Marl

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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Marl
Marl
Map of Germany, position of the city of Marl highlighted

Coordinates: 51 ° 39 '  N , 7 ° 5'  E

Basic data
State : North Rhine-Westphalia
Administrative region : Muenster
Circle : Recklinghausen
Height : 70 m above sea level NHN
Area : 87.76 km 2
Residents: 84,067 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 958 inhabitants per km 2
Postcodes : 45768, 45770, 45772
Primaries : 02365, 02362, 02364
License plate : RE, CAS, GLA
Community key : 05 5 62 024
City structure: 11 districts

City administration address :
Creiler Platz
45765 Marl
Website : www.marl.de
Mayor : Werner Arndt ( SPD )
Location of the city of Marl in the Recklinghausen district
Bochum Bottrop Dortmund Essen Gelsenkirchen Herne Kreis Borken Kreis Coesfeld Kreis Unna Kreis Wesel Oberhausen Castrop-Rauxel Datteln Dorsten Gladbeck Haltern am See Herten Marl Oer-Erkenschwick Recklinghausen Waltropmap
About this picture
Logo of the city of Marl

Marl is a large district town in the northern Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia . With around 85,000 inhabitants, it is the second largest city in the district of Recklinghausen in the administrative district of Münster , according to the National Development Plan , a regional center and is part of the Rhine-Ruhr .

Even before it was granted city rights in 1936, today's large medium-sized town experienced a rapid economic and cultural rise and developed from a Westphalian village into almost a large city within 60 years . Even today, Marl is characterized by the chemical and mining industries and is home to the Marl Chemical Park, one of the largest chemical network locations in Europe. With the Auguste Victoria colliery , Marl was the third last hard coal mining town in Germany until 2015. Marl is known nationwide above all for the Grimme Institute located here .

geography

Marl districts and statistical districts

location

Marl is located on the southern edge of the Haard and the Hohe Mark-Westmünsterland nature park along the flowing transition from the Ruhr area to the Münsterland . The northern border mostly coincides with the course of the Lippe river . Around 60% of the urban area are fields, forest areas, bodies of water, parks and green spaces.

City structure

Marl is divided into the following districts, each preceded by a two-digit code (the number of residents on December 31, 2018 in brackets):

Panorama view of Marl. V. l. To the right: Marienhospital, Brassert district , "Lipper Höhe" stockpile, Marl chemical park , tax office , Park Hotel , City Hall , city theater, "Brinkfortsheide" stockpile, Tree Frog and West Living.

The districts are further subdivided into four to six statistical districts each , with Polsum there are only two and in the chemical zone there is no further subdivision. The districts beginning with 1 belonged to the former Marl office , all others belonged to the Recklinghausen office until 1926 .

Today's city districts and statistical districts have little to do with the old districts. They divide the city mainly according to segments and settlements that developed during industrialization in the 20th century and summarize special features in terms of settlement technology. For example, the center of the old Lenkerbeck farmers is not located in the Sinsen-Lenkerbeck district, but half in the Hüls-Nord and -Süd districts, as the western border of the district named after Lenkerbeck is the A 43 . Neither the eastern part of the historical Lenkerbeck nor the old town of Sinsen occupy more than half (7.685 of 14.444 km²) of this district, but the statistical district of Haard , which summarizes the forested area of ​​the Haard within the district.

Table overview

Statistical district

district

Area
[km²]
Residents

EW
/ km²
Location (within
coherence)

Remarks
City center 11 1.938 7680 3767 southwest center continuously built new city center; Segmentation through the railway line Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord-Marl Lippe (SW-NO) and Hervester Str./Willy-Brandt-Allee(NW–SO)
City center center 111 0.957 2589 2516 North and center City center with Marler Stern
City center west 112 0.229 1450 6192 southwest connects to 111 southwest of Hervester St.
City center east 113 0.218 1895 7720 southeast connects to 115 northeast of Willy-Brandt-Allee
Downtown Kreuzstrasse 114 0.534 1746 3354 extreme south separated by the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord – Marl Lippe (NW), B 225 (SW), Herzlia-Allee (O) and Willy-Brandt-Allee (NE) railway lines
Alt-Marl 12 12,450 9747 792 southwest Area around the center of the old farming community in Marl , southwest of the new town center; the populated part in the north is segmented in N – S direction by the Sauerbruch Canal and Barkhausstrasse and ends in the SE at the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord – Marl Lippe railway line ; the B 225 separates a southern part from the populated part and forms the settlement boundary further west; The northern border with Brassert is Hervester Street
Alt-Marl-Mitte 121 0.612 2426 3931 north Center of the old farming community in Marl
Alt-Marl-Ost 122 0.209 2037 9206 east The southern edge of the settlement area separated by the B 225 (NE) and the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord – Marl Lippe (NW) railway line
Alt-Marl-Volkspark 123 0.614 1083 1588 center Southern edge of the settlement area south of the B 225 and northwest of the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord – Marl Lippe railway with the Marl Park
Alt-Marl-Riegefeld 124 0.865 3447 3933 northwest of the center South-western edge of the settlement area, separated from 121 in the east by the Sauerbruch Canal
Alt-Marl-Frentrop 125 4,325 389 98 West and southwest Agrarian outskirts of the actual Marl zu Polsum and Dorsten with the old farmers Frentrop and the industrial area in the west named after it
Alt-Marl-Süd 126 5.826 565 125 Southeast half Agricultural outskirts of Herten with the hamlets of Steinernkreuz and Linde
Brassert 13 13.304 11246 856 Northwest flowing into the city center (O, Sickingmühler Straße / Kampstraße) and Alt-Marl (S, Hervester Straße); the populated part is segmented in the N – S direction by Brassertstrasse, the western part again by the Schachtstrasse in SW – NE direction; also in SW-NE direction, the A 52 separates an outer north-eastern part, which takes up more than half of the area and is largely forested
Alt-Brassert 131 1.917 4140 2149 extreme east only the southeast half is built on
Brassert-Rheinstahlsiedlung 132 2.163 3138 1518 southeast of the center only the east of the district is built on - to the west foothills of the Arenberg Forest (p. 134)
Brassert ECA settlement 133 0.611 3791 6249 extreme southeast continuously populated
Brassert-Schlenkesiedlung / Arenberg Forest 134 8,613 177 22nd Center, west and north North-western edge of the city of Dorsten , separated from the settlement area by the A 52 ; largely forested
Drewer-North 14th 2,695 8571 3158 northern center connects the city center to the north, beyond Gaußstrasse, with the chemical park ( A 52 ); Segmentation by Rappaportstraße (S – N) and the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord – Marl Lippe (SW – NE) railway line ; the middle section, which takes up a good half of the area, is divided again in W-E direction by a former railway line
Drewer-Nord-Alte Buna settlement 141 0.435 1989 4667 southwest northwest of the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord – Marl Lippe railway line ; separated by old railway line from 143 in the north
Drewer-Nord flower settlement 142 0.672 958 1497 west west of Rappaportstrasse; only built in the north half
Drewer-Nord readiness settlement 143 1.108 2821 2514 north bounded by Rappaportstraße (W), A 52 (N), railway line Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord – Marl Lippe (O) and old railway line (S); undeveloped in the northeast
Drewer-Nord-Nibelungensiedlung 144 0.479 2803 5616 south southeast of the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord – Marl Lippe railway line
Drewer South 15th 3.007 9002 2812 southeast center eastward (beyond Herzlia-Allee) continuation of the city center to the Loekampbach ; Segmentation through Breddenkampstrasse (E – W) and Freerbruchbach (S – N)
Drewer South Center 151 0.633 3113 4921 west north north of Breddenkampstrasse and west of Freerbruchbach
Drewer-Süd-Westfalenstrasse 152 0.769 3253 3443 Northeast adjoining 151 eastwards, with the old Drewer farmers in the south
Drewer-Süd-Langehegge 153 1.048 1901 1864 southeast south of Breddenkampstraße at 152; unpopulated in the southeast
Drewer-Süd-Wellerfeldweg 154 0.557 735 1327 southwest south of Breddenkampstraße at 151
Hüls-Nord 21st 3,681 6660 1755 east North-eastern part of the Marls settlement area, which continues Drewer-Nord beyond the Lipper Weg and, further north, beyond the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord – Marl Lippe railway line ; The southern border to Hüls is that of Victoriastrasse; More than half of the area is taken up by the former Auguste Victoria I / II colliery site in the east , while the west is segmented by a freight train route in W – E; the south of the western part is also divided by the Loemühlenbach in S – N direction
Hüls-Nord-Zentrum 211 0.233 1119 4627 southwest on both sides of the Roman road passing in N – S direction
Hüls-Nord-Enkesiedlung 212 0.296 1703 5243 southwest separated from 211 to the east by the Loemühlenbach
Hüls-Nord-Silvertsiedlung 213 0.838 3133 3835 Northwest separated from 211 and 212 by a railway line to the south
Hüls-Nord-Auguste-Victoria I / II 214 2,314 705 266 Middle and east former site of the Auguste Victoria colliery
Hüls-Süd 22nd 7.456 12444 1651 southeast Eastern part of the Marl settlement and southern part of Hüls south of Victoriastrasse; The western border to Drewer-Süd is the Loekampbach , but the south-western part facing there is hardly populated; Segmentation in NW – SE direction through Hülsstraße; the center of Hüls is separated from the south-western part by the north of Loekampstrasse, the north-eastern part is segmented by the Ovelheider Weg in SW-NE direction; The eastern border is the A 43
Alt-sleeve 221 0.949 4842 4865 extreme northwest northwest of the Ovelheider Weg
Hüls-Süd composers' settlement 222 2,349 5576 2526 East and northeast southeast of the Ovelheider Weg; contains the historical center of Lenkerbeck in the extreme north and Korthausen in the south ; only continuously built on in the northwest
Hüls-Süd-Zentrum 223 0.211 615 3118 extreme northwest contains the Paracelsus Clinic
Hüls-Süd-Auf Höwings Feld 224 3,947 1411 279 Southwest half only built-up on peripheral locations; southern outskirts of Herten and Recklinghausen with the old Löntrop farmers
Marl-Hamm 30th 11,870 9399 818 Northeast extreme north (east) of the Marl settlement, separated from Hüls-Nord by the Silvertbach on a narrow corridor; to the east to the Wanne-Eickel – Hamburg railway line , to the north to the Lippe and to the west to the chemical zone
Marl-Hamm-old forest settlement 301 2.059 3972 2010 south North-west of the A 52 and the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord-Marl Lippe railway line ; only built on in the southern half
Marl-Hamm-Neue Waldsiedlung 302 2,468 2028 845 southeast in the track triangle of the railway lines from Marl-Mitte (NW) and Recklinghausen (O) in the direction of Haltern / Münster, each with an almost parallel motorway; built only in the southeast
Marl-Hamm-Sickingmühle 303 6,640 2220 350 North half northern, rural outskirts to the floodplains of the Lippe ; in the southwest the larger settlement Sickingmühle , in the east the hamlet of Herne
Marl-Hamm-Zollvereinsiedlung 304 0.704 1179 1656
Chemical zone 40 9.025 0 0 north consists of more than two thirds of the Marl Chemical Park ; in the northwest, on the floodplains of the Lippe , nature reserves
Polsum 50 7.804 4607 586 extreme southwest old village on the outskirts towards Gelsenkirchen (-Buer); clearly separated from the actual development of Marl
Polsum South 501 1,460 1329 925 south Segment south of Scholvener Strasse and Dorfstrasse
Polsum North 502 6.344 3278 508 entire district area except the south in the east the hamlet of Kotten
Sinsen-Lenkerbeck 60 14.389 7791 540 extreme east Eastern part separated by the A 43 , forested throughout the northern half; only corridor-like through Viktoriastraße / Bahnhofstraße in W - = - direction connected with Alt-Lenkerbeck , Hüls and Marl
Sinsen-Bahnhof Sinsen 601 0.970 1080 1081 southwest southwest, separated from the railway line, adjoining 603; bounded to the southwest by the Silvertbach; only built on in the northwest
Sinsen industrial area Lenkerbeck 602 0.506 171 344 extreme west Commercial area between A 43 in the west and the Wanne-Eickel – Hamburg railway line in the east
Sinsen center 603 0.478 1035 2165 south of the center triangular segment between the Wanne-Eickel – Hamburg railway in the west. Halterner Strasse in the east and Haard in the north
Sinsen-Schulstrasse 604 2.829 4103 1464 southeast Outskirts to Oer-Erkenschwick east of the Recklinghausen – Haltern road, only half built and merging into agricultural land to the east and south-east
Sinsen-Haard 605 7.685 152 18th North half Marler and Sinsener share in Haard
Sinsen nun bush 606 1,922 1250 644 extreme southwest settlement of the same name only in the north; the southeast is densely wooded in the nature reserve Die Burg ; between Autobahn (W) and Silvertbach (O)

