|Residents||85,881 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||262 inhabitants / km²|
|Patron saint||Laurentius of Brindisi and Theodor Tiro|
In the port area of Brindisis, at the so-called Punta Le Terrare , an important settlement from the middle and late Italian Bronze Age was discovered. This apparently had trade contacts with Greece early on, such as fragments of Mycenaean vessels from the 15th century BC. Evidence (the earliest Mycenaean finds date to the period SH II or SH III A1). Fragments of Mycenaean ceramics from the 14th and 13th centuries BC were found in the younger layers - also important for the dating of the settlement. BC, while imports from the Mycenaean post-palatial phase (SH III C, approx. 1190–1050 BC) - in contrast to some other sites in Apulia - are missing.
According to a variant of the legend, Brindisi (in Greek Brentesion ) is said to have been founded by fugitive Aetolians under the leadership of Diomedes ; but other Greek heroes such as Theseus are also ascribed this foundation. However, the name of the city is of Messapic origin. It comes from Brention , which means something like deer head in Messapisch . It is an allusion to the resemblance of the city's harbor bay, which was branched out many times in antiquity, with the rods of deer antlers. By its natural, already by Herodotus mentioned the port of Brindisi was very early on an important trading center.
The city was under the rule of its own princes until the Romans opened it in 266 BC. Conquered. The new masters named the city Brundisium . 244 BC It was made a Colonia under Latin law. This had the right to strike coins, the emblems of which were the head of Neptune crowned by Victoria and a hero on the dolphin.
The Romans soon used the splendid port as a naval base. In the war against Hannibal , Brundisium sided with the Romans. Since then, the city's prosperity has increased, especially since the crossing from Italy to Greece usually took place from here. The Via Appia , Rome's most important state road (Via publica), was therefore built in the 2nd century BC. From Capua to Brundisium and led directly to the port there. Over time, Brundisium blossomed into one of the largest cities in southern Italy. The honey and wool that were produced here were famous.
After the alliance war , Brundisium was 89 BC. Chr. Municipium . 83 BC Sulla granted the city tax exemption because its residents had opened the port for him when he returned to Italy from Greece to fight the Marians . When Pompey at the beginning of the civil war in 49 BC When Caesar gathered a fleet in the port of Brundisium, Caesar tried to lock him up here, but Pompey was able to escape to Greece with the fleet. Octavian took the name Caesar in Brundisium and closed here in 40 BC. A very brief peace with his triumvirate colleague Marcus Antonius .
During the imperial era , Brundisium Municipium remained an important trading port in southern Italy and the starting point for the crossing to Greece. On September 21, 19 BC The famous Roman poet Virgil is said to have died in Brundisium on his return from Greece. In 19/20 AD Agrippina the Elder arrived with the ashes of Germanicus , “where most trusted friends and a great many old warriors, as far as they had served under Germanicus, also numerous people who had not even known him, from the neighboring country towns , partly in the opinion that it was their duty to the Princeps , the majority as mere followers “ awaited their arrival. The city continued to flourish in late antiquity .
In the Middle Ages , the port of Brindisi retained its importance for a long time. Since the reign of Justinian (6th century) the city belonged to the Byzantine Empire . In 675 it was conquered by the Lombard Duke Romuald of Benevento. In 836 Brindisi fell into the hands of the Saracens , from whom Emperor Ludwig II wrested it in 868 . Once again under the rule of the Byzantines, it was conquered in 1071 by the Normans under Robert Guiskard . Brindisi experienced a heyday under the Staufer emperors in the 12th and 13th centuries and also became an important port for the Crusades to Palestine . Emperor Frederick II embarked on his crusade here in 1228 and had the city, which enjoyed his special favor, re-fortified in 1238.
Charles I of Anjou gathered a strong fleet in Brindisi in 1284 and Charles II improved the port in 1301. Since the plague of 1348, the pillage by the Hungarians of King Ludwig I in the same year and the devastation by Ludwig von Anjou in 1383, the port and the city, which was completely destroyed by the earthquake of 1456, fell into disrepair . Brindisi was owned by Venice from 1496 to 1509, then it fell to the Kingdom of Naples, which was ruled by Spain for a long time .
Ferdinand I ordered in 1775 to rebuild the port and the city. The many years of work under the direction of the engineer Pigonati made the inner harbor accessible to commercial and military shipping again. Brindisi was declared a free port in May 1845 and came to Italy in 1860. The completion of the Adriatic railway line from Ancona to Otranto and the opening of the Suez Canal brought the port city an economic boom. Because of the strategically important and relatively protected location of the port near the Strait of Otranto , plans were made to build a new, fortified naval base and a small naval arsenal from 1905 . Work on the new arsenal and the base began in 1913. In addition, fortifications were built at the port entrance, the port basin was dredged again and a seaplane base was built. During the First World War , almost all of Brindisi's port facilities were used for military purposes. In 1933, the port, the Navy - Memorial Monumento al Marinaio d'Italia inaugurated. Brindisi is still the base of the Italian Navy .
