Herman Nohl

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Herman Nohl (born October 7, 1879 in Berlin , † September 27, 1960 in Göttingen ) was a German philosopher and educator .

The First World War was a decisive turning point in the life of Herman Nohl . The consequences of the war and his preoccupation with the youth movement and the adult education system prompted him to devote himself to education. As a result, he became one of the best-known representatives of reform and humanities education . Nohl worked on the establishment of pedagogy as an independent science and the establishment of social pedagogy . He was dismissed from the service in 1937, but returned to work in 1945. Nohl was a professor of education at the University of Göttingen, Co-editor of the magazine Die Erbildung and founder and editor of the magazine Die Sammlung . He wrote several works on aesthetics, pedagogical anthropology and pedagogy, with The Pedagogical Movement in Germany and its theory being his main pedagogical work.

life and work

Herman Nohl came from a middle-class family who lived in an apartment on the grounds of the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster throughout his childhood and youth . His father Hermann Nohl was a high school teacher . His mother Gabriele Nohl (née Doepke) died in 1882. Herman Nohl had a total of four siblings, two ( Johannes and Ella) from his first marriage and two (Lotte and Hilde) from his father's second marriage to Elise (née Simon). At the boarding school Nohl met Eduard Spranger .

Nohl studied medicine in Berlin in the summer semester of 1898, but switched to the humanities in the winter semester of 1898 . He dealt with history, philosophy and German studies and heard from Friedrich Paulsen , among others . Paulsen offered Nohl to go to Davos as a teacher after graduation , but Nohl had made contact with Wilhelm Dilthey in 1901 , with whom he established a permanent working relationship. In 1902 Nohl decided to write a dissertation on Socrates . On Dilthey's and Paulsen's recommendation, he was granted the Jüngken scholarship, which made him financially independent from his father. In August 1904 Nohl completed his dissertation with the title Socrates and the Ethics . Nohl's first scientific work was the compilation and arrangement of Hegel's Theological Youth Writings based on the manuscripts of the Royal Library in Berlin , which were printed in 1907.

In 1905 Herman Nohl married the pianist Bertha "Betty" Oser from Vienna (1878–1936), a student of Clara Schumann and cousin of Ludwig Wittgenstein . This marriage ensured Nohl's further financial independence.


Following Dilthey's recommendation to Rudolf Eucken , the Nohl family moved to Jena in autumn 1907 , where Herman Nohl received his habilitation in 1908 with his work on The World Views of Painting . Nohl spent his time in Jena until the beginning of the First World War and completed various scientific papers. During this time, Nohl also came into contact with the youth movement . He became friends with Eugen Diederichs and got to know the Gustav Wynekens educational home in Wickersdorf . Some of his students were active in the youth movement, which was important for the development of his pedagogy.

Herman Nohl and the youth movement

Herman Nohl described his first experiences with the German youth movement in his book The Pedagogical Movement in Germany and Its Theory, published in 1935, in a separate chapter. He saw this movement as outstanding because it changed the relationship between pedagogy and the generations and had an educational effect on itself. Herman Nohl summarized the youth movement as part of a "German Movement" that lasted for over 150 years, to which the time of Sturm und Drang and Romanticism belonged. It is a recurring epoch "where the young forces of our people struggled for a new content in life". This movement is looking for "the new unity of a higher spiritual life, which is ultimately rooted in the metaphysical basis of our existence [...] and revives the dead forms of culture and redesigns them from within". Herman Nohl saw parallels between the young Herder , the young Goethe and the youth movement, such as “the feeling of obsolescence of the previous generation, the demand for a new youth, nature, art and religion as the three liberating powers, a new human being that But it cannot be separated from an original German nationality, in which at the same time the contradictions between the classes and denominations that are tearing Germany apart are abolished. ”As the main characteristics of the movement, Nohl said“ the self-importance of being young […], the focus on the present and the future [...] and a new faith in the nature of man ”. Nohl was close to nature, which fit the ideals of the youth movement. His own children were also active in the Wandervogel and regularly went hiking.

