|State :||Czech Republic|
|Historical part of the country :||Bohemia|
|Region :||Jihočeský kraj|
|District :||České Budějovice|
|Area :||5560 ha|
|Geographic location :||48 ° 58 ' N , 14 ° 28' E|
|Height:||381 m nm|
|Residents :||94,014 (Jan. 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||370 01|
|License plate :||C.|
I / 3 : Prague - Linz
I / 20 : Budweis - Písek
I / 34 : Budweis - Jindřichův Hradec
České Budějovice – Plzeň
České Budějovice – Veselí nad Lužnicí
České Velenice – České Budějovice
St. Valentin – České Budějovice
|Next international airport :||Budweis airport|
|Lord Mayor :||Jiří Svoboda (as of 2018)|
|Address:||nám. Přemysla Otakara II. 1/1
370 92 České Budějovice
|Location of České Budějovice in the district of České Budějovice|
Budweis ( Czech České Budějovice ; German also Bohemian Budweis ) is the largest city in South Bohemia and the administrative seat of the South Bohemian Region with around 93,000 inhabitants . The city is known worldwide for its Budweiser beer , it is also a university town and seat of the Budweis diocese . The historic city center was included in the list of urban monument reserves in the Czech Republic in 1980.
Budweis is located in the Czech Republic , about 120 kilometers south of Prague and about 80 kilometers north of the Austrian city of Linz . This strategically and economically and militarily favorable location has played a very important role since the city was founded
The confluence of the Vltava and Maltsch rivers was chosen in 1265 by the Bohemian King Přemysl Ottokar II as the starting point for the foundation of the royal city of Budweis, with which he wanted to consolidate his position of power over the Lords of Rosenberg in South Bohemia. In exchange, the king gave the castle and the village of Velešín to Čéč von Budweis in exchange .
The city was settled and built up by craftsmen and traders, and thanks to the royal favor, the favorable location and the income from tolls and tariffs at the crossroads of trade routes, it grew economically rapidly. Before 1300, construction began on the most important building group in the city, the Dominican monastery with cloister and church and the neighboring salt barn, a testament to the Gothic style in South Bohemia. For loyalty to the crown, Budweis has been rewarded time and again and given advantages and privileges. At the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries, two churches were built and the city was surrounded with new walls. Thanks to its favorable location, Budweis became an important diplomatic arena in the 14th century. Charles IV visited the city for diplomatic negotiations with his neighbors. During his last visit, he had houses demolished in the town square. He had his own house built for the meat market, which today houses a traditional restaurant under the Czech name “Mastne Kramy” . The side rooms to the left and right of the central nave are reminiscent of the old sales rooms. During the troubled 15th century, the Catholic-orientated Budweis was an important pillar against the attacks of the Hussites and participated in its suppression. The city itself was never attacked thanks to its well-developed defenses. Ladislaus Postumus gave the town to the Rosenbergs as a fief in 1453. Since the Rosenbergs had been archenemies of Budweis since the city was founded, the city's population opposed the king. Only Georg von Podiebrad was able to resolve the dispute between the Rosenbergs and Budweis, with the result that Budweis remained a royal city. With around 4500 inhabitants, it was one of the largest and most important cities in the Bohemian Kingdom.
The 16th century brought the city strong economic growth, mainly through the mining of silver . In 1541 it was given mountain freedom in order to be able to exploit ore deposits on its own property and to withstand economic competition from the nearby mountain town of Rudolfstadt. In 1550 the first salt ship with 125 runners of salt sailed from Budweis on the Vltava to Prague . The fish farm in the nearby pond areas in Vodňany and marketing brought profit. Buildings in the Renaissance style were built in Ceske Budejovice . A eatery for travelers was built in the meat banks in 1560. In 1569 its own mint was set up in Budweis, which also processed silver that was mined in the mining area around the town of Rudolfstadt (today Rudolfov). In 1577 the city tower " Černá věž " (Black Tower) was completed next to the St. Nicholas Church.