Within the contiguous main settlement area of ​​the city (without Polsum), to which Sinsen and Sickingmühle are connected like a corridor, the settlement density is conspicuously constant at around 5,000 inhabitants / km² and only rises to around 10,000 in central locations.

Historic districts

Map of the German Empire 1: 100,000 of today's Marl area at the end of the 19th century;
Larger parts of the former municipality of Recklinghausen-Land did not become part of the city until 1926, while Polsum and the western half of Hamm, which had meanwhile grown to Marl, only became part of the city in 1975

The topographic overview map of the German Empire 1: 200,000 , in the version from 1939, recognizes the following locations in the area of ​​today's city of Marl:

  • Marl core area
    • Marl - today largely corresponds to the core area of Alt-Marl and parts of the city center
    • Peasantry Drewer
      • Core area Drewer-Nord and Drewer-Süd
      • Brassert Colony (founded in the 20th century)
      • Linden tree with stone cross in the south, today part of Alt-Marl-Süd
    • Peasantry Frentrop - comprehensive than the present district
      • real Frentrop
      • Leuchterhof house
      • Forest area Frentroper Mark (Arenbergischer Forst), z. T. to Lippe
    • Farmers Lippe (at times also Oelde )
      • Lippe residential area (= West-Oelde)
      • Residential area (East) Oelde - today's desert in the chemical zone
      • Forest area Drewer Mark, z. T. zu Drewer - today corresponds in large parts to the area of ​​the chemical zone
  • from the former municipality of Recklinghausen-Land (since 1926)
    • Löntrop peasantry (excluding fringes in the south)
    • Peasantry Lenkerbeck - south-east of today's sleeve-North, North-East of sleeve-south, west of Sinsen-Lenkerbeck
    • Peasantry bacon Horn (only marginal shares, Heartland went to Recklinghausen)
  • from the former municipality of Hamm (since 1975)
  • from the former municipality of Polsum (excluding Bertlich and the Transvaal, which went to Herten)
    • Polsum village
    • Heiken - north
    • Beckhöfen - south
    • Village courts or Hoefen - East
    • Hülsdau - west
    • Rennebaum - northeast
    • Kotten - settlement in the east, somewhat separated from the core settlement area
  • from the former parish of Oer

Neighboring communities

Marl borders the city of Haltern am See in the north, Oer-Erkenschwick in the east, Recklinghausen in the south-east, Herten in the south, Gelsenkirchen in the south-west and Dorsten in the west .

Nature reserves

history

St. Georg in Alt-Marl

Early history

The urban area of ​​Marl was already settled in the older and middle Stone Age, as evidence from excavations in the Sinsen district shows. Evidence of the first settlements date from around 600 BC. Chr.

Around 300 BC The Celtic tribes living in the area were driven out by immigrating Germanic tribes. The Brukterer settled north of the Lippe and the Martians to the south of the Lippe . The Germanic migration was stopped by the advance of the Romans, who set up a large camp near Haltern am See . Remains of a smaller Roman camp have also been found on the city limits between Polsum and Herten.

After the Roman influence waned due to the Varus Battle in 9 AD and the Romans withdrew behind the Rhine, the Teutons took over the Marl area again. In the year 80 the tribe of the Brukterer was driven from the areas north of the Lippe by rival tribes and then moved to the area of ​​today's Recklinghausen district.

Early Middle Ages

The next migratory movement that affected Marl probably took place between the 5th and 7th centuries, when the Saxons advanced from the northeast across the Lippe into the old Brukterer area . After the first explorations and excavations in what is now Marl's urban area in the 1920s, it was assumed that the local Brukterer in what is now the Sinsen district could have built the Sinsener Wallburg ring wall to ward off these attacks. This wall can only be recognized by experts today and is located in the nature reserve Die Burg , which is named after this wall. Archaeologically, this rampart is now considered to be a nationally important and protected soil monument of the early Middle Ages. Due to its location in the border area of ​​the Saxons and Franks and the few finds about the ability to defend and the settlement of the 8th century, it is assigned to the Saxon to Franconian castles ( Saxon Wars of Charlemagne ). The excavations of these and other important archaeological finds and emergency excavations in the age of industrialization have made history ( August Stieren , Phillip Hömberg ). This hill fort could have served the rural population as a protective wall until the late Middle Ages. Reliable regional knowledge of today's Marl area about the early Middle Ages in the 9th and 10th centuries was not documented for subsequent generations until the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century.

origin of the name

Marl is first mentioned in a land register of the Abbey of Werden an der Ruhr at the end of the 9th century as in Meronhlare . It means 'horse scaffolding, pen' in Old Saxon (old Low German) developed hlari 'pen, scaffolding' because of the Old High German gi- (h) lari 'apartment as a framework work of the carpenter' and in Old Saxon meriha 'mare, horse'.

middle Ages

After the first mentions of the settlement names Meronhlare and Ulithi (also around 890, today Oelde), the entries in the Werden register, documents and records ( regest ) allow conclusions to be drawn about the later farming communities Drewer (Threviri), Frentrop (Vrilinctorpe), Herne (Haranni) , Bossendorf (Bodsnippi) and Sinsen too. The landowners were in the peasantry Frentrop, Hüls (Natrop im Hülsen), Lenkerbeck (Lanclere), Sinsen, Oelde (today Lippe) and Drewer, among others, besides the Werden Abbey, also the Cologne and Xanten cathedral chapters as well as the Essen and Abbey the aristocratic classes. According to the sources, this free float caused massive power struggles and feuds in the Middle Ages .

Church history

In the district of Alt-Marl is the church of St. Georg , which in the 11th century belonged to Count Balderich of the Lower Rhine as a separate church . He later handed the church over to Archbishop Heribert of Cologne . In a manuscript from 1160 it is recorded that Archbishop Heribert passed the church on to Deutz Abbey . It became a parish church in the 13th century. From 1228 a clergyman is recorded as the first officially named priest (sacerdos) in the community, it was Johannes von Marl.

The local von Loë family was the patron saint of the church from 1419 to 1830. Then the patron who took over Baron von Twickel on house Lüttinghof . In the years 1856-1859, the church was completely renovated according to plans by the Münster diocesan master builder Emil von Manger , whereby the Romanesque foundation walls of the tower from the 12th century were retained as the foundation.

Ancestral coat of arms of the von Loe family

The Count family von Loe

In 1111 the later Count family von Loe built a moated castle. It was first called Strevelsloe , and from 1359 it was called the Loe House . In official records it was given the name castrum in 1373 . In 1378 the moated castle was owned by the then owner Wessel van Loe to the Archbishop of Cologne Friedrich III. from Saar are overwritten as a so-called open house . The von Loe family was thus subject to the archbishop. They owned a lot of land in the area, several farms and they owned a few mills, such as the Loemühle, the Sickingmühle, the mill in today's Alt-Marl and the Schultengut Wermeling an der Lippe. After the Loe family no longer had any male descendants, the family name was obtained solely because Wolter van Loe's daughter married her cousin, Baron Dietrich von Dorneburg-Loe from Eickel , in 1585 .

From 1705 to 1832 the Loe Castle and its possessions passed to the von Wiedenbrück family, whose last owner sold it to the Baron von Twickel. They were resold in 1833 to Theodor Waldhausen from Essen. Thirty years later, the Duke of Arenberg bought the property and had the castle demolished.

Parts of the double high school on Hagenstrasse and some sports fields are now on the site of the former castle. The memory of the Loe house is illustrated in Marl by a multitude of names, such as Loestrasse, Loekamp, ​​Gymnasium im Loekamp, ​​Loemühle and An den Loe Auen.