Nohl developed his first thoughts on a specifically educational relationship as early as 1914 in the essay The Relationship of Generations in Pedagogy , which is understood as an answer to the youth movement's claim that young people can organize and lead themselves. For Nohl, despite the rights of the child and the young person, an educationally relevant relationship between the generations was necessary.

"The real basis of the educational work lies in the relationship between the two generations, because it is not what it teaches, but precisely this real relationship itself that is its deepest content and its ultimate condition."

- Herman Nohl - educational essays

First World War

In the summer of 1915, Herman Nohl was drafted into the military as a Landsturmmann and stationed in a barracks in Weimar . He spent the wartime as part of the occupation army in Ghent , mainly administrative tasks due to a knee injury and short-sightedness. The enthusiasm for war and conviction of the legitimacy of the war, which he also had at the beginning, turned over in the course of the war and after the death of several friends. How nonsensical and contradictory this war was he became aware of while he was meeting with Belgian friends, while soldiers from both countries were killing each other not far at the front .

Nohl returned to Jena in November 1918. Due to his conversations with people from the people, he now devoted himself to popular education and in 1919 became a founding member of the democratic adult education center in Thuringia.

Göttingen and the Relative Autonomy of Education

The Herman-Nohl-Haus on the grounds of the Lippoldsberg Monastery , today group accommodation and pilgrims' hostel

In the summer of 1919, at the instigation of his friend Georg Misch , Herman Nohl became his successor at the University of Göttingen on an extraordinary chair for practical philosophy with special emphasis on pedagogy. On May 8, 1922, he became a full professor of education. He stayed in Göttingen until he was forcibly released from civil service in 1937.

Nohl based his pedagogy on the concept of the customer , a concept of pre-scientific knowledge. According to this, upbringing is a reality that has always existed. The practice of education is older than the scientific reflection of it and therefore has its own value. Because the educational experience is also the result of a possibly unconscious, but in each case very specific question.

Nohl's pedagogy was based on the entirety of pedagogical phenomena. He joined the social work guild founded by his pupil Curt Bondy in 1925 and founded the journal Die Erziehung with Aloys Fischer , Wilhelm Flitner , Theodor Litt and Eduard Spranger . Monthly magazine for the connection between culture and education in science and life , which represented the representatives of a humanities-oriented education. Nohl contributed to the conception of the educational academies reformed in Prussia in 1926 and from 1928 published the five-volume handbook of pedagogy together with Ludwig Pallat . Nohl sought the connection to practice in 1929 by founding a home in Lippoldsberg , which was attached to the educational seminar in Göttingen. There he conducted didactic courses for teachers in educational seminars and combined theoretical knowledge with educational practice.

Nohl interfered in the discussions about the school reform of 1927 and formulated the postulate of the "relative autonomy" of education as a demarcation from claims to political power. Education is therefore primarily derived from the reality of education , which Nohl used as the starting point for a general theory of education. The basis of his concept of education was Dilthey's concept that education should be understood as a “planned activity through which adults seek to form the mental life of adolescents”. According to Nohl, the justification for the autonomy of pedagogy lay in the "fact of the educational reality as a meaningful whole". The pedagogical idea determines the meaning of that reality, and at the same time the independence of education and its limits to the other areas of society are determined. Pedagogy should therefore judge economic, religious or political interests from their point of view and, if necessary, reject them and not subordinate itself to these interests.

In 1931 Nohl presented the plan for a "national educational organization within the framework of Osthilfe". Further lectures from 1931 and 1932, which were published in 1933 as Land Movement, Osthilfe and the task of pedagogy , emphasized the national in pedagogy.