During the uprising of the estates and the Thirty Years' War that followed , Budweis remained loyal to the imperial and suffered a lot as a result. So in 1618 Field Marshal Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Comte de Boucquoi was included there; there was great need and there was hardly any bread to buy. In 1620 Field Marshal Baltasar von Marradas opened his headquarters in Budweis. The fortifications of that time made the city a strategically important fortress, where in 1631 the Bohemian Crown Jewels were brought to safety and kept in the Church of St. Nicholas. The highest state officials also fled to the Budweis fortress several times. During the Thirty Years War , the city became the administrative city of the Kingdom of Bohemia . While the actual war events only caused minor damage to the building fabric, a major fire in July 1641 destroyed 226 houses, more than half of the city. After the end of the war in 1648, a slow reconstruction of the city began, which lasted several decades. A begging trip through southern Bohemia and Austria was permitted for the town church. A lot of money and material came together. The abbot of Stift Schlägl , for example, donated 47,060 small panes of glass for the new church windows.
The Baroque era significantly changed the appearance of the city, enriching Ceske Budejovice with a number of religious buildings, including one of the city's symbols, the Samson Fountain and the town hall on the market square and the Church of St. Nicholas.
The Theresian reforms and Josephinism in the middle of the 18th century made Budweis the seat of a newly formed circle. The Piarist Order , who settled here in 1762, established a grammar school with the language of instruction in Latin and became a training center for gifted boys from the Bohemian Forest , contributed to the further cultural significance of the city . The city theater was built at the same time. Under Emperor Joseph II , the Budweiser diocese was founded in 1785 and a seminary and a philosophy institute opened two decades later. In 1795 the German citizens of the city founded the Budweiser Bürgerbräu . The income flowed partly into the city treasury and was partly distributed among the citizens of the city involved. In the 19th century she made the city internationally known.
The 19th century brought the city a noticeable upswing in a society that had become bourgeois. A particularly successful entrepreneur was the railway engineer Franz Anton von Gerstner . The horse-drawn tram from Linz to Budweis , built between 1825 and 1832 as one of the first two on the European continent, connected Budweis as a terminal with the city of Linz in Upper Austria, and together with the shipping traffic on the Vltava, which was carried out by the entrepreneur Adalbert Lanna was modernized and rationalized, the transport of goods to Prague and down the Elbe and to Vienna improved. This also increased the importance of industry and trade.
In 1841 Ceske Budejovice had 13,097 inhabitants, of whom 8,135 lived in the city and 4,962 in the surrounding towns belonging to the city. The “dominant language in the city and in the localities Rudolphstadt, Brod, Dubiken, Strodenitz, Vierhöf, Gauerndorf, Leitnowitz, Hackelhöf, Plan, Dirnfellern, Hlinz, Lodus, Pfaffendorf, Böhmischfellern, Pfaffenhöf, Schindelhöf, Ruden, Humeln, Bucharten, Mess , Gutwasser und Strups is the German. However, everywhere, especially in the city, you will find people who are familiar with both national languages. "
In 1847 the sons of the architect Joseph Hardtmuth from Asparn near Vienna relocated the company to Budweis, when graphite was found in Mugrau near the city and today's company, Koh-i-Noor Hardtmuth , a production of pencils and ceramic goods , emerged as the successor . The town received its first large factory with 2000 employees through the sons of Joseph Hardtmuth. In 1871 the Summerauer Bahn was built via Kaplitz (Czech: Kaplice) to Linz. Until 1890, the city was predominantly German-speaking and formed a German- language island with the surrounding villages . Then the Czech-speaking population gradually gained a majority through the mass influx of Czechs, but mayors remained German-speaking personalities until 1918 and the emergence of Czechoslovakia - due to the census suffrage that had been in effect until then . At the 1930 census, Germans made up about 14% of the city's population.
In 1895 a joint-stock brewery was founded by the Czechs, today's Budweiser Budvar Brewery , as a counterpart to the Budweiser Bürgerbräu.
In January 1915 Jaroslav Hašek moved into the barracks on Marienplatz (Mariánské náměstí) and served until September in the Budweiser kuk Bohemian infantry regiment "Freiherr von Czibulka" No. 91 on the Eastern Front . He processed his experiences during this time in the anti-militaristic and satirical picaresque novel The brave soldier Schwejk .
Budweis was occupied by the German Wehrmacht in 1939 and became part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia . From the first day of the occupation of Budweis, under the direction of Heinz Stossberg, the Gestapo played a key role in the oppression and persecution of the city's population. Most of the Czech associations (Junák, Sokol , Orel) were dissolved and symbols of Czechoslovakia were removed. The Jews experienced the greatest repression by the occupying power . Most of them were deported to Theresienstadt concentration camp and the neo-Gothic synagogue was blown up. From April 13, 1942 to June 23, 1943 there was a subcamp of the Theresienstadt concentration camp on the outskirts of the city. At the end of World War II , Budweis was a target of American bombing, killing around 220 people. On May 5, 1945, Czech insurgents took over the city administration. The German troops withdrew on May 8, 1945; a day later the Red Army reached Budweis.
