Rein Abbey in October 2006
|Lies in the diocese||Graz-Seckau|
according to Janauschek
|Mother monastery||Ebrach Monastery|
|Primary Abbey||Morimond Monastery|
|Congregation||Austrian Cistercian Congregation|
The Rein (lat. Abbatia BMV de Runa ) is a Cistercian abbey in the community Gratwein-Straßengel in Styria . It was founded in 1129 by Margrave Leopold the Strong as the 38th monastery of the order and has been the oldest active Cistercian monastery in the world since the dissolution of all previously founded. In 1276, Styrian and Carinthian nobles took the Reiner Oath, which set the course for Austrian history .
At the end of the 15th century, the number of monks fell sharply, initially due to the plague and later as a result of the spreading Reformation . It was not until the end of the 16th century that the convent was able to recover. The abbots of the monastery were important advisers to the sovereigns during the Counter-Reformation . A total of four monasteries were founded by Rein between the 12th and 17th centuries.
In addition, the monastery makes its premises available to the Rein Federal High School.
Origin of name and location
The name "Rein" is derived from the Slovenian word rauna , which translates as "valley floor". It is not certain whether this word can be connected with a pre-Slavic water name * Rīn . There is no evidence for a derivation from the river name Rhine ( Celtic Rhenos ). The name is also derived from the idg. * Rū- (= "tear open, dig") and is regarded as Indo-European pre-individual language.
The monastery is located in the Rein district, about 15 kilometers northwest of Graz . It was built in a side valley of the Mur at the foot of the Ulrichsberg , which is dominated by the Pleschkogel .
Foundation and rule of the Traungau people
The Rein monastery was founded in 1129 by Margrave Leopold the Strong from the Traungau family; his grave (found in 2006) is under today's Lady Chapel. Leopold had the monastery built as the home monastery of the Traungau people and as the religious center of his Mark. The material basis for the foundation were those goods that Leopold's father Ottokar II had received from Count Waldo's inheritance. This also included the Wehrhof Reun . When the Traungauer replied to the question of which order should inhabit the future monastery was the Cistercian order , he contacted the Ebrach monastery in Bavaria. The Rein Abbey thus belonged to the filiation of the Morimond Primary Abbey . The monks from the Ebrach monastery came to Rein on March 25, 1129 for the feast of the Annunciation and were able to move into a temporary monastery on November 8, 1130 under Abbot Gerlach (1129 to approx. 1164). The Parakeet Monastery in Slovenia was settled from Rein in 1136 . Since Leopold died in the founding year, his widow Sophie completed the founding of the monastery. On February 22nd, 1138, Archbishop Konrad I of Salzburg recorded the history of the foundation and the first donations, which included the Reintal, to the monastery. Already in the first decades of its existence the monastery experienced a cultural and economic boom, which is expressed in the creation of various works in the office, such as the Reiner Musterbuch from the 13th century. Furthermore, the funds managed by the monks were granges for the development and cultivation of surrounding land significantly.
The consecration of the collegiate church took place in 1140 . 1144 gave King Conrad III. the village of Werndorf near the monastery . In 1146 the Wilhering Abbey in Upper Austria was settled from Rein . Since between the Margrave Ottokar III. and the monastery was closely related, the margrave made some donations - such as three farms under the castle on Grazer Schloßberg in 1164 , which later became today's Reinerhof in Sackstrasse. In the same year there was a further donation by Konrad III., Which included the area between the rivers Feistritz , the Söding and the Alpine ridge. It was previously used as a fief. Duke Ottokar IV. , The last of the Traungau family, left the Gottenfeld Alm near Hirschegg to the monastery in 1192 . This donation was made in the same year by Duke Leopold V and again in 1210 by Duke Leopold VI. , both from the Babenberg family , confirmed.
Rule of the Babenbergs, inheritance dispute and pure oath
Although the Babenbergers gave Rein some donations, there was never a closer relationship between the monastery and the ruling family. In 1205 Leopold VI. the monastery received larger amounts of iron from the Erzberg and in 1210 four Huben in Premstätten . In 1217 he renounced the wine toe in Weikersdorf in favor of the monastery . Leopold's wife Theodora had an altar consecrated to Apostle Thomas erected in the collegiate church and an eternal light in front of it . In 1243 Duke Friedrich II donated the property of Helfenstein Castle, which he had destroyed.
In addition to the Babenbergers, the Stubenberger , the Stadecker , the Herren von Plankenwarth , the Krottendorfer , the Herren von Walsee , the Herren von Wildon , the Herren von Kranichberg , the Murecker as well as the Emmerberger appeared as important donors. The Stadecker also provided Ludwig I (approx. 1227 - before 1243), the seventh abbot of the monastery.
