City of Willich
|Height :||40 m above sea level NN|
|Area :||11.77 km²|
|Residents :||6844 (Feb. 29, 2012)|
|Population density :||581 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||January 1, 1970|
|Postal code :||47877|
|Area code :||02156|
Location of Neersen in Willich
Derivation of the name
Neersen is named after the river Niers , which at that time was of great importance for Neersen. Until it was artificially straightened in 1930, the Niers flowed directly past the site, fed a water mill and served as a water inlet to the moat. A letter from the Archbishop of Cologne, dated 16 December 1263, calls the steward of Neersen "Vait van der Nersin". Since family names were not yet common at that time, this is to be understood as the original name "Vogt von der Niers" or "von Neersen". On a Dutch map from 1617 the place is recorded as "Niersen". Neersen first referred to the castle there and the feudal territory administered from it . The civil settlement emerging in the vicinity of the castle was also known as “Nerstraeß” or “Neer-Straße”, that is, the street on the Niers. Probably after the feudal glory Neersen was dissolved in 1798, Neersen finally prevailed as a place name.
The settlement around Neersen Castle initially grew very slowly. In the 15th century it consisted of eight small rural properties. Around 1550 there were 30, around 1660 51 and around 1800 200 houses. In 1900 there were 400 houses with 2,616 inhabitants. Finally in 1969 the statistics recorded 5,286 inhabitants. Around 6,900 people currently live in Neersen.
In 1263 Neersen was expressly mentioned for the first time as the seat of the Neersen bailiffs, at the latest in 1371 as the location of a moated castle on the Niers . The Niers formed the border between the Electorate of Cologne and the Duchy of Jülich . In addition to the castle, Neersen consisted of only a few houses and, together with the larger village of Anrath, formed the glory of Neersen. At that time, Neersen was part of the parish of Anrath.
In 1579 a gallows was erected at the Schwarzen Pfuhl , and in 1580 the Vogt von Neersen was granted high jurisdiction . During the Truchsessischen War the Vogt von Neersen stood on the Protestant side, whereupon Neersen and Anrath were also plundered by Catholic mercenary troops in 1585.
Neersen, too, was not spared from the effects of the Thirty Years' War . In 1642 Neersen was occupied by the Catholic equestrian general Johann von Werth , who liberated the region from Protestant troops. Gerhard Vynhoven from Neersen may have played a not insignificant role, because as a Catholic priest he was military chaplain in von Werth's unit. A little later, in the years 1654 to 1660, built Vynhoven north of the village, the pilgrimage - Chapel Little Jerusalem . The barons of Virmond-Neersen had come to considerable wealth through active participation in the war on the Catholic side and generously supported Vynhoven. The Virmonds had the castle converted into a castle (1661–1669) and in 1652 they founded a church in Neersen, in which they settled a Minorite monastery in Neersen in 1658 . In addition to an important pastoral activity, the monks also developed a lively trade in cattle, wine and food. The first market in Neersen, the Halbfasten- or Schüppenmarkt, was held by the monastery.
In the French Revolution following coalition wars Neersen was occupied during the autumn campaign in October 1794 by French revolutionary troops. Like all the conquered territories on the left bank of the Rhine annexed by France , the place was incorporated into the Département de la Roer (Dt. Rur department) in 1798 and became French national territory through the Peace of Lunéville in February 1801.
Neersen became part of the Arrondissement de Crévelt (German district of Krefeld) and the capital of its own canton , the canton of Neersen. Twelve mayor's offices ( Mairie in French ) were subordinate to the canton , namely: Neersen (including Anrath , Clörath and Kehn ), Alt- Willich , Kleinkempen , Schiefbahn , Süchteln , Gladbach , Obergeburth , Oberniedergeburth , Unterstiedergeburth , Liedberg , Korschenbroich and Kleinenbroich .
On September 18, 1798, at the urging of the Guardian of the Minorite Monastery, Father Quirin Leopold Eggerath, the Neersen monastery church was separated from the Anrath parish and Neersen was raised to parish. Eggerath became the first pastor of the new parish. In doing so, he saved the monastery church from secularization by the French, during which the rest of the monastery was officially dissolved in 1802. At that time the new parish numbered 1,200 Catholics. Eggerath consecrated the church to Saint Napoleon in 1803 and surprisingly succeeded in avoiding the planned annulment of the young parish and even getting the buildings of the former monastery back.