War events

Marl was involved in several wars in the Middle Ages.

  • Between 1243 and 1384 war broke out between the Archbishop of Cologne and the Count of Mark, including over Vest Recklinghausen.
  • In 1388 and 1389 Marl was involved in the great Dortmund feud , and in 1423–1461 in the fratricidal war between Adolf IV von Kleve-Mark and Gerhard von der Mark zu Hamm .
  • From 1442 to 1449 the area suffered from the Soest feud , in which the city of Soest defended its freedom against the Archbishop of Cologne.

As a result of the Jülich-Klevischen succession dispute , there was increased looting of the peasantry by Dutch and Spanish troops who had entered the country as a result. This war was followed by the Thirty Years War , in which the looting continued.

Towards the end of the 16th century the population of Marl was 800 people. Most of the residents lived in the Drewer peasantry.

Witch hunt in Marl

From 1514 to 1706, a large number of women were executed on charges of witchcraft. The mayor of Recklinghausen at the time, Rotger Steenetch, was particularly prominent as a witch hunter. Over 80 alleged witches were killed during his tenure alone. The files also contain women from Marl who were convicted of witches:

  • 1581: Gertrud Burrichter from Sickingmühle
  • June 2, 1581: Trine Rittbroick from Marl (she is said to have poisoned her own child. After 4 torture sessions, confession, burned)
  • May 3, 1588: Krüppelgretgen from Marl (4 torture sessions, died in custody)
  • September 6, 1588: The Frentropsche (burned)
  • February 1589: Dorothea from Marl (executed)
  • April 24, 1589: Noele von Polßum (executed)

The place of court for these women was the Horneburg in Datteln and the place of execution for the Stimberg in Oer-Erkenschwick

Early modern age

After the end of the Thirty Years 'War, the area initially became quiet for decades, and it wasn't until the French campaign of Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise , through Westphalia in the Seven Years' War in 1758, that severe cuts again led to the Marl population. The fortunes of war changed, and after the French came the Prussian troops without any improvement for the population.

In 1724 a Carmelite monastery was founded on Gut Leuchterhof between the districts of Alt-Marl and Polsum . The monks devoted themselves to pastoral care and teaching the school children. In 1803 the Duke of Arenberg received the property and converted it into a domain .

The affiliation of the still insignificant church village of Marl to Vest Recklinghausen lasted until 1803. After that, Marl belonged to the Duke of Arenberg . On January 22, 1811, the region was connected to the Grand Duchy of Berg , to which it belonged until 1813. Marl was the seat of a mairie . After the Wars of Liberation , Marl became Prussian and initially belonged to the Essen district and from 1816 to the Recklinghausen district.

Ecclesiastically and secularly it was part of the Electorate of Cologne . There were no mayors, only community and local leaders. The superior of these chiefs was the governor of Vest Recklinghausen. The duties of the mayor, who were elected for a year, were to collect taxes and manage the parish properties. In addition to these community officials, there were also two electoral representatives, the Amtsfron and the Amtsführer (from 1785 both offices were merged to become the Amtsführer), whose task it was to monitor the electoral ordinances.

On April 1, 1820, Marl was united with Dorsten to form the mayor's office of Dorsten . Head was the mayor of Dorsten. In 1837 the revised town order was introduced. In the course of this new order, Marl became independent again. The area expanded as the Altendorf-Ulfkotte Marl parish was added. Initially, the place did not get its previous name back, but was called Dorsten-Land . On October 31, 1841, the royal government in Münster ordered the establishment of the Marl office . The official area was the communities of Marl, Polsum, Hamm and Altendorf-Ulfkotte with the surrounding farmers. The first bailiff was Lieutenant Carl Bölling from Marl. He was followed in 1867 by Eduard Lobeck from Recklinghausen and in 1881 by Albert Barkhaus from Minden until 1921.

Agriculture has always been the main source of income for Marl. This is made clear, among other things, by an official list from 1840. There are 493 horses, 1879 cattle, 857 pigs, 98 goats and 4591 sheep. However, the importance of sheep farming dwindled over time.

In addition to agriculture, many families also weaved as a sideline. Mostly they worked for other fabric dealers as a contract weaver. The then bailiff Bölling reports in his chronicle:

“… A lot of factories have been introduced here, and the damask weaving industry is noticeable with praise, which supplies valuable tableware for high rulers and is well known for itself; it is an elegant weaving mill. "

The following professions are recorded for 1842:

3 bakers, 1 butcher, 17 shoemakers, 17 tailors, 17 carpenters, 5 carpenters, 6 coopers, 1 bricklayer, 15 blacksmiths, 6 cooper, 1 cloth weaver, 59 linen weavers, 42 shopkeepers, 12 peddlers, 2 inns, 11 innkeepers, 6 brewers , 2 burners, 6 grain dealers, 5 timber dealers.

A turning point in the history of the city of Marl is January 21, 1875. On this day, the “Simson” drilling company found coal at a depth of 514 meters in the Polsum district. Further drilling in Marl eventually led to the establishment of the mines.

Decommissioned headframes of the Auguste Victoria mine
Shaft AV 3/7.

Foundation of the Auguste Victoria colliery

In September 1897 a consortium from Düsseldorf, Mr. August Stein (Kommerzienrat) and Mr. Julius Schäfer (engineer) carried out a test drill for hard coal in Lenkerbeck on the Silvertbach and on the Freerbruchbach in Drever . During the search drillings, deep drilling technician Anton Raky found hard coal deposits at a depth of around 668 meters in both drillings. According to these findings was immediately presumption inserted and the mine fields Hansi Hansi 1 and 2 set out. August Stein and Julius Schäfer from Düsseldorf founded the "Auguste Victoria" colliery with headquarters in Düsseldorf in 1898 and transferred the two mining fields Hansi 1 and Hansi 2 to it . In 1903 the seat of the administration was moved to Hüls near Recklinghausen. Previously, on May 1, 1900, the sinking work began. At the end of 1905, shaft AV 1 started mining. The Marl mine was named after Auguste Viktoria (1858–1921), the last German empress and wife of Emperor Wilhelm II. The Marl mine has been running the Marl mine since the association with the Recklinghäuser Zeche Blumenthal / Haard, named after Field Marshal Graf von Blumenthal (1810–1900) Name Auguste Victoria / Blumenthal (AV / BL). The mine was one of the efficient production sites of Deutsche Steinkohle AG and at times offered around 11,000 people a job. After around 116 years, Auguste Victoria was closed on December 18, 2015; it was the penultimate colliery in the area and the third last hard coal mine in Germany.

Establishment of the Brassert colliery

In 1905, following the successful drilling in Marl, the Brassert colliery was founded , named after Hermann Brassert , the "father" of the general mining law of 1865. In 1910, coal mining began, and in the 1950s up to 5000 people worked Brassert ". After the colliery was closed in 1972, the Zechenstrasse industrial area was built on a good two thirds of the former colliery site in Marl-Brassert; the remaining third is taken up by the Brassert leisure area. Some of the colliery buildings have been preserved. A studio and the bicycle office of the city of Marl have found their place in the former brand control.

20th century

In March 1912 there was the first major miners' strike in Marl due to wage demands. Almost half of the mine workforce took part in the work stoppage. Conflicts could be prevented because police and military from Frankfurt, Hanover and Magdeburg were sent to Marl. The strike was then ended.

On May 28, 1914, the tram line from Recklinghausen via Sinsen to the mine entrance to Hüls was completed.

578 Marl residents were killed in the First World War.

The Ruhr uprising in connection with the Kapp Putsch of March 13, 1920 also had an impact on Marl. On April 1, 1920, the Red Ruhr Army occupied Marl and fought a battle with the Reichswehr at the Lippe crossing near Bossendorf , in which 15 uninvolved canal workers were also killed.

On January 15, 1923, Marl was occupied by French and Belgian troops.

Rappaport wants to make Marl a city in the country

In 1922, with a view to the future development of Marl, the local council decided to commission engineer Philipp Rappaport to develop a building plan for Marl.

The background to this planning was that, with regard to the projected growth of the community, one wanted to avoid a mix of residential and industrial areas, as had led to problems in other cities in the Ruhr area. Although Rappaport could not take into account the settlement of the later chemical works, he assumed a population of 120,000 simply because of the expansion of mining.

In his planning it was envisaged that the majority of the residents should live in suburbs, which should be separated from the industrial zones by green belts. His plan also envisaged that a town center should be built, with a town hall, market square, theater and administrative buildings. All tram lines should meet there.

Incorporation of several districts

Rappaport's plan was not followed on April 1, 1926 by the dissolution of the Recklinghausen office and the incorporation of several places (Sinsen, Hüls, Lenkerbeck and Löntrop) into Marl, which thus became a major office, but was not followed because a town center was now difficult to find . The influence of the Auguste Victoria colliery was decisive for the incorporation of the places. The colliery had previously complained to the district president that it would be taxable in several municipalities with its various pits and that the operational sites should be grouped together in one municipality in the course of the municipal reorganization. Nevertheless, Rappaport's planning was forward-looking because the city center of Marl, built 40 years later, roughly reflected his plans. Marl's claim to be considered a “city in the country” was already elaborated in Rappaport's plans.

Like many cities in the Ruhr area , Marl grew very quickly in the 20th century, initially through the coal mining industry and later through the chemical industry.

Aerial view of the Marl Chemical Park

For the year 1931, the “Handbook of the Aemter und Landgemeinden in der Rheinprovinz und Westfalen” lists 34,102 inhabitants (19,598 Catholic, 12,105 Protestant, 30 Jewish and 2,309 other denominations). The position of mayor was vacant. The official representation consisted of 18 members: 10 center , 2 SPD, 1 business party , 4 KPD , 1 other.

The total area was 11,076 hectares, of which 415 hectares were built-up and 3,652 hectares of arable land. Meadow area 5574 ha.

On April 20, 1936, Ferdinand Freiherr von Lüninck , Upper President of the Province of Westphalia , granted Marl city rights.

