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Ancient coin allegedly with the image of Hannibal (in the form of the Punic god Melkart , who corresponds to Heracles)

Hannibal Barkas ( Punic : ḥnbʿl brq ; the first part of the name, the actual personal name, literally means " Baal is gracious", the second part, "Lightning", is an epithet that Hannibal's father already had; * around 247 BC . in Carthage ; †  183 BC in Bithynia ) was a Carthaginian strategist and military leader who is considered one of the greatest generals of the ancient world . During the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) he inflicted several severe defeats on the Roman Empire and brought Rome in 216 BC. At the battle of Cannae to the brink of doom. Phoenician qoph.svgPhoenician res.svgPhoenician beth.svg Phoenician lamedh.svgPhoenician ayin.svgPhoenician beth.svgPhoenician nun.svgPhoenician heth.svg

Youth and Hispanic Command

Hannibal was the eldest son of the Carthaginian general Hamilkar Barkas , who had distinguished himself in the First Punic War and in the mercenary war . Hannibal's younger brothers were Hasdrubal and Mago , who also served as Carthaginian generals. The Roman historians reported that the nine-year-old Hannibal had sworn with his brothers the Romans eternal enmity, but, these are possibly a legend. Hannibal was raised by a Spartan named Sosylos , who later became one of his advisors.

237 BC When Hannibal was only nine years old, he accompanied his father to the Iberian Peninsula , which was rich in natural resources. There Hamilkar Barkas conquered large areas, which on the one hand compensated for the territorial losses of Carthage in the last war against Rome and on the other hand were supposed to secure the power base of his family, the Barkiden . After Hamilcar's death in a battle against insurgent Iberian tribes, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal took command in Hispania. This enlarged the new Carthaginian province considerably, founded a regional capital with Carthago Nova and concluded the Ebro Treaty with Rome , which established a river called "Iberus" as the border between the two powers (it is unclear whether this is the Río Segura or the Ebro ). Hannibal had meanwhile returned to Carthage, but returned in 224/223 BC. Back to the Iberian Peninsula at the request of his brother-in-law. As Hasdrubals commander of the cavalry , Hannibal was able to excel in several heavy battles against Iberian tribes. Imilke, who came from the Iberian town of Castulo , was Hannibal's wife. According to Seibert, she was an Iberian. According to Lancel, her name is said to be of Punic origin.

And so Hannibal was born in 221 BC. After Hasdrubal's assassination, commander in chief of the army. He immediately led an extensive campaign against the still independent Iberian tribes. In a battle on the Tagus against the Carpetani , Hannibal won for the first time a victory in an open field battle against a numerically far superior opponent. However, the city of Sagunto on the Mediterranean coast refused to submit to him. Hannibal decided to keep the city from 220 BC. To besiege, also to limit their influence on the Iberian tribes. The Sagunter then concluded an alliance with Rome. Roman ambassadors immediately asked Hannibal to break off the siege of the city. However, this refused due to the clear legal situation, since Sagunto had attacked the Turbolets allied with Carthage and Hannibal only came to their aid. Hannibal asked Carthage about a further course of action. It is unclear which of the two sides broke the contract.

In the conflict over Sagunto, the events that had led to the outbreak of the First Punic War were repeated when Rome used the city of Messina as an occasion for a war with Carthage. Hannibal therefore created facts and in 219 BC. After eight months of siege, storm Sagunto and kill the population. The Romans had done nothing to help Sagunt, but let the Carthaginian council know that they could only avoid war by extraditing Hannibal. The councilors, however, stood by their commander.

War against Rome

Main article: Second Punic War

Hannibal's campaign against the Romans
Hannibal train

Hannibal was characterized by an awareness, unusual for his time, of the possibilities and limits of time and space for military maneuvers. In order to forestall a Roman attack on Spain, he crossed the Alps with probably more than 50,000 soldiers, 9,000 riders and 37 war elephants over a pass that can no longer be precisely determined today (possibly Col de Clapier , Col de Montgenèvre , Mont Cenis or over the Col de la Traversette ) and passed through the area of the Salassians according Aosta and Ivrea . The army suffered heavy losses in the Alps, but could be reinforced with Celts from the Po Valley .

