Alliance War (Rome)

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The Social War ( bellum sociale , even bellum Marsicum "Marsian war") was a v 91-88. Continuous war of Italian tribes against the Roman state in order to obtain full Roman citizenship , which Rome had denied .

The background to the alliance war was the behavior of Rome towards its Italian allies. After the petition of the tribune Marcus Livius Drusus for granting Roman citizenship to the Italians had been rejected and the (otherwise autonomous) internal circumstances were interfered with by Roman officials was, rose in 91 BC. Several allies against Rome. The Martians tribal group in the north and east of Rome and the Samnites , in particular, took part in the uprising, while the Greek cities of southern Italy and Etruria did not.

It became dangerous for Rome when the rebels united to form a kind of federal state. A Senate was even set up in Corfinium and the city was renamed Italia . Coins were also minted depicting the Italian bull defeating the Roman she-wolf. Militarily, the allies were trained in the Roman fighting style anyway. Even under the leadership of the formerly celebrated general Gaius Marius and despite large contingents of troops, the Roman troops could not crush the federal troops.

Ultimately, Rome was forced to do 90 BC. Those who were not involved in the uprising and in 89 BC To give all Italians the Roman citizenship with the Lex Plautia Papiria , which they had long unsuccessfully demanded. The fighting, in which the Romans now gained the upper hand, soon subsided, only a few Samnite groups continued the fight for some time. The political decisions were still made in Rome, but soon a stronger Italian sense of community developed, which was to strengthen the empire in the long term.

In the same year, with the Lex Pompeia de Transpadanis ("about the Transpadans") of the consul Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, the residents north of the Po were given Latin citizenship.

At the beginning of the year 88 BC With the exception of the Samnites, Rome's ancient rivals, who still held out, the war was largely over.



  • Karl Christ : Crisis and Fall of the Roman Republic . WBG, Darmstadt 1979 (several new editions, most recently: 6th edition. WBG, Darmstadt 2008, ISBN 978-3-534-20041-2 ).
  • Josef Göhler : Rome and Italy: The Roman policy of allies from the beginning to the alliance war (= Breslau historical research , volume 13). Priebatsch's Buchhandlung, Breslau 1939, DNB 579979601 (partial print of the dissertation University of Breslau 1939, 213 pages); New edition at: Scientia, Aalen 1974, ISBN 3-511-07013-9 (license from Priebatsch's Buchhandlung Breslau).
  • Seth Kendall: The Struggle for Roman Citizenship. Romans, Allies, and the Wars of 91-77 BCE . Gorgias Press, Piscataway 2013, ISBN 978-1-61143-487-3 .
  • Erich Marcks : The tradition of the alliance war 91-89 v. Chr. Chr. Elwert, Marburg 1884, OCLC 251518310 (Dissertation University of Strasbourg, Philosophical Faculty, 1884, 92 pages).
  • Henrik Mouritsen: Italian Unification. A Study in Ancient and Modern Historiography (= Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies , Supplement 70). Institute of Classical Studies, School of Advanced Study, University of London, London 1998, ISBN 0-900587-81-4 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b Pedro Barceló: Brief Roman History . Special edition, 2nd, bibliographically updated edition. Primus Verlag, Darmstadt 2012, ISBN 978-3-534-25096-7 , p. 48 .