Basic industry

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In the basic industries ( English primary industry ) are raw materials mined or extracted and processed so that they in other sectors of the economy further processed can be.


The unclear definition of the term basic materials also makes it difficult to determine the object of production in the basic industry. The demarcation between basic materials, semi-finished products , raw materials or intermediate products is often difficult because it is a fluid production process; Industrial raw materials are always basic materials for a further industrial production process. Even semi-finished products after the first processing stage (such as pig iron and raw copper) are also still regarded as raw materials because they represent raw materials for further processing. The basic industry already produces intermediate goods due to the minimal processing .


The basic industry belongs to the primary sector of primary production and processes primary raw materials such as agricultural products , natural gas , crude oil , ores , coal , metals , minerals , timber or salts into basic materials for industrial production . The basic industry includes mining , chemical industry , iron-making industry, energy industry and wood industry . The basic synthesis products manufactured in the chemical industry are also part of the basic industry.

economic aspects

In the early stages of industrialization , primary production and the basic industry determine economic growth and also the volume of traffic . The primary industry consists mainly of plant-intensive and energy-intensive large companies , because the large capital requirements are required for the property, plant and equipment operated with a lot of energy . Therefore, in the dominant income statement the depreciation and energy costs . Large companies can also take advantage of the economies of scale because of the usable degression of fixed costs .

In the post-war period, the Investment Aid Act of January 7, 1952, forced the German commercial economy to provide the basic industry with investment aid in order to cover its capital requirements.

Web links / literature

Individual evidence

  1. Martin Brown, Status and Development Tendencies of Supply Chain Management in the German Basic Industry , 2009, p. 23
  2. Georg Ewerhart / Luitpold Uhlmann / Manfred Berger, Money and Production Structure, 1991, p. 20
  3. Working group Dr. Krähe der Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft (ed.), The organization of the management: management organization , 1971, p. 130
  4. ^ German Transport Science Society (ed.), Transport Science Research , Volumes 17-20, 1967, p. 34
  5. Section 1, Paragraph 1 of the Investment Aid Act of January 7, 1952 read: "To cover the urgent investment needs of coal mining, the iron and steel industry and the energy sector, the commercial economy ... has to provide investment aid ... of 1 billion marks ...".