In 1265 Abbot Amelrich was appointed bishop of the Salzburg diocese Lavant . When the Habsburg Rudolf I was elected German king in 1273, there was a conflict with Ottokar II, as Rudolf demanded the surrender of the formerly Babenberg and Spanheimer lands. Because of this conflict, Styrian and Carinthian nobles met on September 19, 1276 to unanimously swear the Reiner Oath , in which they swore allegiance and allegiance to Rudolf. The monastery thus offered the enemies of the previous sovereign Ottokar II an opportunity to successfully ally against him.
Rule of the Habsburgs, Lutheranism and Counter-Reformation
The pure abbot Heinrich von Admont served Duke Albrecht of Styria as clerk and later governor. Angelus, who was elected abbot on June 7, 1399 and came from the diocese of Meißen , served Ernst the Iron, who took office as Duke of Styria in 1411, as a close advisor and from 1415 as councilor and court chaplain . In 1414 Angelus was sent by the sovereign to the Council of Constance and later participated in the Melk monastery reform . Ernst der Eiserne was buried in the choir of the Reiner Stiftskirche. His first wife Margarethe, who died in 1407, was also buried in Rein.
In the 15th century the monastery experienced a high. Around 1450, 48 monks belonged to the convent; between 1441 and 1482, 13 Reiner monks lived as studios in the Vienna Ordenskolleg St. Nikolaus. The then Reiner Abbot Hermann Molitor (1439–1470) was granted pontifical rights in 1444 by the Basel Council and in 1445 by Pope Eugene IV . At the request of Emperor Friedrich III. Rein became the mother monastery of Stift Neukloster in Lower Austria in 1444 . Friedrich III. In 1473 the Lilienfeld Abbey was subordinated to the Reiner Filiation. Incidentally, Molitor's term of office was a time of political disputes, which culminated , among other things, in the Baumkirch feud .
During a Turkish invasion in 1480, serious damage to the building fabric occurred. As a result of the repair, fortifications with defensive walls and defensive towers were expanded. In the same year there was an outbreak of the plague in the monastery, which among other things fell victim to the abbot Christian Ganser (1472–1480). The tenure of his successor Wolfgang (1481-1515) was marked by the reconstruction and the economic consolidation of the monastery. The fortifications were further expanded. Abbot Johannes IV. Lindenlaub (1515–1529) was appointed to the council by the Archduke and later Emperor Ferdinand I.
At the beginning of the 16th century, the number of monks in the monastery began to decrease to around 12. The main reason for the decline was the spread of Lutheranism . In 1534 the previous vicar of Gratwein , Hippolyt Huettensteiner, was elected abbot. However, he only held this position for a few months, as he acted as a placeholder for the young Ludwig Ungnad Freiherr von Sonnegg, the son of Governor Hans Ungnad . In December 1533, Ungnad was appointed coadjutor , although he was not vogtable at the time . Under the leadership of Commendatarabts Ludwig Ungnad, the monastery experienced its personal and economic low point. Ungnad's father was also the head of the Styrian Protestants . Both the sovereign and the pope, however, approved the transfer of the pen to disgrace. It was not until 1549 that Emperor Ferdinand Abbot brought about Ludwig Ungnad's resignation.
The emperor appointed the pastor of Cilli Martin Duelacher as the new abbot. Although the two Ungnad still exerted influence on the management of the monastery, there was a renewed upswing under Duelacher. For the year 1556 24 conventuals are recorded, while in other Styrian monasteries the number of monks decreased. In the years 1551, 1553, 1557, 1559 and 1568 clergymen of the monastery were postulated as abbots at the Neukloster monastery . The same happened in 1557 for the Topusko Monastery and in 1580 for the Parakeet Monastery .
Abbot Bartholomäus von Grudenegg (1559–1577) was commissioned by the sovereign to collect money for the construction of a Jesuit college in Graz, today's Academic Gymnasium on Tummelplatz. Under Abbot Georg Freyseisen (1577–1605) radical changes to the medieval structure began. He was of particular importance as a visitor and vicar general in the implementation of the Counter-Reformation under Charles II and Ferdinand II . He was also appointed to the Archducal Council, Vice Governor and President of the Court Chamber . In 1600 the Rein Abbey was raised to a regional court and thus received high jurisdiction with the place of execution "Broad Cross" in Gratwein. The upswing documented under Freyseisen continued into the second half of the 17th century. In 1607 the parish of Gratwein came to the monastery with seven vicariates . 13 incorporated parishes later emerged from the vicariates.
