History of Cyprus

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The (cultural) history of Cyprus begins at the end of the Paleolithic . The strategic location of the island was a major reason for its eventful history. It was in the area of ​​influence of the cultures of the Aegean , Anatolia , the Levant and Egypt .

Eneolithic idol from Lemba (Cyprus)

Prehistory and early history

The island was only at the end of the Paleolithic of hunter-gatherers settled, so the island-dwarf varieties of mammals, the Cypriot pygmy hippo ( Phanourios minutis ) and the dwarf elephant ( Elephas cypriotes survived) long. The oldest finds come from Aetokremnos on the Akrotiri peninsula, dating to the Epipalaeolithic around 9500 BC. Chr. Is however doubted. The hunters came to the island from the Levant and probably exterminated the dwarf fauna. Aetokremnos is the only site from this time so far.


The island was still permanently settled in the akeramischen Neolithic ( PPNB ) again from the Levant ; the oldest definitely dated traces of settlement come from Klimonas and are at least 10,600 years old. The colonists introduced emmer and einkorn and, in addition to domestic animals, dogs, cats, cattle, sheep and goats, also the fallow deer . Cattle farming was soon given up. The settlements from the pre-ceramic Neolithic (PPNB) are z. B. Ais Yiorkis, Kastros , Kalavasos , Khirokitia , Lapta , Paralimni-Nissia , Petra tou Limniti , Shillourokambos and Tenta . They consisted of round or square houses with rounded corners with the typical terrazzo or rubble floors, while rectangular houses were common on the mainland. For the supply of drinking water, wells were driven into the rock ( Mylouthkia ), as they are also known from the Levant at this time ( Atlit -Yam).

Ceramics have only been produced since the Sotira phase.

Copper and Bronze Ages

step Absolute date
Early Chalcolithic 3800-3500
middle Chalcolithic 3500-2800
late Chalcolithic 2800-2500

From approx. 3000/2300 BC. One began to exploit the island's copper deposits ( Erimi culture , Copper Age). The cemetery of Vounous-Bellapais with its rock chamber tombs dates from the Early Bronze Age (ECI) . The grave goods mainly include ceramics, copper weapons and a few idols. The pottery shows clear Anatolian influences.

step Absolute date
Philia culture ; also Early Bronze Age I 2500-2000 BC Chr.
Early Bronze Age II – III; early Cypriot too 2500–1900 BC Chr.
Middle Bronze Age I – III; also central Cypriot 1900–1650 BC Chr.
Late Bronze Age I – III ; late Cypriot too 1650-1050 BC Chr.

The archaeological finds and findings are divided into levels that indicate their temporal relation to one another, but do not represent an absolute dating. The beginning of the late Cypriot stage (Late Cypriot IA, corresponds to the late Minoan stage SM IA on Crete) must, according to more recent 14 C dates from Santorini (see also Minoan eruption ), to well before 1600 BC. Be set.

Cyprus became an important stopover in trade between Crete, Greece, the Levant and Egypt. Cypriot copper in particular was in great demand and was exported in the form of ox skin ingots. These were discovered at many sites, from Sardinia and southern Germany to Iraq. After Sardinia copper was carried out, although there copper was recovered. Copper mines have been detected in the area of Tamassos ( Peristerka and Pitharoma), Politiko and Mitsero.

Bronze Age copper mines can be found in:

  • Ambelikou
  • Apliki
  • Ayia Varvara Almyras
  • Mavrovouni
  • Mitsero Kokkinoyia
  • Peristerka
  • Phoenix Mine between Apliki and Skouriotissa
  • Politiko Phorades
  • Skouriotissa

Modern mining has certainly destroyed many ancient mines and shafts. Peristerka ore contained approximately 6% copper and 16% zinc .

In the 2nd millennium BC A syllabary was used in Cyprus that seems to be related to the Minoan linear script A. It is called the old Cypriot script and has not been deciphered. Inscriptions in this script are also known from the Levant. From the 1st millennium BC Chr. Was used in Cyprus for the Greek language, the so-called classical Cypriot script.