The pedagogical reference

Herman Nohl first used the concrete concept of pedagogical reference in the socio-pedagogical lectures from 1924 and 1925. In the 1924 lecture, The Pedagogy of the Neglected , he named the pedagogical reference as a possible cause of neglect, along with structure and milieu. In 1925, he called for an unconditional bond with the youth in their maturity:

"But you can only maintain this bond with the soul if you repeatedly redesign the pedagogical reference at the right time according to the development of the child, take account of the adolescent's will to assert himself and his desire for independence and nourish his new spirituality with the food that it demands."

- Herman Nohl - youth welfare. Socio-educational lectures

He saw the acquisition of an educational connection as the prerequisite for an educational relationship in general. According to Nohl, the relationship between pupil and educator was a community in which both depend on each other:

"The basis of education is the educational community between the educator and the pupil with his will to educate."

- Hermann Nohl - The theory of education

As with Dilthey, the relationship between an adult and a younger person formed the basis for educational action for Nohl. In this way, upbringing is no longer only thought of in asymmetrical relationships , but also as a personal, sympathetic choice. According to Nohl, the starting point of the upbringing was not the demands of society, but the sensitivities and learning needs of the adolescent himself. It should be based on the difficulties the child has, and not on the difficulties that the educator or parents encounter. The educator should step out of his role of the purely professionally interested and fill his task with passion :

“The basis of education is therefore the passionate relationship between a mature person and a developing person, for his own sake, so that he can come to his life and his form. This educational relationship is built on an instinctive basis that is rooted in people's natural relationships with life and their gender. "

- Herman Nohl - The theory of education

The following points can be derived from this, which are decisive for the pedagogical reference according to Nohl:

  • The relationship has an emotional component (passion) .
  • The pedagogical reference is fundamentally based on different levels of development, which requires maturity from the educator (relationship of a mature person to a developing person) .
  • Educational action is not derived from external goals and purposes, but is primarily oriented towards the pupil (for his own sake) .

Nohl resisted a sexual valuation of this love affair between educator and pupil. Rather, it should be a passion for the pupil's talents and therefore much more than the sexual moment. He advocated a form of platonic love or pedagogical eros , which aims to lure out the potential of the adolescent, to perceive his individuality, to promote it and at the same time to ensure that he remains socially acceptable.

"The teacher's true love is the loving love and not the desiring one [...] The educational love for the child is the love for his ideal [...] Thus, the educational love requires empathy for the child and his talents, for the possibilities of his plasticity, always with a view to his completed life. "

- Herman Nohl - The theory of education

For Nohl, the focus was on the aspect for its own sake , i.e. that the educator is not the implementer of the interests of third parties or society. Not the demands of society, but the sensitivities and learning needs of the adolescent himself should be the starting point of educational activity, and education is therefore "decisively characterized by the fact that it has its starting point absolutely in the pupil, that is, that it does not act as a prison officer of any feels against the pupil against objective powers ”. For Nohl, the foundation of the pedagogical relationship was pedagogical love based on the model of mother and father love, which should be released from their instinctive behavior. Nohl understood uplifting love as a spiritual behavior of its own that is directed towards the higher form of the human being. According to Nohl, the so-called educational community is carried "by two powers: love and authority, or seen from the child's perspective: love and obedience". Education as a relationship, as Nohl understood it, is established by the educator acquiring the favor of the pupil through knowledge and empathy. The authority of the educator should develop from the personal characteristics of the educator. This is achieved on the one hand through affection and eros, on the other hand through the appreciation of achievements, whereby educational action has the character of a venture, so it can also fail.

Even if, according to Nohl, pedagogy was solely in the service of the child, this should not be an end in itself , but also be committed to objective attitudes and goals . According to Nohl, upbringing is not realized in the mere adaptation of the pupil to social framework conditions, but rather in adapting such concerns to the pupil. As a result, the social and the individual perspective come into play, but always with an eye on the pupil. The pedagogical reference is understood at this point as the child's advocate.

In the actions of the educator, the present and the future should be linked. Future possibilities and the goals derived from them should by no means prevent the fulfillment of current concerns and needs. Rather, Nohl saw an intrinsic value in every stage of life, yes in every moment of the child, "which must not only be sacrificed to the future, but demands its independent fulfillment".