This surprising move put Hannibal on the strategic offensive against the militarily superior Romans for the next few years, since he directly threatened the Roman alliance system as the basis of Roman power. In tactically defensive, but self-chosen, superior starting positions, he was able to exploit the tactical weaknesses of the Roman military system several times with enormous success and in the battles on the Ticinus , the Trebia (both 218 BC) and the Lake Trasimeno (217 BC) beat the mostly clearly superior Roman legions. Finally, on August 2nd, 216 BC, Hannibal met. At Cannae on a Roman army of 16 legions (about 80,000 men), which he and his 50,000 soldiers were able to almost completely destroy by an encircling maneuver.

Despite his military successes, Hannibal did not march against the city of Rome. In historiography, this was often accused of being a strategic mistake. The Carthaginian equestrian general Maharbal is said to have said: “You know how to win, Hannibal. But you don't understand how to use the victory! ”However, Hannibal's objective was not to conquer the capital of the Roman Empire, but to destroy his system of allies. He hoped to detach the Italian cities from Rome and thereby destroy the basis of the Roman great power position. In addition, he probably lacked sufficient siege equipment.

Although some Italian allies of Rome went in 212 BC To Hannibal, including Capua , but the war was not decided by it. The Romans had changed their initial strategy under the influence of the "procrastinator" Fabius Maximus and only attacked the Carthaginians in Italy and Spain in Hannibal's absence. As Capua in 211 BC BC was besieged by Roman troops, Hannibal undertook a mock attack on Rome in order to move the besiegers Capuas to retreat. According to Cicero (who lived around a hundred years later), the famous exclamation Hannibal ad portas ("Hannibal at the gates"), which is usually quoted as Hannibal ante portas ("Hannibal at the gates"), should be heard . However, Hannibal could not prevent the fall of Capua, which was already viewed by ancient historians as a turning point in the war.

After years of guerrilla warfare in Italy, Hannibal was finally ordered back home, as the Roman general Scipio had landed in Africa after conquering Spain. He had also succeeded in persuading the Numidian cavalry prince Massinissa to change sides, so that Hannibal no longer had the cavalry available for his tactics. In the Battle of Zama , Hannibal suffered in 202 BC. His first and decisive defeat against the Romans.

Reformer and exile

After Carthage concluded peace with Rome, Hannibal first had to fight back from several domestic political opponents from the aristocracy . They accused him of refusing to march on Rome on the one hand and of suppressing booty on the other. Hannibal, who continued to be extremely popular with the people, was acquitted on all counts. He suffered a more favorable fate than many other Carthaginian commanders who were used as scapegoats for defeat. However, under Roman pressure, Hannibal lost 200 BC. His position as a Carthaginian strategist .

Hannibal turned from now on to domestic politics in order to rebuild the political and military power of the city. He was born in 196 BC. Chr. To suffetes elected and reformed political and business Carthage to the detriment of the aristocracy. He passed a law that weakened the previously aristocratically dominated court of 104 : the members previously appointed for life had to be elected by the people's assembly from now on and, according to the annuity principle based on the Roman model, were only allowed for one year and then again after another Run for a year break. Hannibal thus gave a much broader class access to high political offices.

The Carthaginian population had to bear high taxes because of the war reparations to Rome, which burdened the economy. Hannibal lowered the taxes by taking action against corruption in Carthage. Thereby he enlarged the circle of his domestic political opponents again. This finally got him in 195 BC. In exile by falsely claiming that he was conspiring against Rome . Hannibal's reforms persisted, however, and had a large part in the rapid economic recovery of Carthage after the Second Punic War.

Hannibal fled from the Roman sphere of influence. In the eastern Mediterranean he was among other things as a general for Antiochus III. the greats of Syria . When the Seleucid king accepted the struggle for rule over Greece against Rome, Hannibal suggested that he wage a two- front war . This plan would have provided that Antiochus would bind part of the Roman forces in Greece, while Hannibal would land a second time in Italy with Carthaginian and foreign troops. Antiochus was initially not averse to this, but ultimately refused: he feared that Hannibal would gain all the fame with this very promising strategy, which was incompatible with his royal self-image.

Instead of making use of Hannibal's military skills, the Seleucids only entrusted him with the construction of a flotilla in Phenicia , which was to strengthen the main Seleucid fleet in the Aegean . In the sea battle of Side , Hannibal's ships were defeated by a Rhodian fleet.