In 1620 the former Benedictine monastery Schlierbach was settled with monks from Rein . In the years 1618 and 1622 clergymen from Rein were again appointed as abbots to Neukloster. The same happened in 1601, 1621 and 1631 for the Landstraß / Kostanjevica monastery , in 1615 for the Baumgartenberg monastery and in 1621 and 1627 for the Schlierbach monastery. Abbot Matthäus Mayerle had the new convent built between 1628 and 1632 . In 1640 more than 60 religious lived in the monastery. Emperor Leopold I visited the monastery in 1660 and 1673.
Baroque and Josephine reforms
Abbot Placidus Mally (1710–1745) was the last of the Styrian monasteries to begin to baroque style . In 1720 the eastern part of the monastery and the library wing were rebuilt. From 1737 the Romanesque collegiate church was largely demolished and replaced by today's late-baroque church. The grave of Duke Ernst the Iron was transferred in 1746 as part of the renovations from the church choir in the east to its present-day grave chapel to the west. In 1747, the court architect Johann Georg Stengg from Graz completed the work under Abbot Marian Pittreich (1745–1771); on November 5, 1747 the church was consecrated. In 1753 the library was moved to the new north wing. In 1759 Pittreich bought part of the Ferdinande library from the Grazer Kunst- und Wunderkammer . The majority of this acquisition as well as the "Kepler table" - an "eternal" calendar - are now in the monastery. In 1760 Pittreich also acquired remains from the Graz Art Chamber, which also contained some relics .
The reforms carried out by Emperor Joseph II led to the dissolution of 19 Styrian monasteries. Rein monastery was not closed, but had to take pastoral responsibility for other parishes. The collegiate church was placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Seckau and the number of monks was fixed. Under Abbot Abundus Kuntschak (1795-1822) the number of monastery residents fell to eight priests. Another 17 clergy served as pastors in the parishes.
19th century until today
Before the election of Abbot Ludwig Crophius (1823–1861), some professed people considered applying for the abolition of the monastery due to the small number of members of the order. During Crophius' tenure, however, the number of convent members rose to an unexpected 37. The abbot and archduke were closely connected: Crophius served as curator of the Joanneum from 1826 and became director of studies of the technical college at the museum in 1828. Following the Archduke's request, from 1829 he also took care of the archive, the library and the reading club attached to the Joanneum. In 1859, Crophius became the first vicar general of the newly established Austrian monastic province of the Cistercians. In 1883, Franz Joseph I was the last emperor to visit the monastery.
During the Second World War, the monastery was confiscated and expropriated from Abbot Ernst Kortschak , despite the National Socialist commitment . In the 1950s, under Abbot Aelred Pexa , after a short-lived Boys' Choir Institute, displaced classes from the Second Federal High School - later the Carnerigymnasium - were set up in the monastery rooms. In the 1970s the school became an independent federal high school with a day home school.
Abbot Paulus Rappold (1973–1986) lobbied vigorously for construction work and renovations, but soon brought the monastery into financial distress. In 1985 the Cistercian Abbot President discovered during a visit that the Rein monastery was on the verge of insolvency due to the confusing economic management. Rappold had neither kept a record of income and expenditure nor of the use of the donations received. He was removed from his post in 1986, dismissed from the order and sentenced to prison by the state judiciary for embezzlement . The Heiligenkreuz monk, Father Gregor Henckel-Donnersmarck , was appointed as Prior Administrator from 1986 to 1991. Only in 1994 was the convent allowed to elect an abbot from among its own ranks; the choice fell on Father Robert Beigl, who had converted from Heiligenkreuz .
After Beigl's successor, Abbot Petrus Steigenberger , postulated by the Lilienfeld Abbey , resigned from his office in 2008 when he reached the age of 75, the chapter chose the novice master Maximilian Geier as his successor. The Vatican Congregation for Religious Affairs did not confirm the election. In 2010 Christian Feurstein from Heiligenkreuz Abbey became the 57th abbot of Rein. Feurstein resigned as abbot on March 9, 2015 due to a serious heart disease. On May 5, 2015, Father Benedikt Fink was elected administrator, who resigned in 2017 for health reasons. On September 25, the Abbot President and Abbot of Heiligenkreuz Abbey Maximilian Heim was elected as the new administrator. On September 24, 2018, Philipp Helm was unanimously elected 58th abbot of the monastery.
Reiner school and abbey library
The writing school of the Rein Abbey was founded in the middle of the 12th century and was very open to the styles of other schools, but in turn influenced them in part itself. The manuscripts produced during the founding phase were in the style of schools from the Rhine-Main region. Area influenced, which is also due to the filiation of the monastery. The content of these manuscripts deals not only with the traditional father texts but also with the works of contemporary authors such as Otto von Freising and Boto vonprüfunging . Special attention was paid to hagiographic fonts. Under the Salzburg Archbishop Eberhard I , there was a collaboration with Salzburg scribes.