After the end of the Second World War in May 1945, Budweis became part of the re-established Czechoslovak Republic. Most of the Germans were expelled and were transported to Austria and Bavaria by rail. Budweis remained the economic and cultural center of South Bohemia and in 1949 became the seat of the newly formed Budweiser District. It has been the seat of the South Bohemian University in Budweis since 1991 and the administrative seat of the South Bohemian Region since 2000 .
Jews in Budweis
Jewish families have also lived in the city since the 14th century, but the Jewish community has been brought to the brink of existence several times and was temporarily driven out of the city. In the town there was a synagogue , a Jewish school, a Jewish cemetery and a mikveh . Since the Jewish community never had more than 100 members until the 19th century, they were never forced to live in a gheto . Most of the Jews and all of their institutions were located on the then Judenstrasse (today "U Černé věže" street) where they lived with Christians. In 1505 the Jews living in Budweis were accused of the ritual murder of a child in Lower Austria . Their failed escape from the city was considered an admission of guilt. As a result, 7 Jewish fellow citizens were burned in the Jewish cemetery, 13 more were drowned in the Vltava and the rest were expelled from the city. Only after the legal equality of Jews in 1848 did Jews settle again in Budweis. They built a new synagogue and a cemetery that has been preserved to this day . The Jewish community was wiped out for the second time in 1942 when the German occupying forces deported the Jewish residents first to the Theresienstadt concentration camp and later to the Auschwitz concentration camp .
|1830||7,426||in 784 houses|
|1840||8,135||excluding the localities (4,962 German and Bohemian residents), in the actual city mostly German residents, including five Protestant families|
|1849||approx. 9,000||German and Czech residents|
|1857||16,730||including 16,469 Catholics, 11 other Christians and 250 Israelites|
|1900||39,328||with the garrison (2,155 men), 40% Germans, 60% Czechs|
coat of arms
Description : In red, a black-jointed silver wall rising from the base of the shield with three attached towers of the same shape with a golden pointed roof and golden cross , the middle tower is the higher and wider. In front of all a red shield with the Bohemian silver lion , armored with gold , so crowned and double-tailed.
Economy and Infrastructure
Transport and transport links
Budweis is located on the two main transport axes Prague - Linz and Vienna - Budweis - Pilsen .
This north-south traffic axis (Dopravní koridor Sever-Jih) is designed as the R 3 / E 55 expressway from Prague to Linz. In the next few years this is to be expanded to the D 3 motorway. The second axis from Budweis to Pilsen is designed as the R 20 / E 49 expressway.
In addition, these two connections exist as main railway lines. On the one hand, there is the Summerauer Bahn from Linz, which merges here with the railway line number 220 to Prague. On the other hand, this is the railway line number 190 to Pilsen. Both routes are electrified. There are also other smaller branch lines to and from the Budweis railway junction.
In 2005, the city and Jihočeský kraj founded a joint sponsoring company for the former Planá military airfield on the south-western periphery, which was handed over to civilian use by the air forces of the Czech Republic at the beginning of 2006 and is to be expanded into the international airport of České Budějovice .
The Vltava flowing through the city has been partially navigable since 2011. Passenger shipping takes place on a section of a good 8 km. The project funded by the European Community is part of the plan to make the Moldova as far as Budweis navigable. In 2010 the Vltava was navigable as far as Tyn (Moldautein). Construction work on the barrages in the direction of Budweis is currently in progress. It was planned to complete the construction work by 2014.
Already between 1909 and 1914 the trackless railway Budweis , one of the first trolleybus operators in the world , operated in the city .
Ceske Budejovice has a long brewing tradition. The local breweries are increasingly relying on the name "Budweis" or " Budweiser " and hold various naming rights, apart from the USA:
- Budweiser Bürgerbräu since (1795)
- Budweiser Budvar since (1895)
The city is also home to the world's oldest pencil manufacturer, Koh-i-Noor Hardtmuth .
The University of South Bohemia offers courses in economics, the humanities, teacher training, science, theology, art, health and social affairs and agriculture.
The city of České Budějovice is divided into seven districts, 69 basic settlement units and eleven cadastral districts.
