City of Willich
|Height :||39 m|
|Area :||12.64 km²|
|Residents :||11,405 (April 1, 2020)|
|Population density :||902 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||January 1, 1970|
|Postal code :||47877|
|Area code :||02154|
Location of Schiefbahn in Willich
Schiefbahn is a district of the city of Willich in North Rhine-Westphalia on the left bank of the Lower Rhine . Schiefbahn is bounded to the west by the A 44 , north by Alt-Willich , south by the Nordkanal and east - with some distance - by Kaarst .
In the year 1300 the Honschaft Underbruch (also Underbroik or Unterbroich ; Latin: palus inferior ) located in the eastern local area of today's Schiefbahn was mentioned in a document in a tax register of the Vogtes von Neersen . As a Dingstuhl, it belonged to the Liedberg district of Cologne until 1794 .
In 1430 the field name "Schyffbaen" appeared for the first time, from which Schiefbahn developed and which replaced Unterbroich as a place name around 1500. The origins of this place name from a disc stand, where the shooters brotherhoods in archery practiced. In dialect, a target is still called “Schiev” and the term “bahn” for shooting range was used in the past. Remnants of this shooting range were still to be seen until the Second World War.
The village began to grow around 1430: the first Schiefbahner settled around a chapel (first mentioned in a document in 1458), which was dedicated to St. Hubertus . On March 21, 1558 the chapel congregation was raised to an independent parish. Then baptisms could take place in Schiefbahn, for marriages one had to go to the mother parish in Anrath until 1655 . In 1598 the chapel was replaced by a church, which was the destination of many pilgrims until 1830 as the Hubertus pilgrimage church. Today's parish church of St. Hubertus was built between 1853 and 1855.
After Schiefbahn had been repeatedly plundered during the siege of Neuss (1474/75) and the Truchsessian War (1583–1588), the place was raised to a patch around 1590 , which gave the right to fortify the settlement with gates, ramparts and ditches .
Schiefbahn owes its development mainly to its favorable location on a road that already connected the Rhine and Maas in prehistoric times. This ran along the bank of an old arm of the Rhine that stretched from Kaarst to Oedt. The arm of the Rhine passed Schiefbahn in the year 1254, until in the 13th and 14th centuries it then swamped, rotted and pitted and caused a large fracture . From 1692 there was even a stagecoach line from Neuss to Venlo via this “main road” . In addition to the usual (until 1900 mainly practiced) agriculture, trade, handicrafts and trades also gained a certain importance. Goose breeding was temporarily of particular importance in Schiefbahn; in addition to flax for local linen weaving, hops were also grown at times .
In 1794, Schiefbahn was occupied by French revolutionary troops. Under these in 1800 the Dingstuhl Schiefbahn was combined with a part of the Honschaft Unterbruch, which now belongs to Oedt, to the Mairie Schiefbahn and became part of the canton of Neersen . Under Napoleon Bonaparte , construction of the north canal began in 1809 , but was abandoned in 1811. In 1814 the region was occupied by Russian and Prussian troops and from 1815 Schiefbahn belonged to the Kingdom of Prussia . As part of the Prussian district division, Schiefbahn was added to the district of Gladbach in 1816. The finished section of the north canal was made navigable under Prussian administration from Neuss via Schiefbahn to Neersen and was used until 1850.
In May 1849, citizens of Schiefbahn took part in the march on Neuss during the revolutionary unrest , which was however crushed by the Prussian military.
In 1658 Schiefbahn had 800 inhabitants, in 1798 already 1,500. In the century before last the textile industry grew: in 1855 there were 287 house looms for silk and 228 for velvet. Mechanization brought the weaving industry as the main branch of employment to Schiefbahn around 1900. In 1889 the Deuss & Oetker silk weaving mill started operations in Schiefbahn; the 16,000 m² weaving room of this factory was the largest in the German Empire at the time . By 1917 the number of residents rose to 4,031, there were two tram lines, and the church and school were expanded.
In 1877 the Schiefbahn station on the north canal was completed and the Neuss – Schiefbahn railway line opened, which was extended to Viersen in 1878 . In 1883 the Niederheide station was built on the Krefeld – Willich – Rheydt line. The lines were shut down around 1955. From 1910 to 1961 there was a tram connection through the Schiefbahn to Krefeld, and from 1920 to 1957 another to Mönchengladbach. Since then, bus routes have kept traffic to the neighboring cities.
In 1929 the community of Schiefbahn fell to the newly formed district of Kempen-Krefeld through a municipal reorganization .
At the beginning of the 19th century there was also a Jewish community in Schiefbahn, which at times had more than 50 members. From 1858 they used a prayer house on “Hochstraße” and in 1890 they built a synagogue on “Am Tömp” street . The synagogue was set on fire by SA men on November 10, 1938, the morning after the so-called Kristallnacht , it burned down completely and was later torn down. In the end, all Schiefbahn Jews were deported; at most three of them survived the Holocaust .
At the end of the Second World War , on the evening of March 1, 1945, heavy fighting broke out between the United States Army and the Wehrmacht , in which 22 heavy American tanks were destroyed. In the fighting, 28 German and more than 100 American soldiers and 7 German civilians were killed.
In 1951 a Protestant congregation was founded in Schiefbahn. The occasional Protestant families who had moved to Schiefbahn since the beginning of the 20th century had been reinforced by numerous Protestant refugees from the eastern German regions since the end of the war in 1945 . In 1957 the congregation built the makeshift Evangelical Church Schiefbahn, which was renamed "Hoffnungskirche" in the 1980s and gave way to a new building in 1994/95.
After the Second World War, several new building areas were developed and the road network was expanded. When the town of Willich was founded on January 1, 1970, the community of Schiefbahn brought more than 10,000 residents into the new town.
coat of arms
A coat of arms led the community of Schiefbahn from 1947 until the amalgamation of the city of Willich in 1970. The coat of arms shows in a green field above a silver St. Hubertus trophy with gold antlers and a gold cross, a silver, bombarded disc, flanked by two silver, gold-tipped, medieval ones Crossbow bolt, on the right a pointed bolt for the target, on the left a butt bolt for clay pigeon shooting. The coat of arms combines the symbol of the place name with the symbol of the parish patron.
- Fietsallee on the north canal
- Catholic Church of St. Hubertus
- Heinrich Benedikt Sürder (1841–1916), mayor
- Hans Lamers (1926–2014), lawyer and local politician
- Karl-Heinz Schriefers (1926–2018), surgeon and medical professional politician
- Norbert Schmitz (* 1933), physicist, university professor and non-fiction author
- Josef Heyes (* 1948), politician (CDU)
- Stefan Funken (* 1966), mathematician
- Ludwig Hügen: The war is coming to an end. Lower Rhine reports on Operation Grenade 1945. Series of publications by the district of Kempen-Krefeld, 1974.
- Ludwig Hügen: Operation Grenade. The occupation of the cities of M. Gladbach, Rheydt, Viersen and Krefeld-Uerdingen by American tank divisions and the tank battle in Schiefbahn on 1st / 2nd March 1945 . Self-published, Willich 2003, ISBN 978-3928504225 , pp. 97 ff.
- today Emmaus parish
- Martin Bünermann: The communities of the first reorganization program in North Rhine-Westphalia . Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, Cologne 1970, p. 115 .