"The basic attitude with which the pedagogue faces the child is therefore a peculiar mixture of realistic and ideal vision, which results from the insight into the two-sidedness in the nature of the human being."

- Herman Nohl - character and fate. An educational understanding of the human being

According to Nohl, the pupil's unconditional obedience and the breaking of his own will should be replaced by independence and activity that culminates in moral autonomy . The pedagogical reference does not represent a one-sided influencing relationship directed by the educator towards the pupil, but rather requires interactions. Nohl spoke of a modern and active pedagogy that no longer sees its counterpart as a mere passive receptive object of educational activities and measures. The educator has a certain advantage over the pupil, on whom his authority is based. The pupil, on the other hand, brings himself into this relationship as an unmistakable personality and his spontaneity as well as his as yet undiscovered future possibilities, which are to be discovered and promoted by means of the pedagogical reference.

It should not be forgotten, however, that such a relationship should not be forced, since "irrational moments such as sympathy and antipathy" are effective, which neither the educator nor the pupil can influence. Therefore, the educator should "not be offended or even let the pupil pay if he does not succeed in the reference". A relationship that is based on freedom and voluntariness always includes the possibility of failure, whereby the recognition of the subjectivity and sovereignty of the pupil can be shown. Nohl saw a significant advance in education in the knowledge that the pupil has his own right and that taking this into account makes the educational work possible in the first place. In order for this pedagogical work to be possible, the failure of this pedagogical reference on the part of the educator should not lead to offense and certainly not to reproaches towards the pupil, but must bring about a bond with someone else "if the bond only takes place at all".

"Education ends where the person comes of age, that is, according to Schleiermacher, when the younger generation is equal to the older generation in an independent way to fulfill the moral task, so the aim of education is to make itself superfluous and to encourage self-education will."

- Herman Nohl - The theory of education

The pedagogical reference is therefore not timeless, but a fact of the historical change in pedagogical conditions or opinions. The elements such as authority, obedience, trust are therefore not fixed values, but are constantly being negotiated anew between the generations and their content is to be determined. The pedagogical reference also tends to separate from the beginning . With every developmental progress of the pupil, both sides, educator and pupil, strive to dissolve the pedagogical reference. Even if every education is geared towards independence, the basic relationship between the generations is preserved. Pedagogues as advocates for children , according to Nohl, would have to reshape the demands of society , but without giving up these demands .

“Whatever the demands on the child from the objective culture and social relations, it has to put up with a transformation that emerges from the question: what meaning does this demand get for its structure in the context of this child's life and the increase in his strength and what means does this child have to cope with them? "

- Herman Nohl - The educational movement in Germany and its theory

This transformation should therefore be designed in such a way that the child's abilities are increased. The demands of society should be viewed from the context of meaning and the possibilities of the child . The pedagogy should therefore represent a balance between the subjective life of the pupil and the demands of the objective culture. Accordingly, it would become non-pedagogical where the educator decides only on the subjective life of the pupil or on the objective culture.

National Socialism and World War II

Two daughters Herman Nohl emigrated in the period of National Socialism , since their husbands were denied employment at German universities. The parents sent their only son to Kurt Hahn in Scotland so that he could grow up in a better political atmosphere. Herman Nohl's wife also wanted to emigrate due to the political situation. Many of Nohl's students also emigrated abroad after they had been dismissed for their educational work.