As part of the Prussian district division, the Neersen mayor's office was added to the Krefeld district in 1816 . In 1819 the mayor's office in Neersen was reclassified to the district of Gladbach . Anrath was removed from the Neersen mayor and merged with the Kleinkempen mayor, which moved from the Gladbach district to the Krefeld district.
By the beginning of the 19th century, some textile factories had settled in Neersen as part of industrialization . There the locally grown flax was woven into linen and velvet made from imported cotton . Particularly noteworthy is the "Rheinische Velvetfabrik", which was founded in Neersen in 1864 by the Krefeld factory owner Gustav Klemme and was a major employer until it went bankrupt in 1928.
In 1832 a new cemetery was laid out on Kirchhofstrasse.
In 1856 the parish church of St. Napoleon was again dedicated to St. Mary's Conception , to which it was consecrated from 1671 to 1803.
In 1877, the Neersen railway station was put into operation south of the town, forming the junction between the Neuss – Viersen and Krefeld – Rheydt lines . Rail traffic there was gradually discontinued from 1968 to 1994.
Between 1884 and 1893, an exchange of territory between Neersen and Schiefbahn was carried out. Neersen received a section in Hagwinkel / Vennheide / Giesgesheide and transferred land in the Straterhof / Elserhütte area.
In 1929, Neersen, Anrath, Schiefbahn and Willich fell to the newly formed district of Kempen-Krefeld through a municipal reorganization .
The artificial straightening of the Niers took place in 1930. Since then it no longer flows directly past the castle, but is approx. 1 km from the castle.
In the time of National Socialism , enthusiasm for the Nazi ideology was taken to extremes. The Minoritenplatz was renamed “Adolf-Hitler-Platz” and, this was extra-mandatory, the Malteserstraße was renamed “Straße der SA”. The council members at that time called themselves in the council minutes only with pseudonyms, such as Efmann, Pemann etc.
In 1942 the small settlement Cloerbruchallee was transferred from the city of Mönchengladbach to the municipality of Neersen as part of a reallocation process .
In 1960 the former Minorite monastery and the main part of the old parish church were demolished and a new church was built in its place, which was consecrated in 1962. From the old parish church only the choir remained.
In 1965 the first and only Protestant church was built in Neersen , which was named "Friedenskirche" in the mid-1980s.
After the entry into force of the “Law on the reorganization of the district of Kempen-Krefeld and the independent city of Viersen” on January 1, 1970, the community of Neersen was merged with the neighboring communities of Anrath, Schiefbahn and Willich to form the city of Willich . The Castle Neersen serves as city hall of Willich since 1,971th In 2003 the town hall was expanded to include the newly built Technical Town Hall.
coat of arms
In the 20th century, the municipality of Neersen gave itself a coat of arms that was modeled on that of the former barons and counts of Neersen. The municipality officially carried this coat of arms until the city of Willich was founded in 1970.
The fields have the following meanings:
- the sex of those von der Neersen (1263–1487)
- the sex of those from Virmond (also from Virmont or von Viermund ) (1502–1744)
- Kurköln , former feudal lords of Neersen (around 953–1794)
- the rule of Nordenbeck , ancestral seat of the von Virmond
List of Lords of Neersen
- before 1263 – after 1279: Heinrich I. von der Neersen
- around 1327: Heinrich II. von der Neersen
- around 1340–1370: Heinrich III. from Neersen
- 1370–1414: Heinrich IV. Von der Neersen
- 1414–1438: Heinrich V von der Neersen
- 1438–1487: Henry VI. from Neersen
- 1487–1502: Anton von Palant
- 1502–1539: Ambrosius I von Viermund
- 1540–1572: Johann I von Viermund
- 1572–1588: Ambrosius II von Viermund
- 1588–1632: Johann II von Viermund
- 1632–1681: Adrian Wilhelm von Viermund
- 1681–1688: Ambrosius Adrian von Viermund
- 1689–1744: Ambrosius Franz von Virmont
- Neersen Castle with landscaped gardens in the English style
- Pilgrimage Chapel Little Jerusalem
- St. Konrad Chapel in the Grenzweg settlement, directly on the Niers
- Fietsallee on the north canal
- Castle Festival: Open-air theater festival in the courtyard of the castle
- Bathtub races on the Niers, not far from the Grenzweg settlement
- Shooting festivals
- Schützenfest Grenzweg (St. Konrad-Schützengilde Grenzweg eV)
- Schützenfest Neersen-Zentrum (St. Sebastianus Brotherhood 1802 Neersen eV)
- Schützenfest Kapelle Klein-Jerusalem (Schützenverein Klein-Jerusalem 1854 eV)
- Gerhard Vynhoven (1596–1674), Catholic priest
- Emil Hagmann (1872–1919), Mayor of the Neersen Mayor's Office from 1900 to 1905
- Hans-Waldemar Bublitz (1910–1986), actor, author and director
Rail and bus transport
The Neuss-Viersen and Krefeld-Rheydt . However, it was not really in Neersen, but more than 500 m southeast in Mönchengladbach- Kloerbruch Am Nordkanal (street name) near the Niers. The Neersen motorway junction is located near the Neersen train station.was in the intersection area of the two railway lines
In local public transport, the bus lines 036, 038, 056 and 094 cross at Neersener Schloss, which run to the rest of the Willich city area and the neighboring towns of Mönchengladbach (036), Viersen (094) and Krefeld (056).