Cyprus was until the second third of the 13th century BC. Chr. Obviously independent. Alašija , known from the Amarna letters found in Egypt as well as Hittite and Ugarite sources, is equated by most researchers with Cyprus or a city in Cyprus. The king of Alašija was often addressed as a brother, which proves his position independent from the great powers. The opinion that Enkomi , an important site on the east coast, was the capital of Cyprus and thus the seat of the ruler of Alašija must probably be revised: Analyzes of the tone of letters from Alašija have shown that the tone does not come from the Enkomi area, but comes from the southwest of the island. The palace of the ruler of Alašija can therefore be assumed to be in the vicinity of the settlement Alassa . For the end of the 14th century and again for the middle of the 13th century, a single king has been recorded for the entire island, B. Knapp assumes that this was the case for the entire 14th and 13th centuries.

In the last third of the 13th century BC In BC Cyprus came under Hittite rule for a short time . In any case, Tudhalija IV (reign approx. 1240–1215 BC) boasts on an inscription found in Ḫattuša ( KBo 12.38) that Alašia has been subjected and tribute has been paid. His son Šuppiluliuma II later added the information to this document that he was successful in three naval battles against enemies of Alašija. However, there are hardly any finds of Anatolian origin from this period in Cyprus.

Mycenaean ceramics had been imported since the 16th century and were increasingly represented in the 15th century, and were mass-produced in the 14th century. From approx. 1200 BC. The influences of the Mycenaean culture increased strongly overall. In a late phase of the Late Bronze Age (LC IIIA, 1200–1100 BC), large quantities of “Mycenaean” IIIC ceramics were produced locally. In addition, new building elements such as cyclopean and embossed masonry as well as central hearths in residential buildings appeared ( Maa-Paleokastro , Enkomi, Hala Sultan Tekke etc.), which can also be found on the Greek mainland. V. Karagheorgis also wants to trace clay bathtubs (Ayios Dhimitri) and new bronze types such as Naue II swords, spout spearheads and greaves as well as coroplastic art back to Aegean influence. Horizons of destruction have been detected in a few settlements .

Two models are used to explain this increased Aegean influence, which Bernard Knapp calls the "invasion / colonization narrative" and the "political-economic model":

  1. Invasion model: Many researchers believed that Cyprus was conquered or at least settled by Mycenaean Greeks towards the end of the 13th century, who lived before the collapse of the palace centers on mainland Greece (at the end of period SH III B , early 12th century BC .) fled. This was reflected in the mythological reports of returning heroes from the Trojan War who are said to have founded numerous cities in Cyprus; z. B. Teukros in Salamis etc. (Karagheorgis 1982). Some researchers associate this invasion with the attacks of the so-called " sea ​​peoples " described in Egyptian sources .
    Between LC IIIA (1190–1100 BC) and LC IIIB (1100–1050 BC) significant cultural changes can be observed, both in the settlement pattern (abandonment of most of the large settlements) and in burial customs. Some researchers therefore count the time stage LC IIIB as early as the Iron Age. However, some traditions that have long been typical of Cyprus continue to run without interruption (e.g. a type of ceramic called “white-painted ware” in specialist circles). Karagheorgis (1988) sees this break as the effect of a second "wave of invasions" from Laconia and Crete . The indigenous population of the Eteocyprians withdrew to enclaves like Amathous .
  2. Political-economic model: The invasion model is increasingly being called into question, as there is no evidence of a cultural break between the LC IIC (1400–1190 BC) and the LC IIIA period. There are signs of destruction from some, but by no means all, settlements. B. Knapp and his school therefore assume the presence of Mycenaean traders who are in close contact with the local upper class and who, after the collapse of the Mycenaean culture on the mainland, are permanently resident in Cyprus and integrated into the upper class. In LC IIIA, therefore, Cypriot, Aegean and Levantine elements were merged into a new culture. The ivory objects in particular (Kition rhythms, game stone box from Enkomi, grave 58) show a clear Levantine influence. The square bronze stands, made in Cyprus, combine Aegean and Levantine elements.
    The cylinder seals , often made of hematite , can be divided into different groups; Here too, however, clearly hybrid elements can be demonstrated. A hematite seal from Enkomi shows a man with a short skirt, the typical Aegean costume, holding two lions up by his ears - a motif that ultimately goes back to the Mesopotamian "six-curly hero". Other specimens, with depictions of lions, bulls and deer, are more Mycenaean influenced. Bronze statuettes, such as the "horned god" or the "bar god" from Enkomi, both with a crown of horns , were interpreted as both Aegean ( Apollo , Hephaistos ) and Syrian / Near Eastern deities ( Nergal ), but possibly represent a combination of both .

