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The term coaching is used as a collective term for different consulting methods (individual coaching, team coaching, project coaching). In contrast to classic consulting, the coach does not provide direct suggestions for solutions, but accompanies the development of your own solutions. Coaching describes structured discussions between a coach and a coachee (client) e.g. B. on questions of everyday professional life (leadership, communication and cooperation). The goals of these conversations range from assessing and developing personal skills and perspectives to suggestions for self-reflection and overcoming conflicts with employees, colleagues or superiors. The coach acts as a neutral, critical interlocutor and, depending on the goal, uses methods from the entire spectrum of personnel and managerial development.

Origin of the term

The word "coach" originally means " carriage " and has been recorded in the English language since 1556. Since 1848, a slang use of the term for private tutors for students has been observed, in the sporting field the word has been used in England and the USA since 1885. Coaching is currently defined in English as follows:

"Coaching refers to guidance and feedback about specific knowledge, skills, and abilities involved in a task. (Coaching refers to the guidance and feedback on specific knowledge, skills and abilities for a particular task.) "

- Bernard. M. Bass : The Bass Handbook of Leadership, Theory, Research & Managerial Applications. 4th edition. New York 2008, p. 1091

Differentiation from psychotherapy

According to Christian Reimer and co-authors, psychotherapy has only broken away from the corner of belief systems and denominations over the last two decades and has increasingly developed into a scientifically founded healing treatment. Some findings and methods were able to demonstrate an effect in terms of success in both psychotherapy and coaching (see also psychotherapy research ). These so-called impact factors include:

  • Resource activation: the therapist or counselor explains to the client his positive possibilities, peculiarities, abilities and motivations so that he becomes aware of his strengths.
  • Problem update: the conversation is designed in such a way that the client e.g. B. Relived problematic or stressful experiences and emotions in the session. The coach (or therapist) puts these into words and makes them "tangible" and solvable.
  • Support in actively coping with problems: here the client first experiences in conversation that he is able to cope with upcoming challenges or problems on his own which previously appeared to him to be unsolvable. Then he can and should try out problem solutions with increasing difficulty independently in practice.
  • Motivational clarification: the therapist or counselor helps the client to see his conscious or unconscious motives, goals and values ​​more clearly. This promotes an understanding of why the patient behaves and feels this way and not differently.

Maja Storch and Frank Krause describe the demarcation between psychotherapy and coaching with the words: “ We ask those specialists who would like to use ZRM ( Zurich Resource Model , d. V.) in counseling or coaching to replace these terms mentally. Instead of 'psychotherapy' one can think of 'counseling', 'training' or 'coaching', instead of 'patient' we recommend 'client'. "

In contrast, Rolf Winiarski differentiates between counseling and therapy clients. In the case of counseling, the level of suffering, motivation for long-term changes and the client's awareness of the problem are significantly lower. For psychotherapy, on the other hand, targeted change work on emotional problem reactions with 10 to 60 hours, i.e. a long-term therapeutic relationship, is characteristic.

Both in psychotherapy and in coaching, the personal relationship between advisor and client is particularly important for success. It should be based on the principles of trust, appreciation, authenticity, empathy, care and interest. Also, compliments are very important. As a result, patients rate their counselor or therapist as people (and thus also the therapy) as very positive. As a rule, they come to counseling when the peak of their problems has already been reached (so they would have improved anyway). They also believe that the therapy (by an expert) contributed to the improvement, especially since it was very expensive ( placebo effect ). For these reasons, it is doubtful whether coaching has any effect that goes beyond that of an intensive conversation with good friends or people you trust with common sense.

The impact factors (including personal relationships) are similar in psychotherapy, coaching and other counseling and training methods, but there are also significant differences. The decisive question is whether a coach can deal with these influencing factors and has mastered the necessary diagnostic tools. A professional diagnosis of pathological behavior is difficult even for professionals ( psychological therapists or psychiatrists ). Incorrect diagnosis can cause significant human and financial damage. For this reason, Klaas-Hinrich Lammers recommends consulting a specialist first. In the case of business or executive coaching, the focus is on the development of management skills with the corresponding special features (see section “Coaching in Management”).

Basic information on the effectiveness of coaching

Künzli (2005) examines 22 empirical studies and finds effects such as emotional relief, stress reduction, change of perspective and increased self-reflection. The key factors for positive results are the relationship of trust between coach and client and the commitment of the client. According to Greif, there are so far only two studies that can demonstrate objectifiable improvements in performance and behavior. In addition, there are hardly any theories to describe and explain the coaching process and its effects.