Founding of the chemical works in Hüls (today Marl Chemical Park)

The history of the Marl Chemical Park begins on May 9, 1938. As part of the then four-year plan of the Reich government, IG Farbenindustrie AG and the mining company Hibernia AG took part in the founding of Chemischen Werke Hüls GmbH. The basic raw material for tire production was to be manufactured at the Marl site: the synthetic rubber Buna.

The first bunaballs were delivered on August 29, 1940. Heavy air raids by the Allies brought production to an almost complete standstill from 1943 onwards.

After production bans and dismantling, the “Wirtschaftswunder” plant developed with new product lines into a company with global renown - since 1979 under the leadership of VEBA AG. From 1985 the company, now trading under the name Hüls AG, decided to give up the heavy and basic industries in favor of specialty chemicals. After their reorganization into a strategic chemical holding company, Hüls AG and Degussa AG merged in 1999 to form Degussa-Hüls AG.

At the beginning of 2001, Degussa-Hüls AG and SKW Trostberg AG merged to form the new Degussa AG, the third largest chemical group in Germany. In February 2003, Essen-based RAG AG increased its stake in Degussa shares to 50.1 percent. The complete takeover of Degussa shares by RAG took place in May 2006. Today the German hard coal mining industry bears the name RAG. The Chemicals, Energy and Real Estate Business Areas were merged in September 2007 in the new industrial group Evonik Industries. Evonik changed course in 2009 and is now positioning itself as a pure specialty chemicals company.

As a result of these realignments and internal group restructuring, the previously monolithic site in Marl has developed into a chemical park. Today, in addition to Evonik, its subsidiaries and holdings, 16 other companies are based here.

National Socialism and World War II

Persecution of the Jews

The November pogroms of 1938 also affected the Jewish population in Marl, who had lived there since 1910 and who were mainly active in the textile and furniture trade . Several people were injured, shops set on fire and looted. All 29 Jewish residents were publicly driven through the city and deported. Many of them were taken to Riga and directly murdered there. Only a few returned to Marl after the war. The artist Gunter Demnig documented these processes in Marl through his Stolpersteine project .

Prisoners of War and Forced Laborers

The mines and the chemical works required a large number of workers, which could not be covered by the local population alone. Therefore, between 1939 and 1945, foreigners and prisoners of war were obliged to do forced labor in the companies and households of Marl . 10,000-15,000 prisoners of war and foreign forced laborers were locked up in over 30 camps in the city.

There were the eight great camps:

  • Sinsen Schmielenfeldstrasse / Gleisbogen:

(Arrival and deportation, approx. 1000 people)

  • Roman camp, Römerstrasse 146:

(2,000 Soviet prisoners of war and 800–900 Ukrainian and Polish forced laborers)

  • Warehouse Breddenkampstrasse / Am Erzschacht:

(1,000 Soviet prisoners of war, later 1,000 Ukrainian forced laborers)

  • Hagenstrasse warehouse

(2,000 forced laborers from various European countries)

  • Kampstrasse warehouse

(1,000 Soviet prisoners of war for the Brassert colliery)

  • South camp Lipper Weg opposite "Feierabendhaus"

(1,000 forced laborers from all over Europe for the chemical works)

  • North warehouse on Nordstrasse

(2,000 forced laborers, prisoners of war and Germans "unwilling to work" for the chemical works)

  • Tönsholt warehouse in Altendorf-Ulfkotte

(1,000 prisoners of war and forced labor for KRUPP in Essen)

In addition to these large camps, there were at least 23 small camps in Marl that housed forced laborers who worked in agriculture.

War damage

During the Second World War , not only - in particular the Buna works bordering the city - were the target of several Allied air raids , but also the local colliery facilities and the associated freight shunting yard at Marl-Sinsen - a hub of important raw materials - were targets of attack with the highest priority. Massive attacks by Allied bomber groups took place on March 10th and 17th, 1945. Despite the proximity to these war-important factories, plants and other production facilities, the damage to civilian buildings in the city was limited. On March 31, 1945, American troops occupied Marl.

Train accident at Marl-Sinsen station

On October 5, 1973, there was a train accident near the Marl-Sinsen train station, in which 7 people died and 44 people were injured. The D-Zug 632 Flensburg – Düsseldorf ran into a shunting locomotive waiting on the track and derailed. Shortly afterwards, another freight train drove to the scene of the accident. The trains fell down an embankment on federal highway 51. The cause of the accident was an incorrectly set switch.

Urban development measure Stadtmitte Marl (city center expansion)

The city emerged from the merging of former villages with the settlements of miners and chemical workers. It therefore has no historical center. In the 1960s and 1970s, a city center with a town hall, high-rise apartment buildings and the Marler Stern shopping center were laid out on the " green field ".

On January 1, 1975, with the local reorganization, the Marl office was dissolved as a community association and several districts were incorporated into the city of Marl.

In order to complete the structural development of the city center, the city of Marl launched an architectural competition at the beginning of 1988 with the title Living in the city center of Marl . The first prize winner of this competition was the office of Prof. Wolfgang Pohl und Partner from Munich / Düsseldorf. According to his plans, the so-called city center expansion was started in 1994, the semicircular development on the S 9 S-Bahn was built and in 1998 the northern section of Bergstrasse in the city center was completely redesigned. In 2005 the new central bus station went into operation and the redesign of the southern Bergstrasse was completed.

Incorporations

  • April 1, 1926: Hüls, Lenkerbeck, Löntrop (formerly Recklinghausen-Land ) and the western half of Sinsens (formerly Oer)
  • January 1, 1975: from the former Marl office, the south-western, now much more populated half of the municipality of Hamm and most of the municipality of Polsum (only Bertlich went to Herten); from the former Haltern office, smaller parts of Lippramsdorf

Population development

Population development of Marl.svgPopulation development of Marl - from 1871
Desc-i.svg
Population development of Marl according to the adjacent table. Above from 1600 to 2018. Below an excerpt from 1871

In the Middle Ages and at the beginning of the modern era , Marl only had a few hundred inhabitants. It was not until industrialization in the 20th century that the city's population grew very quickly. In 1900 only 2,000 people lived in Marl, in 1939 there were already 35,000. As a result of the incorporation of several districts, the population of the city rose from 77,000 in 1974 to 92,000 on January 1, 1975. As of December 31, 1999, the official population for Marl was 93,735 according to the data processing and statistics department of North Rhine-Westphalia (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices). Since then, the population has been falling.

The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. 1600 is an estimate, then census results (¹) or official updates from the State Statistical Office. From 1871 the information relates to the local population , from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the population at the place of the main residence . Before 1871, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey procedures. The doubling of the population between 1925 and 1933 is mainly due to the fact that in 1926 the districts of Hüls, Lenkerbeck, Löntrop and parts of Sinsen were assigned to the city of Marl through a municipal reorganization.

year Residents
1600 800
December 1, 1875 ¹ 1,883
December 1, 1900 ¹ 2,199
December 1, 1910¹ 5,571
October 8, 1919 ¹ 12,130
June 16, 1925 ¹ 16,018
June 16, 1933 ¹ 31,619
May 17, 1939 ¹ 35,288
December 31, 1945 42,603
October 29, 1946 ¹ 44,043
September 13, 1950 ¹ 51.192
year Residents
September 25, 1956 ¹ 64,228
June 6, 1961 ¹ 71,508
December 31, 1965 76,674
May 27, 1970 ¹ 77,182
June 30, 1974 76,849
December 31, 1975 91,930
December 31, 1980 89,082
December 31, 1985 87,449
May 25, 1987 ¹ 89,063
December 31, 1990 91,467
December 31, 1995 92,965
year Residents
December 31, 2000 93,256
December 31, 2005 90.816
December 31, 2008 88,836
December 31, 2010² 87,557
December 31, 2011² 87,201
December 31, 2012 ² 84,055
December 31, 2013² 83,634
December 31, 2016 ² 83,737
December 31, 2017 ² 83,695
December 31, 2018 ³ 87,147
September 30, 2019 ³ 87,240

¹ Census result
² State enterprise information and technology North Rhine-Westphalia

³ City of Marl, residents' registration file; Data preparation: City administration Marl

The population is 49.2% male and 50.8% female. The age structure is as follows:

  • under 18 years: 15.5%
  • 18 to 40 years: 23.8%
  • 40 to 59 years: 30.2%
  • over 60 years: 30.5%

The proportion of foreigners in the population is 10.6% (8,896 inhabitants) (as of December 31, 2017). People from approx. 130 nationalities live in the city area. The main countries of origin are Turkey with 52.5%, followed by ex-Yugoslavia with 7.5% and Poland with 5.6%.

politics

City council

Distribution of seats after the 2014 local elections

After the local elections on May 25, 2014, the 48 seats of the city council were distributed among the individual parties and lists as follows:

year SPD CDU WE WG Greens FDP bang left UBP B90 / The Greens Pirates total
2014 21st 14th 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 48

In the meantime, the council member of the Pirates left his party and joined the SPD, so that the SPD parliamentary group now consists of 22 council members. Furthermore, a CDU member has resigned from the parliamentary group and, after a period of non-party membership, joined the WE group for Marl . The FDP and the bum have merged to form the FDP / bum faction

year SPD CDU WE WG Greens FDP / bum left UBP B90 / The Greens total
2016 22nd 13 3 2 2 2 2 2 48

Results of the local elections from 1975

Only parties and voter communities that received at least 1.95 percent of the votes in the respective election are shown in the list.

year SPD CDU UBP WE Left 1 WG Greens B90 / The Greens BUM FDP Pirates
1975 58.8 34.9 4.8
1979 52.8 33.6 08.9 4.3
1984 52.7 32.1 11.0 3.8
21989 2 48.5 28.3 11.2 4.5
1994 45.1 36.2 7.2 10.8 1.9
1999 38.4 43.8 9.5 05.0 2.5
2004 37.7 31.8 9.5 3.4 06.5 5.4 5.7
2009 36.6 27.6 2.8 8.3 5.1 04.7 2.9 5.2 6.9
2014 42.7 28.6 4.6 4.4 4.0 03.8 3.5 03.04 02.98 2.3

1 Left: 2004: PDS, from 2009: Left
2 1989: additionally: REP : 7.5%

mayor

Mayor Arndt at the press reception for the 2013 Grimme Prize

Youth in Marl ("J! M")

Youth in Marl is a participation committee for Marl youths, consisting of unelected Marl youths, unlike in a youth parliament, everyone can have a say in the youth forum and everyone can come and go as they have time. The youth forum is recognized and supported by the city as a youth committee. It has the right to propose and speak in the Committee on Children, Youth and Family.