After the final defeat of Antiochus against Rome, Hannibal had to be in 190 BC. Left the Seleucid Empire. He stayed in Crete for a year, until the Roman influence increased there too. Hannibal now fled to the Hellenistic monarchies of Asia Minor. First he entered the service of the Armenian King Artaxias I , for whom he took over the management of the construction of a new capital. Due to Roman pressure, however, Hannibal had to flee to King Prusias I of Bithynia . This was in a military dispute with the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamon . Hannibal was again used as a fleet commander. He had clay jars filled with poisonous snakes and hurled them onto the Pergamene fleet using catapults to cause panic among the enemy ship's crews. Hannibal tried to win allies for the cause of Bithynia in Asia Minor as well.

183 BC In BC, Titus Quinctius Flamininus , who was extremely popular in Greece, presented himself to Prusias and demanded Hannibal's extradition; a request that the Bithyn king eventually complied with. Hannibal, however, avoided capture by killing himself in the fortress of Libyssa ( Gebze ), presumably with poison. His tomb stood on the Gulf of Astakos and was restored 400 years later by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus , but has not been preserved.


Most of the available sources take a more Roman point of view. The most important are Polybius (fragmentary), Titus Livius , Diodor and Appian . A very brief Latin biography of Hannibal comes from Cornelius Nepos . There are also brief remarks in other sources.

Various historical works about Hannibal that took a pro-Carthaginian standpoint, however, have been lost. These include the works of Sosylus , Chaireas , Silenus of Kaleakte and Eumachos of Naples .


To this day, no picture of Hannibal has been recognized as authentic. Neither busts, which at best come from the early modern period, nor coins have been identified as depictions of Hannibal. It is not known whether authentic portraits of Carthaginian personalities exist or have existed at all. I must agree with Hans Roland Baldus, who wrote about the legends on Carthaginian coins:

“A prominent politician or general like Hannibal is never named. It was generally accepted that the individual takes a back seat to the state as a whole. "




Hannibal's life and person became the subject of literature early on because of his tragic failure and the importance assigned to him during his lifetime as one of the greatest generals of antiquity. In the first century AD, Silius Italicus made him in his 17,000 verses comprehensive Punica the "fulcrum between fame and shame, the rise and the suggestive fall of the Romans". Lukian of Samosata had Alexander the Great meet Hannibal in one of his funeral talks , who quarreled before King Minos about who was the greater general. The phrase "Hannibal ad portas", which comes from Cicero's Philippine speeches , later became the winged word Hannibal ante portas , which warns of impending danger. In his tenth Satura, Juvenal mocked the once glorious Hannibal, who had to ask for protection from persecution as a persecuted person at a royal court in the Near East.

The poet Francesco Petrarca wrote the epic Africa in Latin in 1338/1343 . Although the plot spans the Second Punic War, Hannibal takes a back seat to the Roman hero Scipio Africanus . Nevertheless, the epic Africa contributed to the spread of the idea of ​​a duel between Hannibal and Scipio as a subject in Renaissance literature.

In the Middle Ages, the most important ancient source, the historical work of Titus Livius , was relatively little read. Only with its first Latin print edition was the prerequisite for a more comprehensive reception of Hannibal in modern European literature and art.

Jonathan Swift has the protagonist of his satire Gulliver's Travels , published in 1726, travel to Glubbdubdrib , an island of sorcerers or magicians, where he asks a necromancer to meet the greats of antiquity, including Hannibal. The tragedy Annibal by the French writer Pierre Carlet de Marivaux from 1720 was partly translated by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing , but like most of the stage works devoted to the Carthaginian, it should not find any resonance. In the 19th century, numerous Hannibal tragedies emerged, of which Christian Dietrich Grabbe's Hannibal from 1835 is certainly the most convincing work, although the play is rarely performed. The poet Robert Frost took the four-line poem Hannibal in 1928 in the poetry collection West-Running Brook . In 1934, Mirko Jelusich glorified the general Hannibal as a leader in his novel of the same name. Within the youth literature , Hannibal's work was shown in Ich drew Hannibal from Hans Baumann or Josef Carl Grundes Zwei Leben für Hannibal. A story from the empire of the Carthaginians is the theme. Contemporary authors such as Gisbert Haefs , Elisabeth Heilander and Ross Leckie wrote historical novels about Hannibal.