Iron age

Towards the end of the 12th century BC The technique of iron extraction and processing came from the Hittites to Cyprus and from there to Greece at the end of the 11th century. Long-distance trade declined and the larger cities were temporarily given up. Cypriot copper in the form of ox skin bars was still used between 1200 and 1000 BC. Traded over long distances, as found in Sardinia, Lipari in Hungary and Palestine show.

Ceramic style period Conventional dating
Zypro-Geometric I 1050-950
Zypro-Geometric II 950-850
Zypro-Geometric III 850-750
Cypriot Archaic I 750-600
Cyprus Archaic II 600-500


The oldest cemetery in Salamis contains children's graves in so-called Canaanite jugs. These prove a Phoenician presence already in the phase LC IIIB in the 11th century BC. Similar vascular burials were found in the grave fields of Kourion -Kaloriziki and Palaepaphos -Skales near Kouklia . In Skales, numerous Levantine imports and Cypriot imitations of Levantine vessels indicate a Phoenician expansion even before the end of the 11th century. These are mainly storage jugs, jugs and pilgrim bottles that may have contained imported oil, spices or wine. Phoenician ceramics have been found in Amathous, Ayia Irini, Kition, Salamis, and Palaepaphos skales, among others.

From 800 BC Phoenician colonies such as Qart-Hadasht ( New Town ), today's Larnaka, were founded. The 8th century royal tombs of Salamis contain numerous Phoenician imports. David Rupp even suggests that the island's Iron Age kingdoms emerged in direct response to trade with the Phoenicians.

An inscription from the 4th century names a temple in Lapithos for gods from Byblos .

Greek influence

An inscription from Palaepaphos-Skales, the so-called "Obelos", attests to the earliest known Greek name on the island. “O-pe-le-ta-u” is usually read as “Opheltas”. The name on the skewer, a native Cypriot type, is given in the genitive, so, in typical Levantine manner, indicates ownership ("Skewer des Opheltas"). Whether an immigrant Greek or the increasing Hellenization (Dietler) of the upper class is to be grasped here is disputed in research.

Opheltas inscription from Skales, inscription

Graves that are used as evidence of a Greek upper class are not always clearly ethnically attributable. So contains shaft grave 40 from Kaloriziki identified by V. Karagheorgis than a funeral "Aegean Prince", a scepter, which was probably produced in Cyprus itself, but shows in technology and iconography strong Egyptian influence. Grave I in Salamis contains a multi-part set of dishes of "Greek" origin, which however mixes Attic and Cycladic vessels.

In the time before the Assyrian conquest, Cyprus was a center of trade, some researchers speak of a Cypriot thalassocracy . Contacts to the west are initially rare, but increase significantly over time (especially with Euboea and the Cyclades ). Also Attic imports are occupied, from Salamis , Amathous , Kition and Paphos . Einar Gjerstad assumed that an Athenian princess married after Salamis and that part of her dowry was kept in pots that were later given to her in the grave, which perhaps, under the influence of modern aesthetics, overestimates the real value of Attic ceramics. Imitations of Attic skypoi , kraters and kylikes were also made locally. According to A. Demetriou (2000), on the other hand, there also seems to have been Cypriot influences on Attic ceramic production.