The Neersen motorway junction is named after Neersen , which, along with the Düsseldorf-Nord junction, is one of two intersections between the two federal motorways 44 (Mönchengladbach-Ost - Ratingen-Ost ) and 52 (Roermond - Düsseldorf). The junction of the same name is also located on federal motorway 44. Since the motorway section of the A52 at Neersen only leads from Roermond to Düsseldorf, where the A52 ends in the west of Oberkassel and is interrupted from there to Düsseldorf- Mörsenbroich , where the two A52 section from Düsseldorf to Essen begins, which the A44 in turn at the Düsseldorf intersection -Nord crosses, since the A44 also serves to connect two A52 sections for the A52 connection Roermond - Mönchengladbach - Essen. The A44 is also interrupted from the Neersen junction in the east of Mönchengladbach, but there is a connection between the two A44 sections Aachen – Mönchengladbach and Mönchengladbach – Ratingen via the A52 from the Neersen junction via the Mönchengladbach junction and from the A61 to AD Jackerath -East.
In addition to the two motorways, the two state roads L29 and L361 also cross in Neersen. Both are connected to the two federal motorways at the Neersen motorway junction.
Neersen is best known for the Neersen motorway junction of the same name southeast of the town, which connects the A 44 and A 52 federal motorways . Before finalizing the Dusseldorf airport bridge in June 2002 accumulated here the traffic, which is why Neersen nearly every morning in the regular traffic was mentioned.
- Johann Peter Lentzen, Franz Verres: History of glory Neersen and Anrath. With special consideration of the old parish of Anrath with the villages and localities Neersen, Schiefbahn, Kehn and Clörath as well as the castle and the Lords of Neersen. Lentzen, Fischeln 1883. Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf .
References and comments
- Pieter van der Keere: Map Germania Inferior , Amsterdam 1617. The British Library Board (BL Maps C.7.c.20)
- So z. B. in the document Signposts to the Little Jerusalem Chapel by Gerhard Vynhoven around 1670.
- Anton Friedrich Büsching : New description of the earth. Third part which contains the German Empire according to its current state constitution. 5th edition. Verlag Johann Carl Bohn, Hamburg 1771. Volume 1, p. 89.
- Konrad Eubel: History of the Cologne Minorite Order Province. J. & W. Boisserée, Cologne 1906, p. 159.
- Sabine Graumann: French administration on the Lower Rhine. The Roerdepartement 1798–1814. Essen 1990.
- Konrad Eubel: History of the Cologne Minorite Order Province. P. 161.
- Actually this was a uniquely absurd flattery towards the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte , especially since there was no Saint Napoleon.
- Konrad Eubel: History of the Cologne Minorite Order Province. P. 162.
- Friedrich von Restorff : Topographical-Statistical Description of the Royal Prussian Rhine Province. Publisher Nicolaische Buchhandlung, Berlin / Stettin 1830. Volume 1, p. 483.
- Franz Heinrich Ungewitter: Latest description of the earth and national studies, or geographic-statistical-historical manual. Verlag Adler and Ditze, Dresden 1848. Volume 1, p. 434.
- History of the city of Willich and its old communities. Willicher Kulturstiftung der Sparkasse Krefeld, Willich 2003, ISBN 3-933969-34-4 , pp. 390, 854.
- 5th ARMORED DIVISION at www.history.army.mil
- Martin Bünermann: The communities of the first reorganization program in North Rhine-Westphalia . Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, Cologne 1970, DNB 456219528 , p. 115 .