Visual arts

Claudio Francesco Beaumont: Hannibal jurant haine aux Romains (Hannibal swears hatred to the Romans), 1730

Decisive stations such as the oath of the boy Hannibal, his crossing of the Alps or the battle of Cannae were depicted in numerous paintings, miniatures and drawings from the 16th century. In a copper engraving by Matthäus Merian made in 1630, Hannibal swears that he will always hate the Romans. Johann Heinrich Schönfeld's work "Hannibal swears eternal enmity to the Romans", written around 1660, had Hamilkar swear his son, who was kneeling in front of an altar, to swear the oath. The ceremony takes place in an oversized temple in front of a large crowd. Giovanni Battista Pittoni painted the oil painting "Sacrificial Scene: Hannibal's Oath" in 1715/1730. It shows Hannibal shortly before or during the performance of the oath. In the left half his father is shown, pointing with his right hand at the offering bowl. At the same time the child is instructed by two priests; the priest in a dark robe points to the statue of a seated Roman soldier. Jacopo Amigoni's “The Oath of Hannibal”, written around 1720, shows a similar constellation. Here, however, Hamilcar points to a stone tablet with his sword on which Romulus and Remus are depicted being suckled by a she-wolf, while the two priests are leaning on the altar of Heracles . Furthermore, Bernhard Rode processed the story in 1800/1801 in his ink drawing "The Oath of Hannibal".

Jacopo Ripanda: Hannibal crosses the Alps , 1505–1506. Fresco in the Conservator's Palace (Rome, Capitoline Museums )

Numerous miniatures on Titus Livius Ab urbe condita date from the late 15th century , including ornate pictures by the master of Jacques de Besançon of the train across the Alps. The Italian painter Jacopo Ripanda made four frescoes in the early 16th century for some important episodes from the Punic Wars. Hannibal is shown riding an elephant leading his army towards a fortified city. Under the picture itself there is a frieze that is supposed to show the heads of Roman generals. The oil painting Hannibal traversant les Alpes à dos d'éléphant by the baroque painter Nicolas Poussin , created in 1625/1626, allows Hannibal's war elephants to take over almost the entire picture. In Francisco de Goya's Aníbal vencedor contempla por primera vez Italia desde los Alpes , which he created in 1771 as part of a painting competition, Hannibal is accompanied by a rider and his genius . In the upper left half the goddess Fortuna is enthroned , holding the wheel of fortune in her left hand and a victory wreath in the other hand. The figure in the lower right half, a mythical creature with a human body and a bull's head, leaning on an amphora , represents the river Po . Unlike his predecessors, Goya shows Hannibal, who is depicted in a white armor with a splendid tunic and helmet, an excellent position too. That it is the first sight of Italy for him is shown in the amazement of the general; The depiction of a storm that forces Hannibal to hold on to his helmet is also symbolically charged. Ultimately, the picture shows the tension of the general who led his troops as far as Italy and is now facing his greatest challenge.

William Turner: Snow Storm. Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps , 1810–1812 (oil painting in the Tate Gallery )
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo: Hannibal looks at the head of Hasdrubal , 1725–1730 (oil painting in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna )

Next to or even before Goya's Hannibal painting, William Turner's Snow Storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps should be mentioned. The 146 × 237.5 cm oil painting of the English romantic not only creates a new perspective on Hannibal like Goya, but wins it through an artistic innovation. The triumphant crossing of the Alps is turned into a sign of impending doom. In the left half, the head of the army is illuminated by the sun, while heavy clouds and the spread of the storm herald disaster. In the right half of the picture, the rearguard is exposed to enemy attacks. Hannibal disappears completely as a tangible figure in the huge army march and in the raging of the elements. His hope for a victory is contrasted by the anticipation of the coming downfall.

For the Battle of Cannae there is, among other things, the painting The Battle of Cannae, Defeat of the Romans against the Carthaginians under Hannibal in 216 BC. Chr. From the year 1529 of Hans Burgkmair d. Ä. and an artful illustration from Etienne Chevalier's book of hours . The work Hannibal observes the head of Hasdrubal , made by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo 1725–1730, shows the general who was separated from the severed head of his younger brother, who the Romans 207 BC. Chr. Actually thrown into his camp, frightened turned away.