Without foreseeing these developments, Nohl initially welcomed the “ seizure of power ” as an opportunity to realize his pedagogical ideals: “Much of what the pedagogical movement in association with the youth movement and the adult education movement has struggled for since the end of the war is suddenly within reach. At one stroke, political power realized the external unity of will, which is also the elementary prerequisite for national education. "

Even earlier, Nohl's writings were influenced by ethnic ideas . He called for a "national pedagogy" that should take into account Germany's special political situation. In lectures on "Osthilfe", Nohl formulated thoughts that were also reflected in the education under National Socialism : With the settlement in the East, a development should be initiated "without [which] a people gradually loses its blood, which increases our internal market, new living space for unemployed people and last but not least strengthen our national position in the East ”. He wrote “that our German fate will be decided here in the East. This East is "How does he not just a particular degree, the country ', but the East has again become battleground of history in his lectures in the winter semester 1933/34 at Göttingen University entitled. The fundamentals of national education put it, should this fight is about the "defense against inferior germs". The ideas presented by Nohl on Eastern pedagogy also contained elements that were reminiscent of the blood-and-soil ideology and which the National Socialists were later to implement in their educational programs. In the image of women, which Nohl formulated in this context, one could later identify parallels to that under National Socialism . He spoke of an “inner movement in the feminine existence” which developed a “new self-awareness of the function of women in culture”, which “turned away from the old emancipation of women based on their creative powers in the family and at home want …"

In his 1938 character and fate , which was reprinted in 1947 and 1967, he also wrote the following:

"The main cause of breed formation, i. H. the change of the plants themselves is not the mutation, but the selection. Eugenics and pedagogy can also come into play here alone. Such selection also requires, as the well-known race researcher F. Lenz said at the natural scientist meeting in Stuttgart (1938), an intellectual climate in which people of insight, initiative and productivity thrive. "

- Herman Nohl - character and fate

In April 1937, however, Herman Nohl was dismissed as a university professor. The reasons are unclear. Presumably they are due to the fact that Hermann Nohl's wife Berta had a Wittgenstein for his mother and was the cousin of Ludwig Wittgenstein, i.e. half-Jewish. He is listed as a member of the SS and NSDAP in the NS university teacher register . There is no entry in the NSDAP membership file.

In March 1943, the then 64-year-old was drafted into factory work, which lasted until the end of the year. He experienced the end of the war in the Lippoldsberger Landheim.

The time after the Second World War

Göttingen, Stadtfriedhof: grave of Herman Nohl

After the end of the Second World War , Herman Nohl was allowed by the British occupation authorities to help in various educational areas with the reconstruction. Among other things, he worked on the fastest possible reopening of the schools and was meanwhile City School Council in Göttingen . In August 1945 he worked on the "Marienau curriculum" to rebuild the school system. The reopening of the University of Göttingen was one of his main goals; it resumed its service on September 17, 1945. Herman Nohl was not only reappointed professor, he also became dean of his department. He was the contact person for many people who had difficulties with denazification because of their membership in National Socialist organizations , and helped some with his influence to a more favorable classification. In 1947 he retired at his own request.

In 1945 Nohl also founded the Institute for Education and Teaching. He was also the editor of the magazine Die Sammlung. Journal for Culture and Education (1945–1960; successor: New Collection ). In this way he had a significant influence on post-war education. In the last years of his life, Herman Nohl was often ill. He died on September 27, 1960 in his house on Hohen Weg in Göttingen.


Herman-Nohl-School in the Göttingen Südstadt


  • Socrates and ethics. Tübingen / Leipzig 1904.
  • The worldview of painting. Jena 1908.
  • Educational and political essays. Jena 1919.
  • Style and worldview. Jena 1920.
  • Youth welfare. Leipzig 1927.
  • The aesthetic reality: an introduction. Frankfurt am Main 1935 (2nd edition 1954).
  • The educational movement in Germany and its theory. 1935 ( online at Google Books ).
  • Introduction to philosophy. 1935 (9th A. Frankfurt am Main 1998).
  • Character and destiny . A pedagogical study of the human being, 1938 (3rd possibly 3rd edition. 1947, again Frankfurt am Main 1967).
  • The basic moral experiences. An introduction to ethics. 1939 (3rd edition. Frankfurt am Main 1949).
  • Pedagogy from thirty years. Frankfurt am Main 1949.
  • Friedrich Schiller. Frankfurt am Main 1954.
  • Educator design. 1958 (3rd A. Göttingen 1965).
  • The German Movement: Lectures and essays on the history of ideas from 1770-1830 (ed. OF Bollnow, F. Rodi). Goettingen 1970.
  • Historical consciousness (ed. E. Hoffmann, R. Joerden). Göttingen 1979.
  • Edited with Ludwig Pallat : Handbuch der Pädagogik. 5 volumes, Langensalza 1928–33 (10th edition, Frankfurt am Main 1988; online ).
  • Walter Thys (Ed.): A Landsturmmann in Heaven. Flanders and the First World War in HN's letters to his wife. Leipzig 2005.
  • Herman Nohl's writings and articles in the Nazi era. Documents 1933-1945 . Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main 2008.