One of the better-known works of the Reiner Schule is the Reiner Musterbuch , which was probably created between 1208 and 1230. Some writings from the late 12th century suggest adoptions of French and English styles. They include Hugo von St. Viktor , Bernhard von Clairvaux and Beda Venerabilis , among others . Most of the works of the Reiner Writing School are now in the Abbey Library and in the Austrian National Library .
Antiphonale Cisterciense , Archangel Michael
The consecration of the originally Romanesque basilica took place in 1140. Around 1300 and towards the end of the 17th century, some chapels were added to the nave. From 1738 to 1747 the entire church was redesigned in Baroque style by the master builder Johann Georg Stengg . The choir was consecrated in 1742 and the rest of the church was consecrated in 1747 by Abbot Marian Pittreich. The older Romanesque, three-aisled and eight-bay pillar basilica was rebuilt during the Baroque period by removing the pillars into a single-nave walled pillar church. Before the renovation, the nave in the west and east was just closed, about 57 meters long and about 19 meters wide. Today only the surrounding walls, the former choir room in the east with the two pairs of pillars in the vestibule and the entrance to today's sacristy have been preserved from this building. During the renovation, a pulled-in, 16-meter-long, two-bay choir room with a five-eighth end was added to the former entrance front in the west of the church. When it was built, the east facing of the building was abandoned.
The eastern, two-story facade of the church dominates the large monastery courtyard in front of it. It was designed by Johann Georg Stengg between 1742 and 1747. The middle and wider of the total of three axes is pre-formed convex and the two lateral axes are concave swinging back and are separated by strong columns standing on high plinths. The arching of the axes ends harmoniously on the gable floor. In each axis there is a portal, of which the middle one is the largest. A convex staircase leads up to the portals. Above the central portal is a niche decorated with stucco , in which there is a statue of St. Bernhard made by Johann Matthias Leitner in 1743 , which is flanked by two angels. Above the statue niche is a stucco-framed window with the coat of arms of the monastery and the coat of arms of abbot Placidus Mally, which is covered by a curved roof. There is a protruding hornwork in the gable . There are also three figures, also by Leitner, placed on the gable facade, representing faith, love and hope. The church tower is set back on the south side of the church building. The first tower was built in 1267 and replaced by a baroque tower in 1650, which Josef Stengg brought into its current form in 1782 . It bears the coat of arms of Abbot Gerhard Schobinger. The north and south façades and the end of the choir are divided by pilasters . The church windows have a roof on the outside.
Interior and equipment
The baroque style nave is spanned by a four- bay vaulted square vault. The two-bay and three-axis vestibule is located under the deep gallery yoke in the east. Convex galleries protrude above the side chapels , which, like the chapels themselves, have a transverse barrel vault . The concave front arch has altar niches. The choir has a square vault with smooth belts . The nave is structured by sturdy wall pillars that carry mighty, reddish marbled entablature pieces and on which the belts of the nave vault and the transverse barrels of the galleries rest. Flat pilasters made of stucco marble with composite capitals stand in front of the pillars . The galleries have a richly decorated, openwork balustrade that remains below the beams . The capitals of the pilasters below the galleries close with their upper edge on a level with the gallery grilles. Both on the front arch and in the chancel itself, as in the nave, there are flat pilasters with composite capitals on which pieces of entablature rest.
All of the wall paintings in the interior of the church were painted by Joseph Adam Ritter von Mölk in 1766 and have retained their original color to this day. Ornamental decorative paintings are on the walls and figural scenes with illusionistic pseudo-architecture can be seen in the fields of the vault. There is a picture of King David above the organ . When you enter the nave on the east side, you first see a representation of St. Benedict in Subiaco . This illustration is followed by the depiction of the cross vision of St. Bernard , which is flanked by two medallions with the allegories of Justitia and Temperantia . Connected to this is the Virgin Mary as a temple virgin, also flanked by two medallions with Fortitudo and Prudentia . Together, the medallions represent the four cardinal virtues .
The western vaulted area shows a representation of the Egyptian Joseph as a model for St. Joseph of Nazareth . On the front arch there is a painted gallery with an angel blowing a trumpet, flanked by the coats of arms of Abbots Placidus Mally and Marian Pittrich. In the choir there is a depiction of the empty throne of Mary and two medallions with the medieval allegories of Ecclesia and the synagogue .
The altars made of stucco marble were designed by Johann Georg Stengg. The mighty pillar high altar, adapted to the end of the choir, was erected in 1768. The statues made by Jakob Payer depict Zacharias , David, Abraham and Simeon . In the essay there is a representation of the Trinity . The altarpiece painted by Martin Johann Schmidt in 1779 shows the birth of Christ and the adoration of the shepherds. On the altar is the high altar picture with a representation of Mary's Assumption into Heaven , which was transferred to the monastery by Maria Straßengel in 1819 . The slender side altars are fitted to the front arch. The left side altar shows a portrait of St. Bernard and the right one of St. Benedict, who is surrounded by members of various orders committed to the Regula Benedicti . Both pictures were painted by Joseph Amonte and the statues on the altars are by Johann Matthias Leitner.