On the Kition stele , discovered in 1845, Sargon II. (721–705 BC) prides himself probably in the year 708/707 BC. That the seven kingdoms of the country Ia- (dnāna) (= Cyprus) had voluntarily submitted to him and became his clientele kings. He confirms this relationship of dependence on Iadnāna in the inscription of Targa Var. In the Assyrian annals of 711 BC BC Sargon II mentions that twelve kings of Ia ', a region in Cyprus (Iadnana), paid him tribute. He never mentions names of cities and kings.

The prism of Asarhaddon from 673/672 BC BC mentions "ten kings from the middle of the sea":

  • King Ekištura Edi'il
  • King Tuandâr of Pâppa
  • King Si- (il) -lua of Kisu
  • King Erêsu of Sili / u
  • King Pitagura of Kitrusi
  • King P / Buṣkusu of Nurîa (Marion or Kinuria)
  • King Unasagusu of Lidîr
  • King Admesu / Gimesu of Tamesu / i
  • King Damisu / i of Qart Hadaši
  • King Damasu of Kuri

According to some authors, the founding of these kingdoms goes back in part to the late Mycenaean period (LC IIII). These are in detail (starting with Nicosia clockwise, last the two inland kingdoms):

The Iron Age Kingdoms of Cyprus
Ancient kingdoms of Cyprus en.svg

It has not yet been clarified whether these rulers were Achaean colonists or native Cypriots. More recent research suggests the latter. Some names, such as Pitagura , can be interpreted in Greek (Pythagoras or Pnytagoras), with others this is difficult. Unasagusu could play the title Wanax .

The rule over the island changed subsequently between Assyria , Egypt and the Persian Empire . Some Cypriots, especially in the southwest of the island, spoke a language that had not yet been deciphered, the so-called Eteocyprian .

Persian time

When the island became part of the Persian Empire is controversial, as the messages of ancient Greek writers are not clear. While E. Gjerstad and G. Hill for a time before Cyrus' Babylon campaign in 539 BC. HJ Watkin argues for the time shortly before the Persian attack on Egypt under Cambyses II in 525 BC. Chr.

In the Ionian uprising , the Cypriots also rose up against Persian rule. Herodotus (Historien 5, 110 ff.) Reports the following: When a Persian army under Artybas was sent from Cilicia to Cyprus and marched against Salamis , the kings of the island requested Ionian help. The auxiliary fleet sailed around the Karpas ("the keys of Cyprus") to Salamis. The Ionians refused to fight on land but offered to guard the sea. The battle broke out in the Mesouria near Salamis. The Cypriots were against the auxiliary troops Salamier and Solier under their king Onesilus against the Persians under Artybas. The army consisted of foot troops, cavalry and chariots. At the same time, the Ionians delivered a sea battle to the Phoenicians, allied with the Persians , which they could decide for themselves. In the land battle Onesilus was able to bring down the enemy generals with the help of his Carian shield-bearer, but after first the couriers and then the salamians had fled, the rest of the army also fled. Onesilus fell, the people of Amathous chopped off his head and hung him over the city gate. When a swarm of bees settled in this skull, the Amathousians turned to the oracle with concern and were told that they should bury the head and make sacrifices to the Onesilus every year, which they did. On hearing of the defeat of the land army, the Ionian fleet returned home. Salamis had already come under Persian rule again under King Gorgos , the other cities were besieged and fell. The longest held out was Soloi, which fell after a five-month siege after the Persians had undermined the walls.

Few sources have come down to us for the 5th century. Apart from Isocrates ( Euagoras ; ad Nicoclem ; Nicocles) there are only archaeological finds, especially coins. E. Gjerstadt reconstructs a Persian attempt to suppress the (Greek) dynasties of the city kingdoms, which was based on the Phoenicians who lived on the island. As the ancient historian Franz Georg Maier emphasizes, this is not supported by relevant documents. This alleged contradiction goes back to an alleged East-West contradiction (Greeks against "Orientals"), which has its roots in the European ideology of the late 19th and early 20th centuries and also contains racist components.