  • The JuFo is a member of the NRW Children and Youth Council
  • The JuFo organizes projects and takes part in events.
  • 2004: 38 young people from Marl founded the Marl Youth Forum in the HoT Hagenbusch youth home together with the child and youth representative
  • 2005: The youth forum becomes a member of the NRW Children's and Youth Council
  • 2006: The members of the youth forum were honored as "Marl's best" for outstanding social commitment.
  • The Jufo is renamed J! M

City coat of arms and flags

Blazon: Divided and split below; above in silver a continuous black cross, below in front in silver a black barrel iron, behind in black diagonally crossed a silver mallet and a silver iron.

The coat of arms shows the electoral Cologne cross above. Vest Recklinghausen belonged to the Archdiocese of Cologne until the Bull Pius VII. "De salute animarum" , after which it was incorporated into the Diocese of Münster . Mallets and irons are inserted as symbols of mining. The barrel iron (cramp) refers to the von Loe family.

Twin cities

Trivia

On May 25, 2009, the city received the title “ Place of Diversity ” awarded by the federal government .

Economy and Infrastructure

economy

The economic structure of the city has been shaped by the mining and chemical industries since the city was founded. With the closure of the last still active Marl mine "Auguste Victoria" at the end of 2015 and the associated loss of at least 2,000 jobs, the chemical park remains by far the largest employer in the region with around 10,000 employees. Through various investments by Evonik AG in high billions, the Group is expanding the Marl site into one of the world's most important locations for chemical production, so that plastics of the highest quality are manufactured here, which cannot be produced anywhere else in the world.

Under the title gate.ruhr - Die neue Victoria , the city of Marl, RAG and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia are trying to implement a quick successor use of the former colliery areas. In the best case, according to the assessment of the experts, around 1,000 new jobs could be created. However, since marketing of the site cannot begin until 2020 at the earliest, the urban economy will have to cope with a severe loss of jobs by then. The city reported a positive development in summer 2016 when the Metro Group announced that it would build its national logistics center on the so-called western expansion of the chemical park on Brassertstrasse, which had not yet been implemented. According to the company, the largest logistics location in Germany has created around 1,000 jobs. Since 2018 the warehouse center has been supplying all "real" and metro markets in Germany with goods. In the course of the establishment of the Metro, the nearby motorway connection and Brassertstrasse will also be rebuilt.

In addition, many other companies are based in Marl in the numerous industrial parks, including AVARTO (a subsidiary of Bertelsmann AG) and Linde AG in the inter-municipal industrial park. Other well-known companies based in Marl are Volksbank Marl-Recklinghausen and Medienhaus Bauer.

traffic

Street

Marl transport network

The federal motorways BAB 43 ( Münster - Wuppertal ) and the BAB 52 (Marl - Essen - Düsseldorf - Roermond ) run in the city of Marl . On the A 43 in the Sinsen district you have the option to exit, on the A 52 there are a total of four interchanges for Marl. Furthermore, on the A 2 at the transition to the B 224 , Marl is pointed out (connection "Essen / Gladbeck / Marl"). The B 225 is also in the city of Marl , which runs via Frentrop right through the historic center of Alt-Marl and then leads via Steinernkreuz to Recklinghausen. A large part of the Marl settlement areas is surrounded by the trunk roads "like a ring", which is why the traffic density within the ring on the municipal roads is comparatively low. Bergstrasse (later Victoria- / Bahnhof- / Schulstrasse) is an exception, as it is the only inner-city east-west connection and is therefore largely congested. The city center is framed by Herzlia-Allee (named after the Israeli twin town Herzlia ) and Rappaportstrasse (named after the city planner Philipp Rappaport ) to the north and east . The two last-mentioned streets together form the north-south axis of the city and connect the south (Alt-Marl, Drewer , Steinernkreuz) with the chemical park and the A 52. In the south, the new center is formed by the merging Willy-Brandt- Complete Avenue and Hervester Street . All of the roads mentioned have four lanes. In total, the Marl road network is around 540 kilometers long, divided into over 730 classified roads. Local public transport in Marl, as in the neighboring towns, is operated by the Vestische trams . The central stop of most lines in Marl is the bus station in the city center. Here and in the " Marler Stern " shopping center , passengers are informed live about the timetable and delays via DFI monitors. Further locations are to follow.

rail

S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr in Marl Mitte

Marl can be reached by train from several stations. The city's only train station is Marl-Sinsen on the Wanne-Eickel – Hamburg line . The two local transport lines of the Haard axis run here: RE 42 Niers-Haard-Express ( Münster (Westf) - Essen ) every half hour. Every hour they are tied through to Mönchengladbach via Duisburg and Krefeld . The Rhein-Haard-Express to Düsseldorf stops in the late evening hours . There are also two stops in Marl Mitte and Marl-Hamm on the Gelsenkirchen-Buer Nord-Marl Lippe railway , which are served every hour by S-Bahn line 9 ( Haltern - Bottrop - Essen-Steele - Wuppertal ).

water

Barges can call at Marl via the Wesel-Datteln Canal .

air

Marl can be reached by plane via the Marl-Loemühle airfield . The nearest airports are Düsseldorf , Dortmund and Münster / Osnabrück .

Others

  • The traffic planner Jürgen Göttsche from Marl had the idea for a traffic light handle at the end of the 1990s . With the help of sponsors, the first traffic light handles were installed in Marl in 2000. The traffic light handle is now used or tested in many cities. The costs are usually covered by local shops or associations.
  • Marl is one of the 13 municipalities that founded the working group for bicycle-friendly cities and municipalities in North Rhine-Westphalia in 1993 . She was a permanent member there until the turn of the year 2014/2015.
  • Marl offers a unique feature of pedestrian traffic lights. In 2014 the first “talking traffic lights” in Germany were installed here. This is a module that ensures that when the signal request device on the traffic light pole is operated, “Thank you, it's going to be green”. With the pilot project, the city of Marl would like to offer visually impaired people further support and also encourage them to use the traffic lights more frequently and thus avoid “red light walkers”. So far, several plants have been equipped with the system, and more are to follow.

media

Grimme Institute

Marl is known for the Grimme Institute located here , which awards the prestigious Grimme Prize for television every year .

The media center for the Recklinghausen district is located here. It supplies all schools in the Recklinghausen district with media and gives teachers media skills.

Two newspapers appear in the city, the Marler Zeitung and the WAZ (Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung). The Marler Zeitung, published by Medienhaus Bauer, has the most subscribers in Marl. The WAZ closed its local editorial office in Marl at the beginning of 2007 and transferred the processing of Marl topics to the vest editorial office in Recklinghausen. The free advertising papers Marl Aktuell , Kurier zum Sonntag and Stadtspiegel ( WAZ ) appear weekly .

The local radio station Radio Vest broadcasts news for the towns in the Recklinghausen district.

Public facilities

  • District court Marl
  • Tax Office Marl
  • Fire department of the city of Marl
  • Media center in the Recklinghausen district
  • Road traffic office for the district

Hospitals

Institutions

Aid organizations and security

police

The police in Marl are part of the Recklinghausen police headquarters . The Marl Police Station is manned 24 hours a day and is located at Rappaportstrasse 1. She is responsible for handling operations in Marl and the neighboring town of Haltern am See . There you will also find the criminal investigation department 42, which is responsible for the local area, and the traffic department 3, which records complex accidents throughout the authorities. There is a secondary guard on Viktoriastraße in Hüls, in which part of the district and specialty service is housed. The police station was located in the old town hall in Alt-Marl for decades until the current building was completed in 1992.

fire Department

The Marl fire brigade is responsible for non-police security within the city of Marl. It is partly staffed with full-time workers, but no professional fire brigade . Officially, it is a " volunteer fire brigade with full-time staff".

In addition to the full-time fire brigade, the fire brigade also has 5 other voluntary fire engines:

  • Fire fighting train 2, Alt-Marl
  • Fire fighting train 3, Lenkerbeck
  • Fire brigade 4, Sinsen
  • Fire engine 5, Hamm
  • Fire Brigade 6, Polsum

The fire brigade also ensures the rescue service. The emergency rescue by ambulance and ambulance is occupied by the fire brigade, but the ambulance has been provided by the German Red Cross Marl since May 1, 2012 , replacing the Marl Workers' Samaritan Association . The ambulances previously occupied by the fire brigade were also replaced by the DRK, in return the fire brigade took over another ambulance for daytime duty, which was previously provided by the ASB.

Emergency calls are accepted by the district control center of the Recklinghausen district. If no rescue equipment is within reach within Marl, the dispatcher alerts the nearest rescue equipment. In addition, if there is no rescue vehicle in the vicinity, an emergency fire fighting vehicle (HLF) can be used by the full-time guard in Marl as a first responder in order to considerably shorten the waiting time for professional medical help and to increase the chances of survival. For this purpose, the vehicle is equipped with appropriate medical materials - including an automatic external defibrillator (AED). All crew members are trained paramedics or paramedics . In addition, the Marl fire brigade has had a height rescue group since 1999 , which is able to reach any point on a high object at any time in order to carry out a proper rescue or recovery from there.

Marl Chemical Park Plant Fire Brigade and TUIS Marl site

The Marl Chemical Park also has a legally required plant fire brigade (WF), which is responsible for emergency and fire-fighting hazard protection within the chemical park's operations. It belongs to Evonik Technology & Infrastructure GmbH. The Marl plant fire brigade belongs to the Transport Accident Information and Assistance System (TUIS). If there is an accident involving dangerous goods within Germany or in neighboring countries, WF Chemiepark Marl provides free advice. If this is not enough and special equipment and specialists are required on site, the specialists drive to the scene of the accident in a special TUIS vehicle. Like the entire WF Marl Chemical Park, TUIS is available around the clock.