There is a risk of charlatanism in this area because there is no consensus on training standards and quality criteria, and there is no state-recognized or scientifically-based coaching training. The demand for certifications as proof of quality in order to differentiate oneself from competitors in the market led to initiatives and offers from over 20 coaching associations in Germany. However, this did not solve the problem of self-certification (see the criticism section). In countries like France or Great Britain there is only one or two such associations. The situation is not fundamentally different in the USA.


Professional and professional associations such as the German Association for Coaching and Training , the German Coaching Association eV, the German Federal Coaching Association and the German Association for Coaching in Germany and, at the international level, the International Coach Federation and the Worldwide Association of, strive for quality assurance and professionalization Business coaches .

Coaching in different areas

Coaching in the medical field

An example in the medical field relates to patients with coronary heart disease. The aim of the randomized controlled study with 245 patients was to find out whether coaching patients is suitable for reaching a certain cholesterol level. Result: The coaching contributed to closing the gap between the recommended and the actual therapy ('treatment gap'). The authors: “ The effectiveness of the coaching intervention is best explained by both adherence to drug therapy and to dietary advice given. “With the coaching, the patients were trained to take more responsibility for the implementation of the therapy goals. The coach was an expert in treating patients with coronary heart disease. The coaching took place over the phone. The patients were expected to know their cholesterol levels and regularly carry out a target / actual comparison. It was also checked whether they knew the factors influencing their cholesterol levels and when to consult their doctor. From this case the authors derive a coaching cycle. This consists of five steps.

  1. Asking questions and checking whether the patient has the necessary knowledge, attitude and motivation.
  2. Explanation of the connections (causes and effects) that are necessary to solve the problem.
  3. Strengthening the patient's self-confidence for better communication with the doctor.
  4. Clear objectives (target agreement).
  5. Re-evaluate the objectives and measures at the next meeting.
  6. Ask questions again (back to step 1).

With this coaching approach the willpower of the clients is trained. There are similar examples from pain therapy and from numerous other indications. The decisive factor for the success of the treatment is not only the problem-specific approach (coaching cycle), but above all the specialist knowledge about the therapy of diseases and how to increase the willpower of patients.

Management coaching

In management one can essentially distinguish four variants:

While executive coaching (or management coaching) aims to improve management skills, the central concern of leadership coaching is the development of high potentials ( leadership development ).

Best Practice in Leadership Development

An evaluation of 49 studies on leadership coaching by Katherine Ely, Lisa Boyce and co-authors as well as an exploratory study on the effectiveness of various leadership coaching programs by Gro Ladegard and Susann Gjerde showed that the central concern of effective coaching measures is a measurable change of the behavior of the coachees. According to the results of these studies, this change in behavior cannot be achieved through traditional training courses, seminars or outdoor training. The coaching process must include the following steps: (1) The most objective possible assessment of the actual skills with the help of validated test procedures and the use of several sources of information, such as is the case with 360-degree feedback. (2) Critical challenge of the coachee with regard to the extent to which his current skills differ from the competencies that are necessary for his personal and professional goals and for the implementation of strategic company goals. (3) Joint development of measures to develop future-relevant competencies, with the focus on action learning , because around 70 percent of learning (of competences) takes place through practice (new tasks and areas of responsibility, projects, etc.) 20 percent through role models (superiors, friends, colleagues, etc.) and only 10 percent through seminars, magazines, books, etc. Finally (4) it is important to evaluate the results (the success) of a coaching measure in order to find opportunities for improvement derive. This measurement of the results includes, on the one hand, the performance (e.g. productivity and profitability) and the behavioral change in competencies, which have been operationalized through concrete behavioral descriptions and thus made measurable. The success control should take place after one to two years. The graphic opposite is intended to summarize these aspects.

Coaching to improve performance is used when an employee does not perform well (for reasons that are often unknown). This is a process that begins with the analysis of the individual's performance and aims to find ways and means of improvement. In practice, this often takes place in a conversation between the superior, the person concerned and an (internal) expert from personnel development. One approach is to compare personality and competence profiles with corresponding individual training and development measures.

It is often demanded that managers should practice a management style as a coach. However, this is just a new word (buzzword) for the traditional concept of relationship or person-oriented leadership. According to this concept, the manager shows less directing and more supportive behavior. He advises his employees on problems, crises or special challenges. At the same time, it specifically promotes certain skills. When it comes to the effectiveness of the personal leadership style, there is no convincing evidence that it leads to better results (e.g., more productivity).