In 1994 the UN Logistics Base was established in Brindisi , which is primarily responsible for coordinating and supporting the United Nations blue helmet missions . In addition, there is a logistics center for the United Nations World Food Program in Brindisi .
On May 19, 2012, a bomb exploded in a vocational school. One student was killed and several people were injured.
The port of Brindisi is divided into three parts: the outer, the middle and the inner port. The outer and middle ports serve as a trading port and, together with parts of the inner port, also as a ferry port. There are ferry connections to Durrës in Albania , as well as to Igoumenitsa and Patras in Greece and Turkey . The Pigonati Canal connects the central port with the inner port. The latter is divided into two arms, between which the old town of Brindisi is located: the seno di levante in the south and the seno di ponente in the east. The remaining naval base is located in the seno di ponente at the foot of the Stauferburg ( ), where the local naval command is located.
Brindisi Airport, three kilometers north of the old town, has a civil and a military part. The latter is still connected to the facilities of the former sea airfield at the port by a taxiway and, together with the former military airfield of San Vito dei Normanni, today mainly serves the United Nations. On the civil part, commercial flights to destinations in Italy, Europe and the Mediterranean region are handled.
Road and rail traffic
The red and rosé wines from the municipalities of Brindisi and Mesagne have the status of an Italian DOC wine. The red wine is made from the grape variety Negroamaro grapes. Mixed rates with Sangiovese (maximum 10%) or Malvasia Nera (maximum 20%) are allowed. 38 winegrowers work the 585 hectares of approved vineyards. The red wine is stored for 2 to 3 years in different containers (steel tank, wooden barrel). The buyer can store the wine for another 5 to 10 years.
- Color: strong ruby red
- Scent: hearty with nuances of tobacco , sour cherry
- Alcohol content: 14-15 °
- Total acidity: 5.5–6.5 per mille
- Drinking temperature: 17-18 ° C, the bottle should be uncorked at least one hour before serving.
- Roger de Flor (1266–1305), military adventurer
- Lawrence of Brindisi (1559–1619), theologian
- Giuseppe Satriano (* 1960), Archbishop
- Antonio Putignano (born 1961), actor
- Antonio Benarrivo (* 1968), football player
- Elio Aggiano (* 1972), racing cyclist
- Stefano Miceli (* 1975), pianist and conductor
- Flavia Pennetta (* 1982), tennis player
- Cosimo Aldo Cannone (* 1984), racing boat driver
- Brindisi is a station in the novel Around the World in 80 Days by Jules Verne .
- In the novel Artemis Fowl by Eoin Colfer , the city is mentioned.
- The famous drinking song from La traviata is called Brindisi , but it means the Italian meaning of the word, "toast".
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- summary, Marco Bettelli: Italia meridionale e mondo miceneo. Ricerche su dinamiche di acculturazione e aspetti archeologici, con particolare riferimento ai versanti adriatico e ionico della penisola italiana. Florence 2002, p. 25 (with further literature).
- Reinhard Jung: ΧΡΟΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ COMPARATA. Comparative chronology of southern Greece and southern Italy from approx. 1700/1600 to 1000 BCE Vienna 2006, p. 102ff.
- Marco Bettelli, Italia meridionale e mondo miceneo. Ricerche su dinamiche di acculturazione e aspetti archeologici, con particolare riferimento ai versanti adriatico e ionico della penisola italiana. Florence 2002, p. 25
- Iustinus , Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi 12, 1, 7.
- Strabon , Geographika 6, 282; among others
- Herodotus, Historien des Herodotus 4, 99.
- Eutropius , Breviarum ab urbe condita 2, 17; among others
- Titus Livius , Ab urbe condita , periochae 19; Velleius Paterculus , Historia Romana 1, 14.
- Livy, Ab urbe condita 25, 22, 14 and 27, 10, 7.
- Strabon, Geographika 6, 282.
- Appian , Civil Wars 1, 79.
- Caesar, De bello civili 1, 24-28; among others
- Appian, Civil Wars 5, 60-65; Cassius Dio , Roman History 48, 28, 3 - 30, 1; Plutarch , Antonius 30f.
- Aelius Donatus , Vita Vergils .
- Tacitus , Annalen 3, 1.
- Brindisi: Bomb explodes in front of a vocational school in southern Italy spiegel.de. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
- Christian Hülsen : Brundisium . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume III, 1, Stuttgart 1897, Col. 902-906.
- Official website (Italian)