The pulpit was erected by Jakob Payer in 1763. On the cover there is a representation of the four continents known at the time. The organ in the Rococo style was made by Anton Römer in 1772 , and its work was renewed in 1963. The prayer choir with stalls on the organ gallery dates from 1749. There is an inscription on the eastern wall of the church, which indicates that the choir stalls and pews are from 1743. The confessionals and the church doors are baroque in design.
In the hall under the eastern gallery there are several grave monuments, which are described in more detail: The grave monument of the abbot Johann Lindenlaub, who died in 1529 in a Salzburg workshop from red marble, is decorated with a relief of the deceased. It stands on a Renaissance plinth from the 16th century, has a baroque frame and was re-erected after the church was rebuilt around 1740. The coat of arms of the abbot Georg Freyseisen, who died in 1605, is made of red marble and also stands on a Renaissance plinth and has a baroque frame. The oval relief with the portrait dates from around 1740 and was probably made by Matthias Leitner. The relief with a full-length figure of Abbot Matthias Gülger, who died in 1682, is flanked by columns and also stands on a base. At the top there are two angel figures and a saint figure, which probably represents Matthias. The tomb of the abbot Placidus Mally, who died in 1745, has a rocaille ornament frame richly decorated in shell style . It shows the figure of a seated Fama allegory made by Johann Matthias Leitner, leaning against a relief portrait of the abbot. The other stone carvings on this tomb date from 1754 and were carried out by Andreas Zailler. A red marble tombstone decorated with reliefs and dating from 1523 bears the names of four members of the von Graben von Stein family . The tombstone of the organist Georg Weser, who died in 1590, shows a relief of the family and the resurrected one.
On each side of the nave there are four side chapels, each with its own altar. These are - from west to east - on the south side the Joseph Altar, the Angel Altar, the Barbara Altar and the Sebastian Altar. On the north side, from west to east, these are the Anna Altar, the All Saints Altar, the Johann Nepomuk Altar and the Narcissus Altar. Most of the statues on the altars were created by Johann Matthias Leitner from 1745 onwards.
The altarpiece of the Joseph altar shows Saint Joseph together with the baby Jesus and the boys of John . On the oil painting by Joseph Amonte, the upper picture, you can see the heart of Mary . The statues represent the evangelist John with the apostles . The Anton thinking attributed altarpiece of the altar, the angel archangel and the nine choirs of angels is that a painted insert image of the miraculous image of Mary Straßengel worship. The statues show Saints Mary Magdalene and Dismas . On the Barbara altar there is an altarpiece painted by Amonte showing St. Barbara . The statues represent Saints Catherine and Margaretha. The altarpiece of the Sebastian Altar, also painted by Amonte, shows the martyrdom of Saint Sebastian . The altar figures attributed to Philipp Jakob Straub date from 1742 and show the saints Florian and Donatus .
The Anna altar bears a picture painted by Johann Veit Hauck in 1746 , which shows Anna herself together with Joachim and Joseph. The figures represent Saints Elizabeth and John the Baptist . The All Saints' Day and the Three Wise Men are attributed to Anton Denk. The saints Leopold and Oswald stand as statues on the altar. Joseph Amonte painted St. John Nepomuk and a view of the pen on the altar portrait of the Johann Nepomuk altar. The picture is flanked by two statues of bishops. On the Narcissus altar is a picture of Narcissus painted by Ignaz Flurer around 1740 . Philipp Jakob Straub made the two altar figures depicting Saints Blasius and Valentin.
The Benedict Chapel is located in the upper courtyard of the monastery. It was consecrated to St. Benedict in 1229 and served as a hospice church until it was closed in the 16th century. In 1981 it was re-consecrated. The late Romanesque semicircular apse has been preserved from the old chapel . The pictures on the walls are by Giselbert Hoke . The works painted in 1983 show motifs from the Apocalypse and from the Song of Songs of St. Paul . In the apse there is a large image of Christ. Inside there is also a picture of the baby Jesus and a fresco of the good Samaritan . Above the entrance portal are two figures depicting end-time angels who are plunging the world into the apocalypse.