Coin minting begins in Cyprus after the Ionian uprising. The first coins bear legends in Cypriot syllabary , while later coins also have legends in Phoenician script. Stasioikos II (330–312 BC), the last king of Marion , minted coins with inscriptions in both writing systems, the Cypriot syllabary and Phoenician alphabet . The Phoenician script is used throughout the coins of Lapithos , with the exception of those of Praxippos .

Under Darius III. The Cypriots and Phoenicians were considered to be the most experienced sailors in the Persian fleet (Arrian 1, 18).

Hellenistic period

After conquering Tire , Alexander the Great had planned an attack on Cyprus before proceeding against Egypt (Arrian 2:18). After the fall of Byblos , Soloi sent three ships for the Macedonian fleet, after the battle of Issus the kings of Cyprus went over to Alexander as one and sent in 332 BC. 120 BC ships to Sidon (Arrian 2, 20; Curtius Rufus 4, 11). Alexander sent this newly acquired fleet against Tire, on the right wing the Cypriots under Andromachos , on the left Pnytagoras from Salamis and Krateros . However, the sea battle did not occur. Cypriot workers were also used in the siege of Tire.

When Alexander in 331 BC Moved to Mesopotamia , Cyprus and Phenicia each provided 100 ships to protect the Peloponnese (Arrian 3, 6). 321 BC BC four kings of Cyprus allied themselves with Ptolemy I Soter and held the island against Antigonus . Ptolemy lost the island to Demetrios Poliorketes in 306 and 294 , after which it remained until 58 BC. In the Ptolemaic Empire . Cyprus was ruled by an Egyptian governor and was held during the power struggles of the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. BC partially its own kingdom. Close trade relations existed with Athens and Alexandria . A "Cypriarch" was mentioned under Antiochus Epiphanes , who apparently commanded a division of Cypriot mercenaries in the service of this ruler.

Even under the Ptolemies there was an assembly from all over Cyprus that performed religious tasks. Their meeting place was in Paphos . It is proven up to the time of Caracalla , perhaps also Macrinus . It was also responsible for the cult of the deified ruler, there was no Cypriarch of his own.

Roman and Byzantine times

Roman time

Ammianus Marcellinus praises Cyprus as rich in ports and extraordinarily fertile, an island that produces all things in abundance. Without any outside help, you could equip a cargo ship from the keel to the highest sail and with any accessories and send it to sea. The copper mines of Tamassos delivered chalcanthite and " copper rust " (ιος το χαλκου), which was used in medicine. Ammianus particularly mentions the cities of Salamis , famous for their Zeus sanctuary, and Paphos with the temple of Aphrodite in his description of Cyprus . Strabo describes the island in book 14.5 of his Geographika after he has completed the description of Asia Minor, so he clearly sees it as part of Asia. He describes the island as elongated, with a circumference of 3420 stadiums , including the bays and a length of 1400 stadia between the dress and the Akamas peninsula (14,5,2).

According to the judgment of Ammianus Marcellinus, the Romans appropriated the fertile and resource-rich island out of pure greed. King Ptolemy (80–58), a younger son of Ptolemy IX. Soter of Egypt, who had come into conflict with Clodius Pulcher in the pirate war, was ostracized and eventually poisoned himself. The island was founded in 58 BC. BC praetorical province and made tribute, the treasures of Ptolemy worth 7000  talents dragged to Rome like spoils of war by the quaestor Marcus Porcius Cato the Younger (95-46 BC). According to Strabo, on the other hand, it was a personal act of revenge by Clodius Pulcher against King Ptolemy (Geographika 14, 6, 6). 48/47 BC In BC, Marcus Antonius gave Cleopatra and her younger sister Arsinoë IV control of Cyprus, which was reversed after his death. Until about 22 AD the administration was subordinate to a propaetor (a direct representative of the Roman emperor) then the rule of the island went to the Roman senate, which was represented by a proconsul . In Roman times, Kition, Salamis, Neo-Paphos, Kurion, Amathous (Tacitus, Annales 111, 62), Karpasia (Tacitus, Annales 111, 62), Lapethos , Soli and Arsinoe had city status. Idalion appears to have remained under Kition. Keryneia's status is uncertain. Apart from the troops of the proconsul, no military was stationed here. In Cyprus, the Egyptian calendar was still used, the year began on August 29th.