In executive coaching , the coach acts as a personal advisor to the superior. As a rule, management positions are associated with numerous tensions and conflicts. In addition, managers often lack opportunities to talk to people they trust about both their leadership problems and business challenges. A suitably qualified coach can help to work through problems, open up new perspectives and develop new skills.

There is also another aspect: the higher a manager rises in the hierarchy, the less honest feedback he receives, although feedback is particularly important in top positions. Gary Yukl notes: "Having a coach provides the unusual opportunity to discuss issues and try out ideas with someone who can understand them and provide helpful, objective feedback and suggestions, while maintaining strict confidentiality". A so-called consulting relationship between manager and coach is very helpful, as it usually requires structured discussions (see section on coaching).

Coaching for the development of competencies , in particular leadership skills, pursues the primary goal of increasing the effectiveness of leadership (leadership culture) and thus increasing the performance and motivation of employees. An example of the measurement of the success of coaching measures is the calculation of a coaching return ( ROI ) by Dianna and Merryl Anderson. The authors carried out a cost-benefit calculation and determined an ROI of 51 percent (without taking into account the intangible benefits such as greater customer satisfaction, lower error rate, etc.).

The decisive factor for the effectiveness of the development of competencies (the learning success) is not the form of learning (coaching, training, counseling, therapy, etc.), but the validity and reliability of the concepts and methods used. If, for example, invalid competency or leadership models are used, the effectiveness of coaching is questionable because it is not possible to derive practical recommendations from invalid or unreliable diagnostic instruments and models. An example of a validated concept is the model of transformational leadership , which has proven in numerous empirical studies that the recommendations from it can actually increase the company's success and the intrinsic motivation of employees. An example of increasing the effectiveness of a coaching or training measure is the 360 ° feedback , which can be carried out before and after a coaching measure to assess its effectiveness.

As a rule, a coach in management is expected to be taken seriously as a conversation partner "on an equal footing". This assumes that he has in-depth practical experience with both "soft" and "hard" management skills and is able to use valid diagnostic and development tools. A coach is not a teacher, advisor, preacher, problem solver, comforter or confessor, but a partner in overcoming entrepreneurial challenges and problems. It is still not the form of learning (coaching, training, etc.) that is decisive, but the content.

Coaching in competitive sports

In competitive sports, high performance should be achieved in competition. For this purpose, training is planned that is monitored by a trainer . This trainer is often referred to as a coach (as in American English) . In addition, various coaching methods are offered for the psychological support of high-performance athletes. In a qualitative study in handball it was found that the coaches

  • Give handball-specific instructions,
  • Motivate players,
  • Control emotions,
  • Demand player communication.

Philosophical Practice (Philosophical Coaching)

As a philosophical practices refers to a form of life coaching, in Germany since about the 1980s can be observed years. The process of differentiation and finding a common self-image are not yet complete, which makes a definition difficult and provisional. Odo Marquard's definition in the Historical Dictionary of Philosophy is classic : “ Gerd B. Achenbach coined the term PP in 1981 ...: by PP he understands the professionally operated philosophical life counseling that takes place in the practice of a philosopher. ... It does not prescribe any philosopheme, it does not give any philosophical insight, but it sets thinking in motion: philosophizes.

The coaching conversation

Figure: How does a coaching conversation work?

Coaching conversations can be very different. Nevertheless, some common characteristics and goals can be identified in both psychotherapy and management. The main concern is to enable the “client” to organize himself through feedback, training and advice (principle of self-control ). This includes the steps of autonomous goal setting, independent planning and organization up to self-control (result and progress control) with regard to the implementation of the self-set goals ( implementation competence ). The graphic opposite shows a summary example of how such a coaching conversation can take place. It is based on the concept of self-regulation , which Frederick Kanfer , among others, developed into self-management therapy .