Loemühle Airfield

There is a Mercedes-Benz Unimog that has been converted into a powder fire-fighting vehicle especially for Loemühle Marl airfield. However, this is owned by the airfield and is not managed by the Marl fire brigade, but by the airfield staff. The vehicle is only kept available for possible air traffic accidents in the vicinity of the airfield.

Other aid organizations

The technical train of the THW local association Marl consists of two rescue groups and the specialist groups blasting and location (type B).

The ASB a medical group, care group and technology and safety. The ASB is stationed in Marl, but the mission unit drives for the city of Bottrop .

The DLRG Marl has a boat troop for disaster control.

The DRK has been responsible for patient transport in Marl since May 2012. It is also responsible for the paramedic service and has a rescue dog team.

education

There are two secondary schools in the city ( Albert-Schweitzer- / Geschwister-Scholl-Gymnasium (ASGSG) in the city center and the Gymnasium im Loekamp (GiL) in Hüls), the Ernst-Immel-Realschule in Hüls and the Catholic secondary school in the Hamm district. There are also two comprehensive schools ( Willy Brandt Comprehensive School in the city center and Martin Luther King School in Hüls). In the Alt-Marl district there is also the Heinrich Kielhorn School for students with special needs and in the Brassert district the Glück-auf-Schule for students with a focus on intellectual development.

The island's adult education center was founded in 1946. For them, the first own building for an adult education center in Germany was set up in 1955. It is now located in the buildings of the former secondary school on Wiesenstrasse.

On April 1, 2006, the Hans Böckler Vocational College Marl / Haltern (HBBK) turned 100 years old. From a “bundle school” of the conventional vocational school system, the school has developed into a nationally important educational center. It houses a number of current courses in the media sector and a private university of applied sciences (FOM) with around 300 students. In the four subject areas of natural science and technology , education and housekeeping , business and media, and dental and bath technology (the latter in Haltern), the HBBK offers various courses of study up to the general university entrance qualification. The HBBK has also distinguished itself in the area of ​​electronically supported and individual learning.

Culture and sights

Museums

Local history museum in Alt-Marl

In addition to the Glaskasten Sculpture Museum , which is located in the Centrum Marls, there is the so-called City and Local History Museum in the Alt-Marl district , which faithfully reflects the living conditions from the 17th century. The house was not only living space, but also partly a mill. This mill is still running nowadays, and on summer days you can visit a museum to find out more about its construction and flour grinding. As the "Watermill Alt-Marl" it is part of the route of industrial culture , namely the themed route bread, grain and beer .

Art in public space

See: List of works of art in public space in Marl

Grimme Prize

Grimme Online Award for Wikipedia.org

The Grimme Prize is a television award and is one of the most prestigious awards for television programs in Germany. It was named after the first general director of the NWDR , Adolf Grimme . The prize is awarded annually by the Grimme Institute in Marl. Since 1964, it has honored productions and television achievements that "make excellent use of the specific possibilities of the medium of television and can serve as a model for television practice in terms of content and method" (Statute of the Grimme Institute). In addition to the Grimme Prize, the Grimme Institute also awards the Grimme Online Award in various categories, for example in the area of ​​new media.

The Marler Group has been participating in the selection of winners since 1969 . As a representative cross-section of the Marl population, this lay jury , which consists of 16-20 course participants from the adult education center, sifts through the competition demonstrations of the Grimme Prize and then discusses with television managers, directors, authors and cameramen. The verdict of the Marler Group will be read out at the award ceremony.

Marler Media Prize Human Rights

The Marl Media Prize for Human Rights (formerly the Marl Television Prize for Human Rights ) is awarded as a non-material prize by the German section of Amnesty International . The award is given to radio and television programs that do particular justice to the topic of human rights.

music

  • The Philharmonia Hungarica was an orchestra based in Marl. It was a Cold War child. It was founded in 1956 by top musicians who fled the 1956 Hungarian uprising in the Hotel Esplanade in Baden near Vienna. The orchestra's headquarters were soon relocated to Germany, where it found a new home in Marl. Over the years it has developed into one of the most respected orchestras in Europe. In 2004 the orchestra was disbanded because public funding was discontinued.
  • The Marl e. V. was founded in 1950 and is one of the largest music associations in Germany with over 700 members, a third of the members and concert-goers come from outside Marl. Around 100 of the members are active in the concert choir and around 35 in the symphony orchestra, supplemented by professional musicians, preferably from the group of former members of the Philharmonia Hungarica, which was dissolved in 2004 .
    The artistic director from 1959 to 1990 was Johann Andreas Lang, the initiator of “ Jugend musiziert ” and the annual federal award- winning concert “ Marler Debüt ”, and from 1992 to 2011 it was Armin Klaes, conductor and professor at the University of Duisburg-Essen .
    The music community is by far a unique combination of oratorio choir, symphony orchestra and concert promoter and a fundamental pillar of Marl's musical life. The city of Marl and Evonik Industries AG provide ideal and material support . Together with the city of Marl, she designs the symphony orchestra and choir concert series in the city's theater. Until 1979 the Marl concert series of the Philharmonia Hungarica was carried out by the music community on behalf of the city of Marl, as were the city chamber music concerts. Since the Philharmonia Hungarica was closed, the symphonic concert series of the Marl Music Group has been expanded from five to eight events a year, with the addition of renowned guest orchestras such as the Volgograd Philharmonic and the Bochum Symphony .
  • In 1953 Viktor Klossowsky founded the Hohnerkänge Marl e. V. (at that time still Harmonikaverein "Viktoria"), an accordion club that still exists today and regularly gives concerts, for several years with Klossowsky in the honorary chairmanship. The association has been under the patronage of the Hohner company since the year it was founded . The Mocking Sounds got involved in the town twinning Marl - Creil in a partnership with the accordion club Creil, which is meanwhile no longer active. Today the program of the mostly young musicians is modern and diverse.
  • In 1979 Bernhard Dahlhaus founded the “Jugend-Bläser St. Josef” at the parish of the same name in the Drewer district. With the further development of the symphonic wind orchestra repertoire, the name was changed in 1994/96 to "young wind orchestra Marl" (short: jBM) and the association of the same name was founded. Today, under the direction of René Lankeit, the jBM is the largest of its kind in the Recklinghausen district with around 60 active musicians (pupils, students, adults) and has an impact far beyond the city limits. The members of the jBM Big Band also come from his ranks.
  • From 1978 to 2001 the anti - fascist band Hass , one of the first German punk bands in Germany, existed in the city.
  • The Multicolored Shades (1984–1990) was one of the few neo-psychedelic bands in the German underground of the 1980s that got a contract with a major label ( Virgin Records ).
  • Virus D was a nationally known German rock band from 1983 to 2001.
  • The HoT Hagenbusch , which has grown into a cultural center, provides several concerts a year. Organized by volunteer youths and young adults, the HoT offers a lobby for young and old, well-known bands. There is the annual and nationally known Ska in May or the Newcomer Festival with the recording studio prize .
Theater Marl. In the foreground the sculpture La Tortuga by Wolf Vostell

theatre

The Marl (TM) theater on Barkhausstrasse was built in 1953 and is considered a cultural draft horse for Marl. It is the central venue of the city of Marl for theater and concert events. The TM offers its audience a wide range of offers at a high level. The TM has increasingly developed into a house with a supraregional appeal that attracts visitors from the entire Recklinghausen district, the Emscher-Lippe region and the southern Münsterland. Some of the Ruhr Festival performances are also held here. When the Grimme Prize is awarded, the Marl Theater becomes the meeting place for German television celebrities. In 1997/98 the theater was extensively renovated.

library

The Marl City Library is the city-owned public library . It keeps the latest DVDs, CDs, novels and non-fiction books ready for its users. The central library, the department for adults, is located in the Marler Stern shopping center (Bergstrasse 230). The children's and youth department in the opposite tower , which was an experimental building for the town hall towers (Eduard-Weitsch-Weg 13). With a stock of approx. 80,000 books and media, users borrow approx. 225,000 media per year. Since August 2008, the city library has had an Internet branch for downloading e-books and other e-media.

The town hall complex on Creiler Platz
"Goliath" high-rise in the center of Marl

Buildings and sights

At the beginning of the 1960s, a new, artificial center ( city ) was designed for the geographical center of the city of Marl , which was intended to give the new city of Marl a face and an orderly structure as a unifying element of the old, expanding and overgrown settlement centers:

The listed town hall , which was built by the Dutch architects van den Broek and Jacob Bakema after their victory in an international competition from 1960 to 1967 in the new center of the city is worth seeing . In the meeting wing, which is roofed with a stretched folded concrete structure, is u. a. the council chamber. Underneath is the sculpture museum Der Glaskasten . The department towers protrude from the flat administration wing. Of the three to four towers initially planned, only two were implemented. The ceilings of the towers are connected to the mushroom ceiling above via reinforced concrete suspended supports, from which the loads are diverted downwards via a building core. After the carcinogenic substance PCB was found in the building on the basis of pollutant tests , but the city could not finance the renovation, the city council discussed the demolition of the building. In June 2013, however, the NRW building ministry declared that the building should be preserved as a monument.

The air-cushion roof of the Marler Stern shopping center is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest in the world.

Several complexes of high-rise skyscrapers (with different facades) were arranged around the town hall and the shopping center. Three of these high-rise chains still exist, the fourth, consisting of three units and with 17 storeys the highest complex ( Goliath ), was demolished in August 2006.

The geometric structure of the ensemble in the sense of the planners at the time is disturbed by this; However, the demolition of the " building sin " Goliath with its 153 apartments was welcomed by the Marlers many times. After the high-rise complex was demolished, a branch of the electronics chain Saturn was built on the property.

The city , the city center in the narrower sense, is completed by the artificially created Weiher City-See , and was planned as part of a car-friendly city and initially connected and made accessible by various four-lane motorways. However, some of these streets have been and are being resized.

In order to avoid further residential high-rise buildings in the extended surroundings of the city , the concept of hill houses (from 1966) was developed, which enables apartments with large terraces in a compact building and courtyards on the ground floor. Car parking spaces are located in the core of the basement. A total of four hill houses were built.