- České Budějovice 1 (also cadastral district): České Budějovice-střed (city center) and Sokolský ostrov (Sokol island)
- České Budějovice 2:
- Cadastral district České Budějovice 2: Čtyři Dvory (Vierhöf) , Čtyři Dvory-střed, Sídliště Máj, Sídliště Šumava, Sídliště Vltava, Stromovka, Švábův Hrádek, U Vávrovadšil Vybnavka rybnavka
- České Vrbné cadastral district: České Vrbné (Bohemian Fellern) and Přístav
- Haklovy Dvory cadastral district: Haklovy Dvory (Hackelhöf)
- České Budějovice 4 (also cadastral district): Husova Kolonie, Husova Kolonie-zahrádky, Nové Vráto (New Brod) , Nové Vráto-průmyslový obvod, Světlík, U křížku, U Rozumova Dvora and Za Otýlií
- České Budějovice 5:
- Cadastral district České Budějovice 5: Pětidomí, Pohůrka (New Book Types) , Suché Vrbné (Dürrnfellern) , Suché Vrbné-průmyslový obvod, U Dobrovodského potoka, U křížku, U rybníčků and U Vrbného
- Cadastral district Kaliště u Českých Budějovic: Kaliště (Kalishte)
- Třebotovice cadastral district: Třebotovice (Trebotowitz) and Třebotovice-u Dobré Vody
- České Budějovice 6 (also cadastral district): Brněnské Předměstí (Vienna suburb) , Havlíčkova colony, Mladé-Červený Dvůr (Lodus-Rothe Hof) , Nové Hodějovice (Neu Hodowitz) , Uzhodějovice-výpajezužužužu , U Novohradské, U Špačků-za hřbitovem and Za potokem
- České Budějovice 7 (also cadastral district): Krumlovské Předměstí (Linz suburb) , Nemocnice, Nové Roudné (New Ruden) , Rožnov-jih (Strodenitz-Süd) , Rožnov-sever (Strodenitz-Nord) , U Malše, U Matice školské, U nemocnice, U pivovaru, U plavské silnice, V háječku and Za lineckou tratí.
The cadastral districts of Kaliště u Českých Budějovic and Třebotovice are located - separated by the municipality of Dobrá Voda u Českých Budějovic - as an exclave east of the urban area.
Budweis maintains city partnerships with the following cities:
- Linz , Austria , since 1987
- Passau , Germany , since 1993
- Suhl , Germany, since 1979
- Lorient , France , since 1997
- Nitra , Slovakia
Theaters and museums
- South Bohemian Theater, Dr. Stejskala 424/19
- South Bohemian Museum, Dukelská 242/1
- Museum of Contemporary Art, Náměstí Přemysla Otakara II. 127/38
- Budweis Horse Railway Museum, Mánesova 10
- Budvar Brewery Museum, Karoliny Světlé 4
- Motorcycle Museum, Piaristícké náměstí 1
- The Cinestar movie theater is located at the Čtyři dvory shopping center.
- The Open Air Cinema Letní kino Háječek is located at the confluence of the Vltava and Maltsch rivers
- The Gothic Cathedral of St. Nicholas (Katedrála svatého Mikuláše) is the main church of the Budweis diocese.
- The Black Tower (Černá věž) can be climbed on 225 steps.
- The Rabensteiner tower dates from the 14th century
- The salt house (Solnice) built in 1531 originally served as a grain store, later as an armory and finally as a salt store.
- The baroque town hall is one of the most beautiful buildings in the Czech Republic.
- The Church of the Sacrifice of the Virgin Mary (Kostel Obětování Panny Marie) is located on Piaristické náměstí
- The Samson Fountain (Samsonová kašna) on the main square is one of the symbols of the city.
- The Iron Maiden (Železná panna) is a fortress tower.
- The planetarium (Hvězdárna) is located in the Háječek Park, right at the confluence of the Vltava and Maltsch rivers.
- The Koldům Community House (kolektivní dům) on Prague Street was declared a cultural monument in 2012.
Green spaces and recreation
- Stromovka is the largest park in Budweis with an area of 68 hectares and a total length of 6.7 km.
- Floating Island (Sokolský ostrov)
- The two-day international beer festival takes place on the exhibition grounds every year.
- Budweiser Advent, last week of November until January 6th
- in order of appearance
- Jaroslaus Schaller : Topography of the Kingdom of Bohemia . Volume 13: Budweiser Kreis , Prague and Vienna 1797, pp. 6–26.
- Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia . Volume 9: Budweiser Kreis , Prague 1841, pp. 1–34.