Lack of objective evidence of the effectiveness of coaching

Most previous studies on the effectiveness of coaching measures are based on surveys of those involved. Because of the placebo effect described above and the personal relationship, reliable (valid) statements about the effectiveness of coaching measures are problematic. Useful recommendations for practice can only be derived from valid and reliable findings. Two examples from David Myers on this problem. In a survey of 2,900 clients in the USA who had undergone psychological therapy, around 90 percent of those questioned stated that they were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with this measure (“fairly well satisfied”). So much for the subjective view. Because of the placebo effect described above and the effect of the personal relationship (see section “Differentiation from psychotherapy”), a second study was carried out with 500 male children and adolescents aged 5 to 13 years. All subjects were considered to be at risk of crime. The group was randomly split in half. One received a psychological treatment program for five years and the other half none. After 30 years, 485 of these people have been identified and re-examined. The result: 66 percent of the (psychologically treated) intervention group had no previous convictions. In the (psychologically untreated) control group, however, it was 70 percent. The untreated group also had fewer problems in general, such as alcohol and drug addiction, and were more satisfied with their work. The fact that almost the same "improvement" occurred in both the intervention and the control group may be due to the fact that it was not the therapy, but simply the time of the "healer" (and not the personal relationship) .

The example shows that a subjective assessment of a therapy or a coaching measure is not sufficient when it comes to assessing the actual (objective) benefit. Impact studies should therefore follow the principle of randomized controlled trials , such as those carried out by Richard Kravitz and co-authors for coaching cancer patients who suffered from severe pain. Methodologically comparable studies on the effects of life, executive or business coaching could not be found in scientific databases so far (September 2012). In view of the unmanageable abundance of advisory, training, teaching, discussion and training methods that are subsumed under the term coaching, a general, scientifically founded statement about the effectiveness of coaching seems hardly possible and makes little sense. From a scientific point of view, the effectiveness can only be proven for individual (validated) methods and concepts. Examples are presented in the sections “Coaching in the medical field” and “Coaching in management”.

Lack of operationalization

The term coaching is often used in an arbitrary and contradicting manner. For example, some providers claim that coaching is solution-oriented advice, while others explicitly exclude advice. A frequent formulation says that coaching is an "accompaniment" or "support" for the client, with whom the client should find a problem solution himself. The terms “accompaniment” and “support” remain so vague that it is not possible to see which specific methods are behind them. Particularly noticeable is the widespread use of flowery phrases such as “professional advice format” or “ongoing partnership on process level” or “interactive, process-oriented advice and support process”. What coaches actually do is revealed by a scientifically sound study by Joyce Bono and co-authors. These include: learning new skills, stress , conflict and time management , mentoring , planning, delegation, motivation of employees, 360 ° feedback, etc. Conclusion: In practice, coaching is a colorful buzzword for traditional learning, training and consulting activities. The lowest common denominator of all of these approaches is diagnosis. If (learning) goals are agreed, a coach (as well as a consultant, trainer or therapist) creates a diagnosis of the client's current situation - similar to the diagnosis in psychological counseling . The diagnosis includes the assessment of his performance, his emotional state, his competencies and other, not directly observable characteristics. The instruments used include anamnesis, interviews, observations, assessments and tests.

That does not speak in favor of avoiding the term coaching; Rather, it is important to note that potential clients and people who want to invest in coaching training should carefully find out how this training differs from other training courses in terms of content, methodology and quality in the areas of training, pedagogy, counseling, psychology, There is a specific distinction between management, personnel and organizational development. Information on the quality of vocational training is provided by the level of aspiration that justifies a certain financial and time investment (price-performance ratio). See the classification of professions 2010 of the Federal Employment Agency and the figure below for the coaching definition.

No scientifically based methods

If one analyzes the curricula of the associations or in associations of affiliated providers, the spectrum ranges from "active listening" to neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) to psychotherapeutic treatment methods. The Psychotherapists Act requires that in order to practice the profession of psychological or medical psychotherapist, a license to practice as a psychotherapist or doctor and the specialist knowledge in one or more scientifically recognized psychotherapeutic procedures must be acquired. Psychological psychotherapists for adults must have completed a degree in psychology that includes the subject of clinical psychology and demonstrate additional training in at least one recognized therapy method in accordance with the psychotherapy guideline in order to acquire the license to practice medicine and specialist knowledge. Medical psychotherapists have to acquire specialist knowledge in a scientifically recognized psychotherapy procedure after having received their medical license to practice in additional training lasting several years. Evidence of qualification to practice this profession is regulated by the medical associations or by the " Psychotherapists Act ". This also clarifies what is to be understood by the term “professional”, at least in relation to psychotherapists. This note seems particularly important because many coaches and associations claim " professionalism " for themselves and thus give the impression that a "trained" coach has a qualification that is comparable to that of a doctor, lawyer or tax advisor.