  • Jürg Blickenstorfer: Education in Crisis. Hermeneutic study, with a focus on Nohl, Spranger, Litt during the Weimar Republic. Klinkhardt, Rieden 1998, ISBN 3-7815-0934-6 .
  • Herbert E. Colla [et al.]: Handbook of home education and foster care in Europe. Luchterhand, Neuwied 1999, ISBN 3-472-02339-2 .
  • Elisabeth Blochmann : Herman Nohl in the educational movement of his time 1879–1960. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1969.
  • Karl DienstHerman Nohl. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 6, Bautz, Herzberg 1993, ISBN 3-88309-044-1 , Sp. 991-993.
  • Peter Dudek: A life in the shadows. Johannes and Herman Nohl: Two German Careers in Contrast. Klinkhardt, Heilbrunn 2004, ISBN 3-7815-1374-2 .
  • Hermann Giesecke: The educational relationship. Educational professionalism and the emancipation of the child. Juventa, Weinheim 1997, ISBN 3-7799-1041-1 .
  • Michael Gran: The relationship between Herman Nohl's pedagogy and National Socialism. A reconstruction of their political content. Kovac, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-8300-1857-6 .
  • Michael Hoch: On the importance of Herman Nohl's “pedagogical reference” for the formation of the identity of young people in postmodernism. A reflection on the philosophy of education. Ergon, Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-89913-429-X .
  • Dorle Klika: Herman Nohl. Its “pedagogical reference” in theory, biography and practical action. Böhlau, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-412-10799-9 .
  • Karl-Christoph Lingelbach: Upbringing and upbringing theories in National Socialist Germany. dipa-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1987, ISBN 3-7638-0806-X .
  • Damian Miller: Herman Nohl's “theory” of pedagogical reference. A work analysis (= explorations. 33). Peter Lang, Bern 2002, ISBN 3-906767-51-5 .
  • Wolfgang Klafki , Johanna-Luise Brockmann: Humanities Education and National Socialism. Herman Nohl and his “Göttingen School” 1932–1937. Beltz, Weinheim 2002.
  • Kai Arne Linnemann: The collection of the middle and the change of the citizen. In: Manfred Hettling, Bernd Ulrich (eds.): Bürgertum nach 1945. Hamburger Edition, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-936096-50-3 , pp. 185-220.
  • Stefanie Mauder: The importance of “historicity” for humanities education. Marburg 2006.
  • Eva Matthes : Humanities education after the Nazi era. Political and educational attempts at processing. Heilbrunn 1998, ISBN 3-7815-0926-5 (complete list of publications after 1945; readable in google books).
  • Eva Matthes:  Nohl, Herman. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 19, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-428-00200-8 , p. 323 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Jürgen Oelkers, Tobias Rülcker (ed.): Political reform pedagogy. Lang, Bern [et al.] 1998, ISBN 3-906759-14-8 .
  • Benjamin Ortmeyer: Herman Nohl's writings and articles in the Nazi era; Documents 1933–1945 (= documentation ad fontes. II). Frankfurt am Main 2008, DNB 989987450 , p. 596.
  • Reinhard Uhle: Wilhelm Dilthey. An educational portrait. Beltz, Weinheim 2003, ISBN 3-407-25272-2 .