- Franz Seraphin Seyser and Franz Xaver Illing: Brief chronicle of the royally privileged and free mountain and district town of Budweis, (Budowice) in the Kingdom of Bohemia, from its origins until 1840 . Budweis 1841. ( E-copy ).
- Johann Trajer: Historical-statistical description of the Diocese of Budweis . Budweis 1862, pp. 1-12.
- Johanna von Herzogenberg : Between Danube and Moldau. Bavarian Forest and Bohemian Forest. The Mühlvierteil and South Bohemia, Passau 1968, Prestel Verlag Munich, there: Budweis pp. 178 to 184.
- Lilian Schacherl: Bohemia. Kulturbild einer Landschaft, Prestel Verlag Munich, 1968, pp. 190 to 192 Budweis, in the section: Royal Diaspores.
- Karl M. Swoboda: Barock in Böhmen, Prestel Verlag Munich, 1984, Böhmisch-Budweis p. 154, Niklaskirche and Rathaus p. 217 and notes on their frescoes Johann Adam Schöpf.
- Karl Kratochwil, Alois Meerwald: Home book of the mountain and district town of Bohemian-Budweis with a collection of old and newer sagas, Bohemian Budweis, 1930, Karl Kratochwil & Co, Verlag des Sonntagboten .
- Official website of České Budějovice on c-budejovice.cz (de, cz, en)
- Virtual show on virtualczech.cz (only with FlashPlayer plugin)
- Bibliography on Budweis in the forum OoeGeschichte.at
- ↑ http://www.uir.cz/obec/544256/Ceske-Budejovice
- ↑ Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 0.8 MiB)
- ↑ In 1920 the Czech name Budějovice was changed to České Budějovice and the German name Budweis was changed to Bohemian-Budweis and was announced by the Ministry of Interior Decree No. 20/1921 Sb of Czechoslovakia. During the Second World War , the city briefly carried its original name again. In 1946 the name České Budějovice finally became the only official name of the city. The first part of the name České ("Bohemian") serves to distinguish it from the town of Moravské Budějovice (German Mährisch-Budwitz ).
- ↑ Heinrich Gottfried Gengler: Regesta and documents on the constitutional and legal history of German cities in the Middle Ages , Erlangen 1863, p. 435 ff .
- ↑ Z history. Retrieved July 16, 2020 (Czech).
- ↑ Černá věž | ENCYCLOPEDIE ČESKÝCH BUDĚJOVIC. Retrieved July 16, 2020 .
- ↑ The other first overland horse-drawn tram on the continent was the Saint-Étienne – Andrézieux line , freight traffic from June 30, 1827, passenger traffic from March 1, 1832.
- ^ Johann Gottfried Sommer: The Kingdom of Bohemia: Bd. Budweiser Kreis. 1841 . Represented statistically and topographically. tape 9 . Friedrich Ehrlich, Prague 1841, p. 3 ( google.at [accessed on May 25, 2017]).
- ↑ druhá světová válka. In: ENCYKLOPEDIE ČESKÝCH BUDĚJOVIC. Retrieved July 14, 2020 (Czech).
- ↑ Židé | ENCYCLOPEDIE ČESKÝCH BUDĚJOVIC. Retrieved July 16, 2020 .
- ↑ Yearbooks of the Bohemian Museum of Natural and Regional Studies, History, Art and Literature . Volume 2, Prague 1831, p. 206, item 1).
- ↑ Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia . Volume 9: Budweiser Kreis , Prague 1841, p. 3.
- ↑ Topographic Lexicon of Bohemia . Prague 1852, p. 44.
- ↑ Johann Trajer: Historical and statistical description of the diocese of Budweis . Budweis 1862, p. 1.
- ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 3, Leipzig and Vienna 1905, p. 567 on zeno.org .
- ↑ Report by Kam po Česku
- ↑ "And we're not using so much the term Ceske Budejovice - for two reasons; one, that most people refer to the city as Budweis and secondly, most Americans can't pronounce Ceske Budejovice. “- http://www.radio.cz/en/article/69857
- ↑ http://www.uir.cz/casti-obce-obec/544256/Obec-Ceske-Budejovice
- ↑ http://www.uir.cz/zsj-obec/544256/Obec-Ceske-Budejovice
- ↑ http://www.uir.cz/katastralni-uzemi-obec/544256/Obec-Ceske-Budejovice
- ^ Website of the city of Budweis: Sister cities