The Christianity was about 46 n. Chr. By the Apostle Paul of Tarsus and Barnabas brought to Cyprus. Around the year 50, Barnabas , who was born in Cyprus, visited Cyprus with the apostle Paul to do missionary work. According to the biblical report (Acts 13.4-12), the proconsul Sergius Paulus was interested in the Christian faith and became a Christian. In 1877 an inscription was found near Paphos in which Sergius Paulus is mentioned with the title Proconsul. Barnabas is said to have later become the island's bishop and was stoned to death as a martyr. Other important Cypriot saints are St. Herakleidus , St. Hilarion , St. Spyridon and St. Epiphanius , who was bishop of Salamis from 367–403. In 325 three Cypriot bishops took part in the Council of Nicaea . They represented the dioceses of Paphos , Salamis and Tremithus .

First Byzantine period

With the transfer of the imperial capital from Rome to Byzantium by Emperor Constantine I , Christianity became the dominant religion in the Roman Empire and Greek finally gained the upper hand over Latin as the official language, especially in the east of the empire. Cyprus was part of the Diocese of the East . Presumably the late Roman palace in Paphos was the seat of the consularis. It was still used and expanded in the fifth century, but was abandoned under Justinian I.

The visit of the mother of Emperor Constantine the Great, Helena , on her pilgrimage to the Holy Land, was used by the Church of Cyprus in the following decades to expand its independence from the Patriarchate of Antioch . At the Council of Serdica in 344, twelve bishops took part, 400 were 15. The seat of the archbishopric was Salamis. In 401 a council took place in Salamis under Epiphanius , at which the teachings of Origen were condemned.

In 333, the governor Calocaerus , installed in 330, rebelled against Emperor Constantine , but he was defeated by Flavius ​​Dalmatius and executed in Tarsus . When the empire was divided in 395 , the island was added to the Eastern Roman Empire .

As early as 410 Alexander of Antioch had complained to Pope Innocent I that the bishops of the island chose their bishops themselves instead of having them ordained by him. At the Council of Ephesus in 431, the island's Cypriot Orthodox Church was represented by Archbishop Rheginus and the Bishops of Soloi and Curium and was the first to receive autocephaly , i.e. self-government and independence from the five patriarchates . The Patriarchs of Antioch do not seem to have accepted this, however, and in 488 Patriarch Petrus tried to convince the Emperor Zenon that Antioch as the apostolic bishopric was entitled to suzerainty over the island. However, Constantinople was evidently unwilling to let the influence of the second richest imperial province of Syria and its powerful patriarch grow further. The reason that was found to safeguard the autocephaly of the Cypriot Church cleverly plays with the cult of saints at that time. Then the Archbishop Anthemios had a dream in which Barnabas told him personally where his relics could be found. In fact, the body of the saint was found in the place indicated, with a Bible written personally by the Evangelist Mark on his chest. Anthemios hurried to Constantinople and venerated the emperor's Bible, whereupon the emperor had the autocephaly confirmed by a synod. In addition, he granted the archbishop the privilege otherwise reserved for the emperor to be able to sign with purple ink . The privileges granted to the Archbishop of Cyprus were a slap in the face, especially for the patriarchs of Syria and Egypt, who like to act as masters of their provinces, because they put the Archbishop of Cyprus in a political position just behind the emperor and thus above any patriarch or provincial governor.

After the silk moth eggs were smuggled in from China under Justinian I , Cyprus became a center of silk production. In an administrative reform under Justinian, Cyprus was spun off from the Diocese of the East and received a governor who was directly subordinate to the emperor. Under Emperor Herakleios , coins were struck on Cyprus for a short time. Since iconoclasm could never be enforced on the island, numerous wall paintings from this period have been preserved.