Grave or cross chapel
The grave or cross chapel is attached to the church north of the choir. It contains the red marble tombstone of Archduke Ernst der Eiserne, who died in 1424, from a Salzburg workshop . It shows the archduke in full armor with the ducal hat on his head and the coats of arms of the duchies of Austria , Styria , Carinthia and Carniola in the corners . The tombstone was originally in the old choir and was translated into the chapel in 1746. Further on are the remains of the tumba of Margrave Ottokar III. with his figural tombstone in the chapel. The Tumba was originally made for the Carthusian monastery in Seiz in 1696 and transferred to Rein in 1827. Rein Abbey also served as a burial place for the Lords of Graben .
Chapel of the Cross or Trinity
Today's Chapel of the Cross or Trinity was built by Abbot Angelus around 1406 on the site of a sick chapel consecrated to St. Stephen. She was originally a free-standing, in the soft style of Gothic chapel built cruciform floor plan, which was built in the Baroque style implemented and in the south wing. Today some fragments of the Gothic building can still be seen. The choir has a five-eighth circuit and extends into a terrace by the Prelature hall. The ribs of the vault rest on delicate semicircular services , the capitals of which bear the monastery coat of arms. In the Lavabonische one finds with leaf masks provided consoles . The Vierungsjoch has cross ribs that sit on bundles with figured capitals. Of the cross arms, only the southern one has retained its original shape, i.e. one-yoke with a polygonal end. The remains of the old tracery can still be seen on the chapel windows . The original stained glass painted by Pictor Johannes in 1406 was sold in 1926 to the Museum of Applied Arts in Vienna, the Hessian State Museum in Darmstadt and a museum in Lucerne .
On the altar is a Gothic stone Madonna from the end of the 14th century. The incised tombstone of Ulrich von Laas and his wife, made from 1293 to 1294, is part of the chapel. It shows the couple under an architectural crown. He was found in the abbey area in 1965 and walled up in the chapel.
The five-bay, elongated, baroque St. Mary's Chapel, attached to the south of the church entrance, was consecrated on February 4, 2007 by Abbot Petrus Steigenberger . It used to serve as the old sacristy and since a renovation in 1973 as a chapter house and winter church (with underfloor heating). It is vaulted by a needle cap barrel. The rich stucco decorations on the vaulted ceiling were probably designed by Alexander Serenio in 1682 . The entrances are decorated with stucco crowns in rocaille ornament. The year 1682 is located on the lava niche made of white marble . The wooden portal to the cloister dates from the same time as the stucco work and is flanked by two columns. In the old sacristy there is a group of crosses from the end of the 18th century and a large sacristy cabinet from the construction period. Since 2007 it has also housed the monastery’s oldest statue of the Virgin Mary.
During renovation work in 2006, the remains of the Romanesque and Gothic chapter rooms and the grave of Margrave Leopold I , the Strong (died October 26, 1129), the founder of the monastery, were found under the chapel . The open grave can be viewed through a window in the ground.
Plague or baptistery
This chapel was added to the north of the church entrance in 1681. On the north outer wall it has a portal with a wrought iron grille from the year of construction. According to a chronogram, the chapel altar attributed to Andreas Marx was erected in 1681. The architectural-ornamental decorative paintings date from 1706 and were later renewed.
Monastery buildings and courtyards
The old Romanesque and Gothic buildings of the monastery have been preserved around the cloister and in the western part of the monastery. In the eastern part there were further Gothic building sections that were incorporated into the baroque renovation from 1720 .
The elongated northern facade of the monastery is three-story and has thirty axes. In the place of the former, balcony-like protruding medieval gatehouse, there is now a protruding, seven-axis central projection above the entrance portal, which is also present on the courtyard side. The entrance portal leads into the large monastery courtyard and is flanked by two smaller passages. At the portal there is a relief designed by Jakob Payer in 1753 , which shows the monastery founder Margrave Leopold I on a horse, the Reiner coat of arms and other coats of arms. The ground floor around the central risalit is designed as a base floor with a plaster cuboid structure. The two upper floors are combined by pilasters designed in Tuscan order . The window gables alternate in the design. The three- bay passage of the entrance portal is spanned by a groined vault on pillars . Two staircases branch off from the passage, which can be closed with baroque wrought iron bars. The stairs have balusters .
The tribute hall
The so-called “Homage Hall” is located above the entrance to the north facade and extends over both upper floors. The fresco paintings were made by Joseph Amonte in 1740. On the ceiling there is a mock architecture painted in a style influenced by Andrea Pozzo , which surrounds a sky view of Justitia and Pax . On the two front walls, on the one hand, the reconciliation of the biblical patriarch Jacob with his brother Esau and, on the other hand, the Greek god Mercurius , who sees the king's daughter Herse , is depicted. Between the individual windows there are representations of the basic Christian virtues Fides, Spes and Caritas (German: Faith, Hope and Love) and the allegorical representation of the Church, the Ekklesia .
