegenspeck : Experiential Education: Basics of Experiential Learning. Experiential learning in the continuity of the historical educational movement. 2nd, revised edition. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2008, ISBN 978-3-7815-1582-6 .
- Torsten Fischer, Jörg W. Ziegenspeck: Handbook of experiential education. From the origins to the present. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2000, ISBN 3-7815-0998-2 .
- Rüdiger Gilsdorf, Günter Kistner: Cooperative adventure games. Practical help for schools, youth work and adult education. 2 volumes. Kallmeyer, Seelze-Velber;
- Rüdiger Gilsdorf: From experiential education to experiential therapy. Perspectives of experiential learning based on systemic and process-oriented approaches. EHP, Bergisch Gladbach 2004, ISBN 3-89797-024-4 (Also: Koblenz, Landau (Pfalz), University, dissertation, 2004).
- Kurt Hahn: Reform with a sense of proportion. Selected writings by a politician and educator. ed. by Michael Knoll, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-608-91951-1 .
- Klaus Halter, Konrad Langenberg: Guided tour. Information (outdoor training). sfb-Bildungszentrum, Dietikon (Zurich) 2007, URL: online (PDF; 2.2 MB) (PDF)
- Bernd Heckmair, Werner Michl: Experience and Learn. Introduction to experiential education (= experience & learn. Vol. 2). 5th edition. E. Reinhardt, Munich a. a. 2004, ISBN 3-497-01705-1 (6th, revised and expanded edition. Ibid 2008, ISBN 978-3-497-01963-2 ).
- Helmut Jansen: When freedom becomes real. Experiential youth pastoral care in critical examination (= youth in church and society. Vol. 3). LIT, Berlin a. a. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8258-0290-5 (also: Münster, Universität, Dissertation, 2006).
- Tanja Kinne, Georg Theunissen (ed.): Experiential education in work with the disabled. Concepts for school and extracurricular practice. Curative and special education. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer 2013, ISBN 978-3-17-022601-2 .
- Willy Klawe, Wolfgang Bräuer: Experiential education between everyday life and Alaska. Practice and perspectives of experiential education in the aids for education. 2nd Edition. Juventa-Verlag, Weinheim u. a. 2001, ISBN 3-7799-1391-7 .
- Hubert Kölsch, Franz-Josef Wagner: Experiential education in nature. A practical book for beginners (= experience & learning. Vol. 4). 2nd Edition. With illustrations by Barbara Hofmann. E. Reinhardt, Munich a. a. 2004, ISBN 3-497-01688-8 .
- Astrid Habiba Kreszmeier, Andrea Zuffellato: Lexicon experiential education. Theory and practice of experiential education from a systemic perspective. Ziel Verlag, Augsburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-937210-97-1 .
- Sabine Lang, Gregor Rehm (Ed.): Learning to experience and think. Workbook experiential education. Francke, Marburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-86827-126-3 .
- Thomas Lang: Do children need adventure (= children are children. Vol. 13). 3rd, expanded edition. Reinhardt, Munich a. a. 2006, ISBN 3-497-01879-1 .
- Paffrat, Hartmut F .: Introduction to experiential education . Ziel Verlag Augsburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-940562-81-4
- Werner Michl: Adventure Education (= UTB 3049 Profile ). Reinhardt, Munich a. a. 2009, ISBN 978-3-497-02070-6 .
- Waltraut Neubert: The experience in pedagogy (= Göttingen studies on pedagogy. Vol. 3, ). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1925 (at the same time: Göttingen, university, dissertation, 1925).
- Annette Reiners: Practical experiential education. 2 volumes. Ziel Verlag, Augsburg;
- Hans Peter Royer: Only those who let go are held. Christ-centered experiential education. Hänssler, Holzgerlingen 2003, ISBN 3-7751-3959-1 .
- Burkhard Runtsch (Red.): Adventure - a path to youth? Experiential educational measures in outpatient and inpatient youth welfare. AFRA-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 1993, ISBN 3-923217-61-7 .
- Thomas Schott: Critique of adventure education (= systematic education. Vol. 5). 2nd, supplemented and revised edition. ERGON-Verlag, Würzburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-89913-705-7 .
- Cornelia Schödlbauer, F. Hartmut Paffrath, Werner Michl (eds.): Metaphors - expressways, mule tracks and dead ends of learning. Ziel Verlag, Augsburg 1999, ISBN 3-934214-00-2 .
- Teresa Segbers: Adventure Journey. Build experiences on excursions. LIT-Verlag, Münster 2018, ISBN 978-3-643-13932-0 .
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: Search for meaning in risk. Life in growing rings. Explanatory models for cross-border behavior. 2., ext. Edition, Verlag Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2016, ISBN 978-3-8340-1620-1 .
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: Do children need risks and dares? In: Elementary School. Vol. 34, No. 11, 2002, , pp. 54-55.
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: From the sense of the car. Why people face dangerous challenges. In: Deutscher Alpenverein (DAV) (Ed.): Berg (= Berg 130). German Alpine Club, Munich a. a. 2006, ISBN 3-937530-10-X , pp. 96-111.
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: Growing in Risk. From the contribution to your own development. In: matter word number. No. 93, 2008, , pp. 25-37.