A frequent method in coaching in Germany is NLP, a scientifically extremely controversial method that so far - apart from a few very special individual cases - has not been able to prove any significant benefit (see article Neuro-Linguistic Programming ). Some scientists even go so far as to call this "method" pseudoscientific nonsense (see the article in the English language Wikipedia with numerous literature sources on this topic). Furthermore, according to the empirical study by Joyce Bono and co-authors, there are mostly instruments from the assessment center such as interviews with clients, their superiors, colleagues or family members, plus personality, motivation and aptitude tests, superiors assessments, role plays, performance assessments , Behavior analysis and training, as well as numerous other methods for developing social skills. Conclusion: methodically, coaching as it is actually practiced includes both counseling and therapy and training or supervision . The boundaries are fluid. This also applies to the number of clients. In counseling and therapy, face-to-face conversation dominates, while several participants are the rule during training or supervision. In qualitative or professional terms, coaching encompasses a spectrum that ranges from amateurism (e.g. "soul coach") to psychotherapeutic treatment (see the graphic opposite and the sources given there). So far, the coaching industry (and the coaching associations) has not succeeded in establishing scientifically sound, reliable and valid methods in coaching training that are accredited by state or independent bodies. There are no such minimum quality requirements, as are customary in numerous other training courses and professions, in coaching.

Coaching definition method training

Doubts about the seriousness through "self-certifications"

Because of the unmanageable and confusing variety of descriptions of the term coaching, Joyce Bono and Jennifer Wenson as well as a survey by the Harvard Business School in collaboration with the Harvard Medical School have empirically investigated what a coach actually does in practice. In the Harvard study, 140 "leading" coaches were interviewed and five experts were asked to comment. Here are a few results: An executive coach makes between $ 200 and $ 3,500 an hour. This investment appears appropriate to the client if the coach brings the corresponding benefit for the organization.

The three most important reasons for the engagement of a coach are: (1.) Development of competences (high-performing) high potentials (specialists and executives) to support the (ever faster) change in companies. 48 percent of the respondents said this was their first priority. A coach should (2.) also act as a sounding board to ensure that high potentials and managers increase their effectiveness through a realistic assessment of their skills and performance (26 percent). Finally (3.) a coach should help to identify inappropriate or disruptive behavior and to develop suggested solutions and suitable training measures (12 percent). In only three percent of the cases, personal topics were the goal of the coaching (for example work-life balance ), although these areas are difficult to separate in practice.

The authors come to the conclusion: “Coaching as a business tool continues to gain legitimacy, but the fundamentals of the industry are in flux. In this market, as in so many others today, the old saw applies: Buyer beware! “Coaching is an expensive and time-consuming measure; in addition, the originally agreed focus of the consultation often changes on topics that have little to do with the original task. Companies should therefore request regular progress and results reports - even if results cannot be measured directly. A frequent dependency on the coach should also be prevented so that the manager does not have to ask his coach or therapist before making any decision.

When asked which qualifications companies pay particular attention to when they hire a coach, experiences in similar cases were mentioned first. This was the most important criterion for 65 percent of the respondents. In second place (61 percent) comes a clear methodology: "If a prospective coach can't tell you exactly what methodology he uses - what he does and what outcomes you can expect - show him the door". And in third place come references: 50 percent of those surveyed considered this to be the most important selection criterion. Only 29 percent of those surveyed thought certification and 13 percent psychological training necessary. There is a problem with the credibility of the coaching industry because of the bewildering variety of certifications, the widespread practice of "self-certification" and the many cases of charlatanism. For this reason, accreditation is recommended instead of certification , as it has contributed to quality assurance in other areas of society.


German-language scientific literature

  • Bernhard Grimmer, Marius Neukorn: Coaching and Psychotherapy. Similarities and differences - demarcation or integration. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-531-16603-2
  • FH Kanfer, H. Reinecker, D. Schmelzer: Self-management therapy: a textbook for clinical practice. 4th edition. Springer Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-25276-2 .
  • Eric D. Lippmann : Coaching - Applied Psychology for Counseling Practice. 2nd Edition. Springer, Heidelberg 2009, ISBN 978-3-540-88951-9 .
  • Harlich H. Stavemann: Socratic conversation in therapy and counseling. Beltz, PVU, Weinheim / Basel 2007, ISBN 978-3-621-27598-9 .