The "Stone Hall", which was restored between 1973 and 1974, is located in the eastern wing of the northern facade. A three-part oil painting with scenes from the biblical story of Rebekka is embedded in the stucco ceiling designed by Carlo Federigo Formentini in 1725 . The marbling on the walls dates from 1733 and was made by Josef Leopold Khrakhl . In the corners of the room there are small picture fields painted by Amonte, which show various scenes from the story of Abraham: one picture field depicts Abraham wanting to sacrifice Isaac , the second shows how Melchizedek hands over the loaves to Abraham, on the third, how Isaac blesses Jacob, and on the fourth, how Jacob sells his birthright to Esau. In the same wing there are some other stucco ceilings from the second quarter of the 18th century. To the far east on the ground floor there are stucco ceilings from around 1680 to 1690, which were restored in 1980.
In the western part of the north facade, the remains of the wall of the medieval powder tower were built and at the western end there is an inscription stone by Abbot Wolfgang from 1511.
Great monastery court
The large monastery courtyard can be reached directly through the entrance portal of the north facade and was uniformly baroque under Abbot Mally. There is a coat of arms above the entrance portal on the courtyard side, which is dated 1753. All tracts built around the courtyard are three-story; the discontinued facade of the collegiate church can be seen in the west.
In the southern part of the east wing is the prelature , which steps forward on two axes to the east. A Roman provincial lion figure stands in front of the prelature. To the north of the entrance to the prelature are parts of the medieval abbey , which today houses the archive. The first room of the east wing has a ridge vault that rests on a central pillar. The coat of arms of Abbot Johannes Lindenlaub, attached in 1517, adorns the central pillar.
A shoulder arch portal with an iron door and a door lock dated to 1497 leads from the first room into the next elongated room with a groin vault , which is decorated with painted ribs and vegetable tendrils. The painted door frame with putti dates from 1501. Part of the room decorations are the two inscriptions “ Fortuna ” and “ Fortitudo ” and several profane depictions of hunting. The upper floors of the wing have some baroque stucco ceilings from the second quarter of the 18th century, one of which shows a large central relief depicting the Lactatio of St. Bernard of Clairvaux .
The eastern part of the south wing has columned arcades that extend over both upper floors. On the courtyard side is an inscription plaque with the Habsburg motto AEIOV and the year 1633. On the side there is a wall fountain with sandstone figures of Christ and the Samaritan woman , made by Johann Matthias Leitner in the middle of the 18th century. The Chapel of the Cross or Trinity is located in the eastern part of the wing.
The wing to the west of the large monastery courtyard is dominated by the church facade in the middle. The coat of arms tombstone of Abbot Balthasar Stieber from 1685 is walled in on the southern arm. The old sacristy on the ground floor now serves as the Lady Chapel. Directly above the chapel is the winter choir or chapter house , which was enlarged and redesigned in 1979. In the northern arm there is a passage from the large monastery courtyard to the library courtyard in the north. The library hall has its premises above this passage.
The "Chapter House" has a ceiling painting painted by Joseph Amonte in 1752, which shows St. Bernard together with the former convent of Rein. The picture is surrounded by four small round pictures that represent the last four things . The altar dates from the mid-19th century, but was designed in the Baroque style. The 1847 by Jos. Tuner painted altarpiece shows a Madonna and Saint Bernard. On the altar is a small baroque shrine with an icon of Mary from the second half of the 17th century. A portrait of Christ on the Mount of Olives, also painted by Amonte, and two Baroque images showing the crucifixion and the holy clan are part of the room furnishings.
The baroque "library hall" above the passage from the large monastery courtyard to the library courtyard is an elongated room with a mirror vault , which is divided by bookshelves. Frescoes by Joseph Amonte adorn the entire ceiling. In the large center field, Christ is shown lifting the veil from Moses' face. The four medallions on the side , depicting martyrs of the Jesuit order of Graz and clerical dignitaries from that time, flank the portrait. The four Latin church fathers can be seen in the corners of the hall. In the southern ceiling field there is a medallion with the busts of the reigning Archduchess Maria Theresa and her husband, Emperor Franz I Stephan , who are surrounded by the Greco-Roman god Apollo and the nine muses . The northern ceiling field has a representation of Our Lady together with Saints Benedict and Bernhard. In the corners of the room there are portraits of the four bishops who emerged from Rein. The bookshelves are decorated with portraits of contemporary Cistercian abbots and the abbot general .
The two-aisled "new sacristy " is attached to the church to the south of the choir and was given its present form in the first half of the 19th century. It is spanned by a groin vault resting on strong round pillars . It contains a picture of the Assumption attributed to Giovanni Pietro de Pomis , which originally stood on the old high altar, built in 1622.