- Björn Zielke: Not just climbing or vacation! Experiential education in the light of brain research (= scientific articles from Tectum-Verlag. Series: Pedagogy. Vol. 14). Tectum-Verlag, Marburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8288-2228-3 .
- Germo Zimmermann : Experiential Education in a Christian Context. In: Karcher, Florian / Freudenberger-Lötz , Petra / Zimmermann, Germo (eds.): Believe yourself. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener-Verlag, 2017. 121–132
- Information service experiential education & social training - portal for experiential education with lots of information about training, etc.
- Bundesverband Erlebnispädagogik e. V.
- Theory of experiential education Detailed page on the theory of experiential education with glossary
- Rousseau, Jean-Jacques: Emile. 1762. In: European History Topic Portal ( 2006), URL: europa.clio-online.de (accessed June 10, 2020)
- Rousseau, Jean-Jacques: Emile. 1762. Digitized version , complete online edition, translation after Hermann Denhardt (accessed June 10, 2020)
- Thoreau, Henry David: Walden. German edition 1905., on the digitized version (accessed June 10, 2020)
- Montiegel, Jochen ea: Project Dewey at the PH Ludwigsburg, PDF file (accessed June 10, 2020)
- Heisermann, Tatjana: John Dewey (Uni-Köln): The Concept of Experience, PDF file (accessed June 10, 2020)
- William Heard Kilpatrick: The project method. The use of the purposeful act in the educative process. Teachers College - Columbia University, New York NY 1918.
- Herbert Giffei: Martin Luserke - A trailblazer for modern experiential education? In: Wegbereiter der Moderne Erlebnispädagogik, Heft 5, Lüneburg 1987.
- Ulrich Schwerdt: Martin Luserke (1880–1968). Reform pedagogy in the field of tension between pedagogical innovation and culture-critical ideology. A biographical reconstruction . Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1993. ISBN 3-631-46119-4 . P. 222.
- Renate Maiwald: School as a total work of art - The Elizabeth Duncan School and the School by the Sea (founded by Martin Luserke) . In: Pedagogical Forum 8 (1995), H. 1, pp. 3-11.
- Friedrich Merker: The meaning of the musical in the pedagogy of Martin Luserkes . In: Pädagogische Rundschau 34 (1980), pp. 595-601.
- Bund for the new theater (ed.) / Martin Luserke: Shakespeare performances as movement games . W. Seifert, Stuttgart / Heilbronn 1921.
- Jörg Ziegenspeck (Ed.): Martin Luserke. Reform pedagogue - poet - theater man; Founder and director of the school by the sea on the North Sea island of Juist, Neubauer, Lüneburg 1990. ISBN 978-3-929058-07-9
- Kurt Hahn: Reform with a sense of proportion. 1998
- Waltraut Neubert: The experience in pedagogy 1925
- experiential education . In: Franz Stimmer (ed.): Lexicon of social pedagogy and social work . 4th completely revised and expanded edition. Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-486-25369-7 , p. 183.
- Weltpädagogik , accessed June 12, 2020
- Gudelius, Jost, The Mountains - Training Grounds for Psychological Fitness , in NATO-Research Study Group 10 on the Defense Application of Human and Bio-Medical Sciences, LAHR-Workshop 09/28/1988.
- BMVg, Fü HI 6 Az 32-03 of April 1991
- Universities with a Master's degree in experiential education , accessed June 12, 2020
- [Bräuer, Wolfgang; Klawe, Willi: experiential education between everyday life and Alaska - practice and perspectives of experiential education in the aids to education. 2nd Edition. Juventa-Verlag, Weinheim and Munich 2001. ISBN 3-7799-1391-7
- Siegbert Warwitz: Search for meaning in risk. 2., ext. Ed., Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2016
- Bernd Heckmair, Werner Michl: Experience and Learn. 2008
- Dagmar Himmel: Workshop for educational diving. (PDF; 270 kB) TC-Aqua, March 25, 2008, accessed on November 1, 2013 .
- German Live RPG Association e. V.
- Gerd Stüwe : experiential education. In: Dieter Kreft, Ingrid Mielenz (Hrsg.): Dictionary social work. Tasks, fields of practice, terms and methods of social work and social education. 5th, completely revised and expanded edition. Juventa, Weinheim u. a. 2005, ISBN 3-7799-2060-3 , pp. 168-170
- Definition of experiential education - our understanding of experiential education. In: NEW Institute. November 7, 2019, accessed May 5, 2020 .
- Michael Galuske: Methods of Social Work: An Introduction . 4th edition. Juventa, Weinheim 2002, ISBN 978-3-7799-1441-9 , pp. 244-245 .
- Theory models of experiential education - here we present them! In: NEW Institute. January 23, 2020, accessed on July 21, 2020 (German).
- Hans Peter Royer: Only those who let go are held. 2003
- Germo Zimmermann: Experiential Education in a Christian Context . In: Florian Karcher, Petra Freudenberger-Lötz , Germo Zimmermann (eds.): Believe yourself . 1st edition. BMJ, no. 2 . Neukirchener, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2017, ISBN 978-3-7615-6395-3 , p. 121-132 .
- Experiential education on the website of the EOS Institute. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011 ; accessed on June 12, 2020 .