The Scharoun School in Marl on Westfalenstrasse is noteworthy and was built by the Berlin architect Hans Scharoun (best known for the Berlin Philharmonic ) between 1964 and 1970. The very fragmented building can only be accessed by viewing the interior. Scharoun implemented his innovative concept, which provided for different spatial conditions for lower, middle and upper grades, according to the age groups. According to plans by the city of Marl, the school was to be demolished in 2006 for economic reasons or used as a retirement home. After an information event organized by the Association of German Architects, the city's politicians recognized the value of their neglected building and decided to postpone it . The school should remain a school. Since March 2007 the music school of the city of Marl has moved into the Scharounschule. The ideal possibilities of the building offer the music school new rehearsal opportunities with the auditorium. The Aloysius Primary School also moved into the building in the 2016/2017 school year.

Standby settlement and ECA settlement

Standby settlement, Hiberniastraße

The need for living space close to the plant for the skilled workers, foremen and managerial employees who moved from other chemical cities from 1938 when the chemical works in Hüls was founded was covered by the standby settlement south of the plant area . The architect of the IG Farben parent plant, Clemens Anders, implemented the project in the traditionalist style of the Stuttgart school . Another example of the (in contrast to Bauhaus architecture) classically conservative housing style is the Kochhofsiedlung in Stuttgart.

Although workers and higher-level employees had roughly the same short distance to the plant in the event of operational disruptions, their apartments in the settlement were strictly separated from each other. The workers had apartments of 55–75 m² living space in the eastern part of the settlement, the masters and qualified skilled workers had semi-detached houses of around 100 m² in the central settlement area ( 51 ° 40 ′ 19.2 ″  N , 7 ° 6 ′ 22.1 ″  E ) around the Assigned to Hiberniastraße and Bitterfelder Straße. Managers in the west and south lived in much larger and prestigious houses, for example on Ludwigshafener Strasse. In 1943, 1200 apartments were built in the standby settlement and two other workers' settlements in Marl.

Typical of the location, which is important for the war effort and which was exposed to a very heavy bombing attack by the Allies in 1943, are the fragmentation bunkers that are still distributed over the entire settlement area. The houses also had stable shelters with gas locks in the basement, the semi-detached houses were connected to each other via escape doors via the basement. You can still see the arrows pointing to the cellar shelters on some houses.

Five houses in the standby housing estate in Ludwigshafener, Oppauer and Uerdinger Straße as well as the overall appearance of the estate are listed as historical monuments. Many of the houses are now privately owned.

Both the Marl Chemical Park and the standby settlement are on the route of industrial culture.

To remedy the great housing shortage after the destruction of World War II and the influx of refugees and displaced persons from the German eastern regions into the western part of Germany, the so-called ECA settlement was built in Marl-Brassert at the beginning of the 1950s within the framework and with funds of the Marshall Plan . Funding was initially provided by the US Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) set up in 1948, from 1951 through the Mutual Security Agency (MSA). As a requirement, the planners demanded that small apartments be built as cheaply as possible at a fixed price; social housing should be promoted. In 1951, the Federal Housing Ministry launched an ECA implementation competition for architects and construction companies. The settlement built afterwards still bears the name ECA settlement today.

District of Hüls

Hüls' center on Victoriastraße

In the district of Hüls you can find the old shopping area of ​​the city on Hülsstrasse , which was the core of Marl until the Marler Stern was built. The facades are kept in the style of the 19th century, but you can hardly see them in detail due to a glass roof, which is supposed to protect against rain.

In the Hüls-Süd area, connected to the Loemühlenbach nature reserve, there is the historic Loemühle watermill with its granary. It is used as a hotel and restaurant.

In 1925, a lead, zinc and ore deposit was discovered near the Auguste Victoria colliery. In 1926 an ore shaft was built at a depth of 806 meters to extract these materials . The headframe is the first covered scaffolding of the Koepe type . After completion, five million tons of raw ore, zinc and silver were mined from 1936. The shaft was used until 1962 and was finally shut down when mining no longer seemed profitable due to falling ore prices. In 1999 the shaft was filled. Today the winding tower and the machine house have been preserved as an industrial monument and landmark of Marl-Drewer and are looked after by the Heimatverein. A small mining museum is also located there.

In the quarter sleeve located opposite the Jahnstadion the Park Gänsebrink .

Alt-Marl district

The Old Windmill is located on Recklinghäuser Strasse in the Alt-Marl district . Together with the watermill at the Volkspark, it is a relic of the agricultural town history of Marl. The windmill started operating in 1850. At that time, Marl was still a heath village with 1,800 inhabitants. Since the water mill often had failures due to a lack of water, the bottleneck in grain grinding could be removed by the new windmill. In 1911 a suction motor was installed in the mill, so that it was possible to operate the mill even when there was no wind. The mill's blades, which were attached to a rotating cap, were dismantled in 1935 and replaced with a diesel engine. The grinding operation was only continued for a short time and after the rotating cap was torn off, the mill only served as a storage room. After an extensive renovation by the Heimatverein in 2001, the mill was saved from deterioration.

In the Alt-Marl district, adjacent to the Guido-Heiland open-air swimming pool, there is the Volkspark , the ponds of which have been developed to be natural.

In addition, the Steinernkreuz peasantry (with linden tree) is counted as part of Alt-Marl in the broader sense. The peasantry is still mainly characterized by agriculture and agriculture.

Film city of Marl

The following films were shot in Marl:

The following films were made about Marl:

  • Marl - A City of the Future (1958), documentation by Hans-Joachim Friedrichs
  • Marl - Trial of a City (1964), documentation by Peter Lilienthal about the plans to turn Marl into a big city
  • Attempt of a city - 50th award of the Grimme Prize (2014) Documentation about the history of German television and the city of Marl
  • NRW from above (2014), WDR documentation about North Rhine-Westphalia from the air. Sequences were filmed about the town hall, the Marler Stern, the city center, the hill houses and the Marl chemical park.
  • Let it be city (2014), documentation by Dominik Graf about the Grimme Prize and its ramifications with the history of the city of Marl

Sports

As of 2018, 75 sports clubs are listed on the city's website, offering more than 50 sports and having 19,800 active members. In addition, there are offers for recreational sports that are not organized by clubs. Some of them are:

  • swim
    • SG SSF Marl-Hüls
  • Field hockey
    • VfB Hüls
  • badminton
    • VfL Hüls
    • 1. Badminton Club Marl e. V. 1957 (Badminton Oberliga 1965–68, 1969–73, 1978–82, 2000–03)
  • billiards
    • Billardsportverein Marl 1989 e. V.
  • Skydiving
    • Association for Skydiving Marl e. V., CF world record 2005 and 2007
  • Soccer
  • baseball
    • Marler Sly Dogs
  • Handball
    • VfL Hüls
  • volleyball
    • VC Marl
  • basketball
    • Marler BC ´94
  • chess
    • SG Drewer 54
  • Diving
    • VfL Hüls (Orcas Diving Club)
  • tennis
    • TC Marl 33
  • Winter sports
    • Ski Guild Marl e. V.

Regular events

  • Street festival in the Brassert district (four days in May)
  • Wine festivals in Hüls (May) and Alt-Marl (August)
  • Volksparkfest (October 3rd)
  • Lake festival around the Citysee at the town hall (October)
  • Abraham's Festival of the Christian-Islamic Working Group CIAG Marl and the Martin-Luther-King School, annually in October
  • Cultural festival in Marl-Sinsen, in the Protestant community center on Goldregenstrasse on three days in late autumn. The organizer is the Sinsener Art cultural association.
  • Joint show of the breed rabbit club W 315 and the breed club RGZV Marl Steinernkreuz 1959 (beginning of November) in the pigeon deployment hall in Marl-Brassert on Brassertstrasse
  • Martinsmarkt in Marl-Hamm (November)
  • District association show of poultry and pigeon breeders in the mine construction workshop, AV Marl colliery (end of November)
  • Christmas market in Polsum (December)
  • Qualifying tournament for the German board game championship and the Marl board game tournament with the coveted challenge cup: the Marler Pöppel
  • Frentrop Shooting Festival (every second year in June)

Personalities

sons and daughters of the town

People who have worked in the city

  • Ingo Anderbrügge (* 1964), 1997 UEFA Cup winner, runs a football school in Marl
  • Heinrich Breloer (* 1942), film director, Grimme Prize winner ( The Manns - A novel of the century , Speer and He )
  • Yul Brynner (1920–1985), film actor, UN representative (UNESCO), January 3, 1960, accompanying the new construction of a settlement for Hungarian citizens and members of the “Philharmonia Hungarica”, 74 units on Brüderstraße.
  • Rudi Gutendorf (1926-2019), national soccer league coach and multiple national coach, coach at TSV-Marl-Hüls (1962/1963)
  • Ulrich Hänel (* 1957), former national field hockey player and two-time Olympic silver medalist, learned to play hockey in Marl
  • Maria Jacobi (1906–1994), member of the Bundestag from 1961 to 1972 and chairwoman of the Petitions Committee
  • Fritz Kaßmann (1908–1991), until 1970 Minister in North Rhine-Westphalia, from 1952 to 1955 administrative and city director in Marl
  • Hans Kröner (1909–2006), former CEO of Fresenius AG, previously employed at the BUNA works in Marl
  • Norbert Kühne (* 1941), German writer, has lived in Marl since 1973 and publishes under the pseudonym Ossip Ottersleben , among others
  • Günther Marschall (1913–1997), architect and builder of the new city center of Marl and other public buildings in the city
  • Jürgen Möllemann (1945–2003), Federal Minister and Vice Chancellor, longstanding active member of the Marl Parachuting Association
  • Hermann Moog (1901–1974), painter, founded Germany's first children's painting school in Marl in 1950 (“Insel” painting school).
  • Herman Prigann (1942–2008), German environmental and landscape artist, created the landscape art project “Water Levels” in the Sickingmühle district
  • Ernst Oldenburg (1914–1992), German painter and sculptor of Expressionism, had a studio in Marl in 1954.
  • Hartmut Riemenschneider (* 1958), President of the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches ; since 1998 Baptist pastor at the Marl Peace Church
  • Andi Rogenhagen (* 1965), film director and screenwriter
  • Wolfgang Sauer (1928–2015), blind pop singer, moderated the Paracelsus Clinic's patient radio from 2007
  • Hans Scharoun (1893–1972), architect and builder of the Scharoun School
  • Walter Schlempp (1905–1979), architect and builder of the Paracelsus Clinic Marl
  • Artur Schmidt (* 1985), German boxing champion 2006 and military world champion 2006, boxes for VfB Hüls
  • Herbert Somplatzki (* 1934), writer, worked for eleven years at the Auguste Victoria colliery
  • Dagmar Spengler (* 1974), solo cellist of the Staatskapelle Weimar, student at the Marl Music School
  • Emil Steffan (1899–1968), church architect and builder of the St. Konrad Church in Marl
  • Paul Stein (1874–1956), for many years General Director of the Auguste Victoria colliery and financier of the NSDAP and in charge of the IG Farben board of directors
  • Hans-Christian Ströbele (* 1939), lawyer and member of the Bundestag for Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen , lived in Marl until his studies
  • Heinrich Tenhumberg (1915–1979), Bishop of Münster and previously an industrial chaplain in Marl
  • Lisa Thomsen (* 1985), national volleyball player and German volleyball champion 2011, began her career at VC Marl
  • Hans Tietmeyer (1931–2016), President of the Deutsche Bundesbank from 1993 to 1999, worked in 1954 at the Auguste Victoria colliery
  • Leni Timmermann (1901–1992), born as Helene Pahlenberg, was a German pianist, piano teacher, choir director, vocal teacher, composer and author. She grew up in Marl-Hüls.
  • Werner Weinhold (* 1949), former NVA - Soldier and Germany's become known offenders