Cloister courtyard and cloister
The cloister courtyard is south of the collegiate church. It is enclosed by the church in the north and the cloister on the other three sides . The three-sided cloister has high, closed corridors with groin vaults and was brought into its present form under Abbot Matthias Gülger (1605–1628). On the outer walls of these corridors, some Romanesque and Gothic elements have been preserved or were later exposed. This makes it possible to reconstruct the shape of the former monastery complex with the armarium , chapter house and dormitory in the east, the refectory in the south and the conversing wing in the west. Of this old complex, only the refectory, which was later rebuilt in Baroque style, with the walled-up Gothic pointed arch portal has remained in its original location. There is also a recovered Romanesque column with a cube capital at this portal . From the western wing of the cloister, a wall with a 17th century portal that was moved in 1980 leads to the farm yard. There is an inscription on the portal with the year 1733.
In the cloister is the abbot gallery with life-size pictures of the abbots from Rein Abbey. The installation of these pictures began under Abbot Gülger and the tradition continues to this day. Paintings by Joseph Adam Ritter von Mölk from 1767 are embedded in the inner walls of the summer or old refectory . A round tiled stove from the Biedermeier period is part of the equipment of this room.
The new convent , built between 1628 and 1632 by the master builder Bartholomäus di Bosio , is located south of the south wing and east of the cloister courtyard. It is a uniformly designed, three-storey four-wing building. On the courtyard side, the open arcades designed by Bernhard Coletti with Tuscan columns run across all floors. The convent wing is directly connected to the cloister wing on the second floor via a hall with a central pillar and its light niche. Between 2002 and 2003, the convent was renovated and the facade was repainted in a color known as "English red", which had already adorned the building.
The cell doors on the two upper floors were provided with portal-like plaster frames in the second quarter of the 18th century. In every door attachment there is an oval picture, presumably painted by Joseph Amonte, with Cistercian saints designed according to engravings. A portrait of St. Jerome with stucco framing (around 1690), painted in the style of Hans Adam Weissenkircher , can be seen in the hall to the cloister. In the New Convent by the New Refectory above the north-facing kitchen there are two views of the monastery painted by Joseph Amonte in 1752 before and after the baroque renovation.
Upper court or farm yard
The upper courtyard or farm yard is located in the western part of the monastery complex. The buildings, which are irregularly grouped around the courtyard, still have numerous Romanesque and Gothic elements from the original monastery buildings. Until the monastery was baroque, the northeastern part of the courtyard was where the gates of the monastery were located. The building was only used as a farm yard from the 18th century. From 1977 on, the buildings around the courtyard were adapted for teaching purposes, with some of the older sections being exposed. The courtyard entrance has a curved, baroque-style tower.
The medieval monastery gate in the northeast of the yard has a dated to the year 1480 Vorwerk . A well-preserved, high Gothic defensive wall with loopholes extends from this outskirts to the baroque north facade of the monastery. In the tower of the gate there is a Gothic fresco from the end of the 15th century showing the vision of St. Bernard on the cross. The architectural paintings around the fresco date from the 16th century.
To the west of the tower is the former hospice with two Romanesque round windows. Directly next to the hospice is a wing of the building, partly with Romanesque masonry, which runs to the south and which used to house the external hospital. This wing in the west of the farm yard has two Romanesque arched windows on the courtyard side and some simple late Gothic window frames . The late Romanesque hospice church, consecrated to St. Benedict in 1229 , was abandoned in the 16th century and consecrated again in 1981. The semicircular apse of the old chapel has been preserved.
From the original wing leading to the south of the courtyard, which was built under Abbot Bernhard (1265–1282) as a beneficiary hospital and later expanded several times, only a wall on the courtyard side has survived. The Gothic tower in the south was built in 1479 and has a window on the upper floor dated to 1516. It stands next to a Gothic gateway to which a wing built under Abbot Wolfgang and expanded in the 16th century adjoins. This acted as a court wing and has a former chapel with three keystones on the ground floor . On these the head of Christ, the instruments of passion and the year 1505 are depicted. A Gothic fresco with a protective mantle Madonna from around 1505 was located above the chapel entrance, which is now walled up . It was destroyed during an attempted inspection. The upper floors on the courtyard side of the wing are more recent.
More monastery buildings
To the west of the farmyard are the former mill and a Gothic round tower with the remains of a defensive wall that leads to the former granary. The granary was built in 1271 and renewed after 1480. Today it is only preserved as a ruin. The former conductor's house stands a little higher above it. The former bakery no longer exists because it was demolished.
To the east of the monastery complex is the large walled monastery garden. In the northern part it has a portal from 1654 with a wrought iron grille from the same period. In a niche in the wall, a Roman stone is walled in, on which three nymphs are depicted.
The monastery tavern stands in front of the monastery. This is essentially late Gothic and was brought into its present form in the 17th century.
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