Strategy game

The board game Hannibal: Rome vs Carthage by Avalon Hill allows you to re-enact the Second Punic War.

Claiming Hannibal for the national identity of Tunisia

Despite the lack of continuity between the ancient sea power Carthage and the state of Tunisia, which became independent in 1956, Hannibal and his native city form part of the country's national identity. For the first President Habib Bourguiba , Hannibal and the Numidian Jugurtha were role models and “historical individual references”. In 1968, after visiting the grave in Gebze, Turkey, he tried to bring the remains home. The program of national self-assertion after French colonial rule was taken into account with a 1 dinar commemorative coin, which was issued to mark the tenth anniversary of the adoption of the constitution, and a series of stamps with the alleged portrait of Hannibal. The image of Hannibal changed when Ben Ali came to power . Under Ben Ali, Hannibal was claimed to be an exponent of a pluralistic identity in Tunisia, against Islamist tendencies whose self-image did not go back to antiquity. The head of a Roman bust, which is believed to be the Hannibals, is depicted on the 5 dinar note. In what is now Carthage, a residential area of ​​Tunis, the name Hannibal Barkas is extremely popular. At the same time, the name was often used for advertising purposes. Hannibal TV is the first private television station in Tunisia, and the amusement park in Port El-Kantaoui was also named after the general.


As a great general, he was revered by posterity and the model of numerous military leaders. The French King Charles VIII , who crossed the Alps to Italy with his army in 1494, was compared to Hannibal by Philippe de Commynes . Charles the Bold and Louis XII. adored him. Napoleon Bonaparte succeeded the Carthaginians during his Italian campaign in 1800. He showed admiration for the ultimately failed Hannibal after his exile in St. Helena . In the 20th century, Alfred von Schlieffen and Erich Ludendorff were among his admirers, as was the general of the US Army, George S. Patton . Hermann Göring wanted his suicide to be understood as an imitation of the Carthaginian.

The young Sigmund Freud , like the majority of his Jewish schoolmates, was closer to Hannibal than to the Romans. Among the generals, Hannibal was primarily his sympathy. In his later youth, the Carthaginian-Roman conflict symbolized for him the contrast between Jewish persistence and the Catholic order. Hannibal's oath is said to have been repeated in a certain way in his life, because after his father had reported an anti-Semitic attack, which he met with passive reluctance to de-escalate, the boy vowed never to shrink from such humiliations.




  • Karl Christ: Hannibal . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1974.
  • Jakob Seibert: Research on Hannibal . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1993, ISBN 3-534-12091-4 (the two volumes of Seibert, who dealt with Hannibal for years, are a treasure trove for the scientific study of the Punic general).
  • Hannibal ad portas. Power and wealth of Carthage . Book accompanying the large special exhibition of the state of Baden-Württemberg "Hannibal ad portas - Power and Wealth of Carthage" in the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe, September 25th – 30th. January 2005. Theiss, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8062-1892-7 .

Articles and contributions

  • Pedro Barceló : A Carthaginian warlord. Hannibal (247-182 BC). In: Stig Förster (Hrsg.): Warlords of world history. 22 historical portraits . Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54983-7 , pp. 34-48.
  • Elias J. Bickerman : Hannibal's Covenant. In: The American Journal of Philology. Volume 73, No. 1. 1952, pp. 1-23.
  • Howard Vernon Canter: The Character of Hannibal. In: The Classical Journal. Volume 24, No. 8. 1929, pp. 564-77.
  • Andrew Erskine: Hannibal and the Freedom of the Italians. In: Siegmar Döpp (Ed.): Hermes . Volume 121, Issue 1. 1993, pp. 58-62.
  • Dexter Hoyos: Hannibal. What Kind of Genius? In: Greece & Rome. Volume 30, No. 2. 1983, pp. 171-80.
  • Johannes Kromayer : Were Hannibal and Friedrich the Great really fatigue strategists? In: Historical magazine. Volume 131, 1925, pp. 393-408.
  • German Hafner : The portrait of Hannibal. In: Communications from the German Archaeological Institute, Madrid Department. Volume 14, 1973, pp. 143-150.
  • Christian Hülsen : The grave of Hannibal. In: Christian Belger (Ed.): Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift . Volume 16, Berlin 1896, pp. 28-30.
  • Arif Müfid Mansel : On the location of Hannibal's grave. In: Archäologischer Anzeiger. Volume 87, Issue 2. Gruyter, Berlin 1972, pp. 257-75.
  • Robert Werner: Hannibal. In: Ernst Benz , Hans-Joachim Schoeps (Hrsg.): Journal for religious and intellectual history. Volume 23, No. 3, Cologne 1971, pp. 250-253.