Carrier of the city plaque

People who have rendered outstanding services to the city of Marl through their work are honored by the city council with the city plaque, the highest honor bestowed in Marl.

  • Paul Baumann (1897–1967), Chairman of the Board of Chemische Werke Hüls
  • Martin Ludwig (* 1908), chief physician at the Paracelsus Clinic Marl
  • Helmut Seume (1906–1991), CEO of the Auguste Victoria colliery
  • Ernst Immel (1910–1978), mayor
  • Bert Donnepp ​​(1914–1995), head of the Marl Adult Education Center
  • Günther Eckerland (1919–1998), mayor and member of the Bundestag
  • Heinrich Bücker (* 1936), pastor and dean
  • Franz Emschermann (1919–2008), Mayor of Polsum
  • Josef Kind (1924–2010), Labor Director of the Auguste Victoria colliery
  • Hermann Richarz (1911–2007), chairman of IG Chemie
  • Gisela Bueren (1925–2013), council member and sponsor of numerous associations
  • Lord Yehudi Menuhin (1916–1999), violinist, violist, conductor, supporter of the Philharmonia Hungarica
  • Julie Kolb (1912–2009), long-time chairwoman of the Marl workers' welfare organization
  • Hans-Josef Overbeck (1930–2011), district farmer and long-time chairman of the supervisory board of Volksbank Marl
  • Hubert Schulte-Kemper (* 1946), bank director, entrepreneur and longstanding councilor (CDU), sponsor of the Philharmonia Hungarica
  • Gisela Brauckmann (1929–2018), longtime councilor (SPD), deputy mayor from 1989–1994
  • Frederico Engel (1925–2019), Chairman of the Engel Foundation
  • Manfred Degen (* 1939), qualified pedagogue and long-time member of the NRW state parliament
  • Brigitte Kluth (* 1953), founder and promoter of music

literature

  • Hartmut Dreier, Roland Günter , Manfred Walz Eds .: Marl. Industrial city of its own: New departure with nature and culture. Series: Einmischen und Mitgestalten, 23, Ed. Deutscher Werkbund NRW. Klartext Verlag , Essen 2014 ISBN 3-8375-1365-3
  • Ulrich Brack (Ed.): Rule and persecution. Marl under National Socialism. 3rd over Edition. Klartext, Essen 2011 ISBN 978-3-8375-0541-2 .
  • History workshop Marl (ed.): Immigration in Marl . Klartext, Essen 2013
    • Vol. 1: Immigration in politics and settlement
    • Vol. 2: Immigration and Religion
  • Norbert Kühne (Ed.): 90 years of the Hans-Böckler-Kollegschule Marl 1906–1996
  • Norbert Kühne (Ed.): Individual learning will gain in importance - 100 years of the Hans Böckler Vocational College Marl - Haltern. 2006
  • The Recklinghausen district . Konrad Theiss Verlag , Stuttgart 1979, ISBN 3-8062-0183-8 .
  • Paul Derks : The settlement name Sinsen. Ed .: Kulturverein SINSENER ART (Norbert Kühne), drawings: Dorothea Skolik-Niehues, photos: Heinz-Peter Langholz, Marl 2003 (available in the city archive).
  • Helmut Madynski: The old Marl. Fels Verlag, Marl 1985, ISBN 3-925409-00-9 .
  • Helmut Madynski: Chronicle of the Auguste Victoria colliery . Marl 1997
  • Trade union Auguste Victoria (ed.): The AV book: trade union, Auguste Victoria. History, reports, stories. Marl 1997 ISBN 978-3-921052-59-4
  • Klaus Mohr: “That doesn't happen in Germany.” Jewish people in Marl. Klartext, Essen 2012, ISBN 978-3-8375-0697-6 .
  • Joseph Schnetz : The Lar Problem. IM Richter's Royal Bavarian. Hofbuchdruckerei, Würzburg 1913, DNB 365076481 , p. 59.
  • Heinrich Dittmaier : The (H) Lar names. Böhlau-Verlag , Cologne 1963 DNB 450956512 , p. 45
  • Norbert Schüpp: From villages to town. Inaugural dissertation. Rudolf Stehle, Düsseldorf 1963, DNB 481297715 , p. 2, footnote 1
  • Heinrich Schäpers: Pictures from the history of Marl. Self-published, Marl 1966, DNB 740850148 , p. 64
  • Ludger Tewes : Youth at War. By air force helpers and soldiers 1939–1945. Reimar Hobbing Verlag 1989, ISBN 3-920460-49-9 .
  • Westphalian Museum of Archeology: Under lock and key. Castles and fortifications in NRW, 1998, p. 145, u. a. Photo of the wall cut, ISBN 3-925608-42-7
  • Karl Brandt: Early historical soil research in the central Ruhr area. Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh , Paderborn 1952, DNB 450587754
  • Heinrich Lowinski: Urban development in industrial development areas. Investigated using the example of the city and the office of Marl. Inaugural dissertation, Münster 1962. Bongers, Recklinghausen 1964, DNB 453088740 , p. 310, footnote 4.

Web links

Commons : Marl  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 .  ( Help on this )
  2. ^ State development plan North Rhine-Westphalia (LEP NRW). (PDF; 1.8 MB) In: land.nrw. 2016, p. 123 , accessed October 13, 2017 .
  3. a b Population statistics December 31, 2018 Marl. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 8, 2019 ; accessed on May 8, 2019 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.marl.de
  4. Explanation of the regional division. In: www.marl.de. Retrieved May 20, 2018 .
  5. ^ City administration Marl (ed.): Marl areas per district and statistical district - area sizes of the city of Marl . March 15, 2012 ( marl.de [PDF; 23 kB ; accessed on May 18, 2017]).
  6. ^ Areas of the statistical districts , City of Marl
  7. a b c Map of the statistical districts of Marl , accessed on May 9, 2016 (PDF; 6.5 MB)
  8. ^ Wilhelm von Kürten: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 95/96 Kleve / Wesel. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1977 (75 pages). → Online map (PDF, 6 MB)
  9. a b only recorded on the map 1: 100,000
  10. ^ Heinrich Dittmaier: The (H) lar names. Sighting and interpretation . Cologne, Graz 1963, p. 45.
  11. ^ Wilhelm Mummenhoff: On the history of the witch hunt in the city of Recklinghausen and its surroundings during the 16th century in Vestischer Zeitschrift Volume 34 (1927) pp. 75 - 90
  12. ^ Karl Heinrich Ludwig Pölitz: Handbook of the history of the sovereign states of the Rhine Confederation , Volume 2, Weidmann, 1811 p. 185 ( Google Books )
  13. ^ Newspaper report on the train accident , Marler Zeitung
  14. The western part of the former Sinsen farmers, incorporated into Marl, corresponds to today's usage of the term "Sinsen" because only it has become a continuous settlement.
  15. Stephanie Reekers: The regional development of the districts and communities of Westphalia 1817-1967 . Aschendorff, Münster Westfalen 1977, ISBN 3-402-05875-8 , p. 261 .
  16. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 316 .
  17. ^ Website of the city of Marl: Council election 2014
  18. ^ Website of the city of Marl: Current council members
  19. Directories of the results of the local elections for the State of North Rhine-Westphalia (LDS NRW) from 1975 to 2009
  20. Elective profile of the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics NW ( Memento of the original from August 19, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.it.nrw.de
  21. Election results 1999  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 5.9 MB)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / webshop.it.nrw.de  
  22. 2004 election results  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 7.0 MB)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / webshop.it.nrw.de  
  23. Election results 2009  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 3.5 MB)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / webshop.it.nrw.de  
  24. ^ Website of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen Marl
  25. ^ Website of the city of Marl, mayor election 2014
  26. City of Marl: New logistics park is on the way , accessed on October 8, 2016
  27. Marler Zeitung: Change brings firefighters extra work
  28. City of Marl fire brigade - rescue at heights.
  29. Red Cross Community Marl. ( Memento of the original from January 28, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.sv-marl.drk.de
  30. Marler Zeitung of June 18, 2013: The monument cannot be shaken
  31. ↑ For current plans and literature on the school, see the detailed Lemma Scharounschule!
  32. Route of industrial culture  : standby settlement of the chemical works in Hüls
  33. ^ Hüls AG - company history of the Marl plant. In: nrw2000.de. Archived from the original on November 30, 2002 ; accessed on May 20, 2018 .
  34. Gert Eiben: Fascinated by the Marl film. In: www.derwesten.de. WAZ NewMedia GmbH & Co. KG, December 21, 2011, accessed on June 26, 2013 .
  35. Leisure and sport in Marl. In: marl.de. Archived from the original on September 24, 2018 ; Retrieved on December 5, 2018 (The content of the linked page is not persistent. The information in the article is based on the archived version.).