Social control is a term that the American sociologist Edward Alsworth Ross introduced in 1896 with an article in the American Journal of Sociology as social control .
In contrast to the more diffuse term “social influence ”, “social control” includes the deliberate control of the individual by the group , in the broader sense the intended rule of society over the individual. A more recent definition includes “those processes and mechanisms with the help of which a society tries to induce its members to behave that are positively assessed within the framework of this society”. A distinction is made between two forms of social control: internal control (internalization of social norms , especially through socialization ) and external control (negative and positive sanctions the "other").
The theoretical concept of social control comprises processes and structures that are intended to restrict or prevent behavior that deviates from the norms of a society or a social group . Family, schools, churches, businesses, associations, institutions of justice and social work function as media and institutions of social control. Their means range from communication (recognition, encouragement, criticism, reprimand) and sanctions to exclusion . The goal is the production of behavioral conformity in accordance with the norms and values of the majority.
Social control in public space
In addition to personal, mutual social control, modern forms are increasingly emerging:
- Social control through video surveillance
- Social control as a service ( security services )
- Social control through telematics box ( synonyms : black box; accident data storage ) in the car
- Social control through fitness bracelets
- Social control towards delivery van drivers: sticker “You don't like my driving style?” With the employer's telephone number
- Social control on the internet:
- Social control in China: Chinese people are rated with a “Citizen Score”. Social life , shopping and social media activities are included in a rating that is used for issuing exit permits.
"In the most fundamental terms, 'social control' referred to the capacity of a society to regulate itself according to desired principles and values."
- Michel Foucault : Monitoring and Punishing . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main (new edition 2007, ISBN 3-518-38771-5 )
- RT LaPiere : A Theory of Social Control . New York 1954.
- Edward A. Ross: Social Control . In: American Journal of Sociology , 1896, 1 (5), pp. 513-535, doi : 10.1086 / 210551 , JSTOR 2761903 .
- Edward A. Ross: Social Control: A Survey of the Foundations of Order , New York 1901 (new edition 2009, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 978-1-4128-1028-9 )
- Tobias Singelnstein / Peer Stolle: The security company. Social Control in the 21st Century . 2nd edition, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 3-531-15478-8
- Irving Kenneth Zola : Medicine as an institution of social control . In: Sociological Review , 1972, 20 (4), pp. 487-504, doi : 10.1111 / j.1467-954X.1972.tb00220.x
- Social Control , Criminology Lexicon Online (KrimLEX), Chair for Criminology and Police Science at the Ruhr University Bochum, Institute for Criminology at the University of Tübingen
- Social control in the "dictionary of social policy"
- ↑ Werner Fuchs-Heinritz et al. (Ed.): Lexicon for Sociology. 3. Edition. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1994, p. 368.
- ^ Association for the promotion of public moving and still data traffic, collection of materials
- ↑ Information on spatial development, video surveillance in public spaces - the example of Coventry , issue 1 / 2.2003
- ↑ Social problems, suspicious behavior and automated social control: "intelligent" video surveillance for the detection of motor vehicle crimes , by Robert Rothmann and Stefan Vogtenhuber, Volume 24, 2013, Issue 2
- ^ Socialnet.de, Social Problems and Social Control , by Helge Peters, 2002
- ^ FAZ, Motor Insurance Revolution , January 13, 2014
- ↑ taz, Just good at the beginning , January 3, 2014
- ↑ a b Digital deprivation of liberty , March 18, 2015
- ↑ Wired, "Citizen Score": China Evaluates Its Citizens and Their Lifestyles , October 7, 2015
- ↑ Spectrum, Digital Democracy Instead of Data Dictatorship , December 17, 2015
- ^ Morris Jannowitz: Sociological Theory and Social Control . In: American Journal of Sociology , 81st vol., H. 1, 1975, p. 82.