Web links

Commons : Hannibal  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Hannibal  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


  1. Patrycja Matusiak: Obraz Hannibala w literaturze antycznej . Dissertation at the Silesian University of Katowice, Katowice 2009. p. 122; see. Portraits of Hannibal . On February 15, 2012 at hannibal-barca-carthage.blogspot.de, accessed on March 7, 2017.
  2. Jakob Seibert: Hannibal . Darmstadt 1993, p. 43 .
  3. Archaeometry 52, 156-172 (2010).
  4. See Duden online: Hannibal ad portas
  5. Cornelius Nepos , Hannibal 12 . Titus Livius 39, 51 . Appian , Syriake 11 ( English translation ). Plutarch , Flamininus 20 ( English translation ).
  6. Linda-Marie Günther : Hannibal [4]. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 5, Metzler, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-476-01475-4 .
  7. ^ German Hafner : The portrait of Hannibal . In communications from the German Archaeological Institute. Madrid Department , Volume 14. FH Kerle, Heidelberg 1973. pp. 143-150; Gilbert Charles-Picard : The problem of the portrait of Hannibal . In: Carthage. Revue d'archéologie méditerranéenne , Volume 12. E. de Boccard, Paris 1963–1964. Pp. 31-41; Le portrait d'Hannibal: hypothèse nouvelle . In: Studi Annibalici . Accademia Etrusca di Cortona, Cortona 1961-1964. Pp. 195-207.
  8. HR Baldus: Carthaginian coins. In: Hannibal ad portas. Power and wealth of Carthage. Theiss, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8062-1892-7 , p. 297.
  9. Anke Walter: Telling and singing in the Flavian epic . Gruyter, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-11-033620-7 , p. 243.
  10. Cf. Julian Blunk: The tactics with the dead. The French royal tombs in the early modern period . Böhlau, Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-3-412-20626-0 , pp. 145-146.
  11. See John Walker: William Turner . Thames & Hudson, London 1989, ISBN 0-500-08036-4 , p. 70.
  12. Stefan Ardeleanu: From Jugurtha qui a réussi to Ben Ali's civilization dialogue. The role of antiquity in the representation of Tunisian autocrats after 1956. In: Christine Walde (Hrsg.): Caesar's Salad. Antique reception in the 20th and 21st centuries . Thersites Volume 1, Mainz 2015, p. 207.
  13. Cf. Stefan Ardeleanu: From Jugurtha qui a réussi to Ben Ali's civilization dialogue. The role of antiquity in the representation of Tunisian autocrats after 1956. In: Christine Walde (Hrsg.): Caesar's Salad. Antique reception in the 20th and 21st centuries . Thersites Volume 1, Mainz 2015, pp. 209-210.
  14. Cf. Stefan Ardeleanu: From Jugurtha qui a réussi to Ben Ali's civilization dialogue. The role of antiquity in the representation of Tunisian autocrats after 1956. In: Christine Walde (Hrsg.): Caesar's Salad. Antique reception in the 20th and 21st centuries . Thersites Volume 1, Mainz 2015, pp. 214-216.
  15. Cf. Stefan Ardeleanu: From Jugurtha qui a réussi to Ben Ali's civilization dialogue. The role of antiquity in the representation of Tunisian autocrats after 1956. In: Christine Walde (Hrsg.): Caesar's Salad. Antique reception in the 20th and 21st centuries . Thersites Volume 1, Mainz 2015, p. 224.
  16. Cf. Julian Blunk: The Justes, Perréal, Champier and the Anachronischmus as carriers of meaning. The grave reliefs of Louis XII. and their political use of antiquity . In: Gernot Kamecke (Ed.) Antiquity as a concept. Readings in art, literature and politics . Berlin 2009, pp. 155–166.
  17. Cf. Eva MacDonald: Hannibal. A Hellenistic Life . Yale University Press, London 2015, ISBN 978-0-300-15204-3 , p. 99.