English-language scientific literature

Other sources

  • Klaus Werle: The shallows of the coaching scene. In: Manager Magazin . April 24, 2007. (online)
  • Karin Nachbar: The coaching boom. to: (advice and information center funded by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia)

Individual evidence

  1. coaching. In: Dorsch: Lexicon of Psychology.
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  4. ^ Christian Reimer, Jochen Eckert, Martin Hautzinger, Eberhard Wilke: Psychotherapy. 3. Edition. Heidelberg 2007, pp. 15 and 25 f.
  5. Christian Reimer et al: Psychotherapy. 2007, p. 25 f.
  6. ^ Rainer M. Holm-Hadulla: Integrative Psychotherapy. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, 2017.
  7. Maja Storch, Frank Krause: Self-management - resource-oriented. 4th edition. Zurich 2007.
  8. Rolf Winiarski: The patient seeking advice: cognitive advice in outpatient clinics and clinics. In: Harlich H. Stavemann: KVT practice. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition. Basel 2008, p. 448.
  9. Claas-Hinrich Lammers, Emotion-related Psychotherapy, Hamburg 2008, p. 123 ff.
  10. Luc Isebaert: Short-term therapy. Stuttgart 2005, p. 32 f.
  11. ^ David G. Myers : Psychology. 9th edition. New York 2010, p. 651.
  12. .
  13. Luc Isebaert: Short-term therapy. Stuttgart 2005.
  14. ^ Claas-Hinrich Lammers: Emotion-related psychotherapy. Stuttgart 2008.
  15. H. Künzli: Effectiveness research in executive coaching. In: OSC Organizational Consulting - Supervision - Coaching. 3/2005, pp. 231-244.
  16. ^ H. Künzli: Impact research for executive coaching. In: Organizational Consulting, Supervision, Coaching. 16 (1), 2009.
  17. S. Greif: The hardest research results on coaching success. In: Coaching magazine. 3/2008.
  18. ^ W. Pelz: Systemic coaching and systemic advice: A critical analysis. THM Business School, Giessen 2016, p. 3 (online)
  19. Klaus Werle: The hour of the charlatans. In: Manager magazine. Issue 3/2007.
  20. ^ Stratford Sherman, Alyssa Freas: The Wild West of Executive Coaching. In: Harvard Business Review. November 2004.
  21. German Coaching Association e. V. (DCV) - Quality in coaching. Retrieved October 29, 2019 (German).
  22. German Federal Association of Coaching e. V. Accessed July 10, 2018
  23. Society for Coaching e. V. Accessed July 10, 2018.
  24. Margarite Vale et al .: Coaching patients with coronary heart disease to achieve the target cholesterol. In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 55, 2002, pp. 245-252.
  25. ibid, p. 254.
  26. ibid, p. 246.
  27. ibid, p. 247.
  28. see for example J.-P. Broonen et al .: Is volition the missing link in the management of low back pain? In: Joint bone spine revue du rhumatisme. Vol. 78, 2011, or Jack B. Nitschke, Kristen L. Mackiewicz: Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Contributions to Volition. In: International Review of Neurobiology. Volume 67, 2005.
  29. Waldemar Pelz: The 360-degree feedback for the recognition and development of high potentials. In: Joachim Sauer, Alexander Cisik: In Germany the wrong ones lead. how companies need to change. Helios Media, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-942263-26-9 .
  30. ^ Katherine Ely, Lisa Boyce et al.: Evaluating leadership coaching: A review and integrated framework. In: The Leadership Quarterly. 21, 2010, pp. 585-599.
  31. Gro Ladegard, Susann Gjerde: Leadership coaching, leader role-efficacy, and trust in subordinates. A mixed methods study assessing leadership coaching as a leadership development tool. In: The Leadership Quarterly. 25, 2014, pp. 631-646.
  32. ^ Michael M. Lombardo, Robert W. Eichinger: Career Architect Development Planner. 4th edition. Lominger International, 2004.
  33. Pierce Howard, Jane Howard: Leading with the Big Five. Frankfurt / New York 2002.
  34. ^ A b Horst Steinmann , Georg Schreyögg : Management. 6th edition. Wiesbaden 2005, p. 658.
  35. ^ Paul Michelman: Do You Need an Executive Coach? In: Harvard Management Update. December 2004.
  36. Gary Yukl: Leadership in Organizations. 8th edition. Upper Saddle River / New Jersey 2013, p. 378.