See also

Web links


  1. See in particular: Peter Dudek: A life in the shadow. Johannes and Hermann Nohl - two German careers in contrast.
  2. See Blickenstorfer: Pedagogy in the Crisis. P. 27.
  3. ^ A b Nohl: The educational movement in Germany and its theory. P. 12.
  4. ^ Giesecke: The educational relationship. Educational professionalism and the emancipation of the child. P. 220.
  5. ^ Nohl: Pedagogical essays. P. 112.
  6. Karl-Christoph Lingelbach: Upbringing and theories of upbringing in National Socialist Germany. Frankfurt am Main 1987, p. 34 f.
  7. Quoted from Uhle: Wilhelm Dithey. P. 69.
  8. ^ Nohl: The educational movement in Germany and its theory. P. 119.
  9. See Nohl: Jugendwohlfahrt. Socio-educational lectures. P. 102.
  10. See Nohl: Jugendwohlfahrt. Socio-educational lectures. P. 52.
  11. a b Cf. Colla et al .: Handbook of Home Education and Foster Childcare in Europe. P. 347f.
  12. ^ Nohl in: Handbook of Pedagogy. Vol. 1, p. 21.
  13. Cf. Colla et al .: Handbook of Home Education and Foster Childcare in Europe. P. 348.
  14. ^ Nohl in: Handbook of Pedagogy. Vol. 1, p. 22.
  15. a b Nohl in: Handbuch der Pädagogik. Vol. 1, p. 23.
  16. ^ Nohl: Pedagogy from thirty years. P. 152.
  17. Cf. Colla et al .: Handbook of Home Education and Foster Childcare in Europe. P. 349.
  18. ^ Nohl in: Handbook of Pedagogy. Vol. 1, p. 25.
  19. Cf. Colla et al .: Handbook of Home Education and Foster Childcare in Europe. P. 350.
  20. ^ Nohl: The educational movement in Germany and its theory. P. 128.
  21. ^ Nohl: Pedagogy from thirty years. P. 152.
  22. Nohl: Character and Fate. An educational understanding of the human being. P. 16.
  23. Cf. Nohl: Pedagogy from thirty years. P. 114.
  24. a b See Giesecke: The pedagogical relationship. Educational professionalism and the emancipation of the child. P. 226.
  25. ^ Nohl: Pedagogy from thirty years. P. 157.
  26. a b cf. Nohl: Pedagogy from thirty years. P. 154.
  27. See Nohl: Pedagogical essays. P. 113.
  28. ^ Nohl: Handbook of Pedagogy. P. 21.
  29. Klafki: The educational relationship. In: Funk-Kolleg Educational Science. P. 61.
  30. ^ Nohl: Pedagogical essays. P. 120.
  31. ^ Nohl: The educational movement in Germany and its theory. P. 127.
  32. Karl-Christoph Lingelbach: Upbringing and theories of upbringing in National Socialist Germany. Frankfurt am Main 1987, p. 157.
  33. ^ Herman Nohl: Land Movement, Osthilfe and the task of pedagogy. Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1933, p. 95.
  34. Jürgen Oelkers, Tobias Rülcker: Political Reform Pedagogy . Lang, Bern 1998.
  35. ^ Herman Nohl: Land Movement, Osthilfe and the task of pedagogy. Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1933, p. 43.
  36. ^ Herman Nohl: Land Movement, Osthilfe and the task of pedagogy. Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1933, p. 84.
  37. Hans-Christian Harten: De-culturalization and Germanization. The National Socialist Race and Education Policy in Poland 1939–1945. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 1996, p. 54 ff.
  38. ^ Herman Nohl: Land Movement, Osthilfe and the task of pedagogy. Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1933, p. 41.
  39. Nohl: Character and Fate. P. 163.
  40. Michael Gran: The relationship between Herman Nohl's pedagogy and National Socialism: A reconstruction of its political content (= series of publications on education - teaching - education, 117). Kovač, Hamburg 2005, pp. 94–99.