  37. For the various relationships and conversation techniques, see: Luc Isebaert: Kurzzeittherapie. Stuttgart 2005 as well as Christian Reimer, Jochen Eckert, Martin Hautzinger, Eberhard Wilke: Psychotherapy. 3. Edition. Heidelberg 2007.
  38. ^ Harvard Business School Press, Closing Gaps and Improving Performance: The Basics of Coaching. Boston, Massachusetts, p. 5.
  39. Dianna and Merryl Anderson: Coaching That Counts: Harnessing the Power of Leadership Coaching to Deliver Strategic Value (Improving Human Performance). Elsevier, Burlington 2005, p. 227.
  40. ^ David G. Myers : Psychology. New York 2010.
  41. H.-J. Fisseni: textbook of psychological diagnostics. 3. Edition. Göttingen 2004, p. 46 ff.
  42. See, inter alia, John Barbuto: Motivation and Transactional, Charismatic, and Transformational Leadership: A Test of Antecedents. In: Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. Vol. 11, No. 5, 2005 and Vicki Batson et al .: Implementing Transformational Leadership and Nurse Manager Support Through Copaching. In: Perioperative Nursing Clinics. 4 2009.
  43. James Bartlett: Advances in coaching practices: A humanistic approach to couch and client roles. In: Journal of Business Research. 60, 2007 and Waldemar Pelz: The 360-degree feedback: popular, effective and objective - what is useful in assessing competencies and where the traps lurk. In: HR Today Special. 4/2011.
  44. ^ Katherine Ely: Evaluating leadership coaching: A review and integrated framework. In: The Leadership Quarterly. 21, 2010.
  45. Arnd Krüger : The job description of the trainer in sport. International comparative study and perspectives of trainer education and training in the Federal Republic of Germany. (= Series of publications by the Federal Institute for Sport Science. Volume 30). Hofmann, Schorndorf 1980, ISBN 3-7780-7311-7 .
  46. Petra Müssig: Success is a matter of the head - mastering sporting challenges. Stuttgart 2010.
  47. Alexander Bechthold: Coaching from a coach's point of view. In: competitive sport. 44, 2014, 2, 22-26.
  48. ^ O. Marquard: Practice, Philosophical.
  49. FH Kanfer, H. Reinecker, D. Schmelzer: Self-management therapy: A textbook for clinical practice. 4th edition. Heidelberg 2006; K. Vohs, R. Baumeister: Handbook of Self-Regulation. 2nd Edition. New York 2011; W. Pelz: Competent leadership. Wiesbaden 2004, p. 254 ff. (Employee interview)
  50. ^ Katherine Ely et al.: Evaluating leadership coaching: A review and integrated framework. In: The Leadership Quarterly. Volume 21, Issue 4, 2010.
  51. ^ Douglas Hall et al.: What Really Happens in Executive Coaching. In: Organizational Dynamics. Vol. 27, Issue 3/1999 and Lauren Keller Johnson: Getting More from Executive Coaching. In: Harvard Management Update. 2007.
  52. ^ David Myers: Psychology. New York 2010.
  53. ^ Richard Kravitz et al .: Cancer Health Empowerment for Living withoup Pain: Effects fo a tailored education and coaching intervention on pain and impariment. In: Pain. 152, 2011.
  54. See: J. Gottlieb et al .: Generalization of skills through the addition of individualized coaching. In: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. Volume 12, Issue 3, 2005; and JM Kuijpers et al: An integrated professional development model for effective teaching. In: Teaching and Teacher Education. Volume 26, 2010.
  55. Joyce Bono et al: A Survery of Executive Coaching Practices. In: Personal Psychology. Vol. 62, 2009.
  56. ^ Ibid as well as Lauren Keller Johnson: Getting More From Executive Coaching. In: Harvard Management Update. 2007.
  57. Such claims can be found in coaching magazine , for example . 1/2011.
  58. Joyce Bono et al: A Survery of Executive Coaching Practices. In: Personal Psychology. Vol. 62, 2009.
  59. ^ Diane Coutu, Carol Kauffman: What Can Coaches Do for You? In: Harvard Business Review. January 2009.
  60. Coutu 2009, p. 92.
  61. ^ David Peterson: Does Your Coach Give You Value for Your Money? and Michael Maccoby: The Dangers of Dependence on Coaches. In: Coutu 2009, p. 94.
  62. ^ Anne Scoular: How to Pick a Coach? In: Coutu 2009, p. 96.
  63. Ibid