Arab-Byzantine condominium

After the conquest of Alexandria had Mu'awiya I. on the orders of Caliph Uthman started to build a fleet and attacked in the summer of 649 volunteer troops under the personal leadership of Mu'awiya ibn as-Samit and Ubada of Akre from 1,700 ships at Salamis . The city fell after a brief siege. The island was defended by Theodoros, the brother of Emperor Herakleios, with the remnants of the Egyptian army, but they could not withstand the Arab attack. The island was conquered and sacked. A Byzantine aid fleet came too late.

The Arab historian al-Baladhuri reports in his work Futuh al-Buldan with reference to Awza'i († 774 in Beirut ) that the Archon ( praeses provinciae ) of Cyprus negotiated a treaty with the caliph in 649. The Cypriots had to pay an annual tribute of 7200 dinars and informed the Arabs of hostile actions by the Byzantines. According to Abu 'Ubayd al-Qasim ben Sallam (770-838, Kitab al-amwal ), the Cypriots had to pay 7,000 dinars a year to Muʿāwiya, but also continued to pay taxes to Constantinople. During the first wave of the Arab conquest, other provincial governors, for example of Mesopotamia (John Kateas, 637 AD in Chalkis ) and Egypt (Cyrus), apparently tried to negotiate peaceful arrangements with Muʿāwiya.

A second attack took place between 651 and 654, perhaps because the tribute was not paid. Lapithos was conquered and taken. Muʿāwiya established a strong garrison on the island, and Muslims from Syria also seem to have settled there. The garrison was not withdrawn until 683.

Emperor Konstans II had concluded a peace agreement with Muʿāwiya in 659, according to which the latter paid 365,000 solidi , a horse and a slave to Byzantium annually . However, from 662, when Muʿāwiya rose to become caliph, no more payments appear to have been made. Emperor Constantine IV concluded a similar agreement with the Caliph Abd al-Malik in 685 , in which joint control of Cyprus, Armenia and Iberia (Caucasus) in the Caucasus was agreed. The island was demilitarized, tax revenues shared, and the caliph paid 365,000 solidi to Byzantium annually. A truce for three or five years was signed, which was renewed again and again after it expired.

Justinian II renewed the agreement in 688. The first difficulties with Abd al-Malik arose when Justinian began in 690 to relocate residents of Cyprus to Kyzikos . He claimed that they were originally from the Balkans and Greece and that they fled to the island from the Bulgarians . The fact that the surviving resettlers returned to Cyprus after a shipwreck on the transport to Kyzikos on the Marmara Sea or the newly founded city of Nea Justinianoupolis suggests that they did not leave the island voluntarily. Other residents fled to Syria to avoid resettlement. The caliph protested against the deportations. When Justinian had an image of Christ struck on the coins with which the Arab payments were also made, war broke out. Justinian lost because his displaced Slavic troops defected to the Arabs. Probably all of Cyprus was lost around this time. The Council of Trullo had to deal with the relationship of the resettled Cypriot clergy to the church hierarchy of Kyzikos in 692 and confirmed the autocephaly of the Cypriot church. Only under Theodosios III. the resettlers from New Justinianopolis and the refugees from Syria were able to return to Cyprus and the old treaty was reverted to. Churches such as the Basilica of Lythrankomi ( Panagia Kanakaria ), the Panagia Church in Sycha and the basilicas of Aphentrica have now probably been restored. While there were Arabic inscriptions in the Panagia Limeniotissa Cathedral in Paphos , it is likely that not all of the destruction was caused by the Umayyads . It was at this time that the first church domes appeared on the island, a construction that had been introduced on the mainland under Justinian. A. Megaw considers St. George in Aphentrica to be an early Cypriot example.

In 743, 806 and 912 there were Arab raids on the island because the treaty had been broken. Under Basil I , the island was recaptured from Byzantium for seven years, its own theme was set up and fortifications were built. A. Megaw assumes that this included, for example, the castle in Saranda Kolones in Paphos. After the status quo was restored and the Byzantines withdrew their troops, the Arabs destroyed the fortifications that were contrary to the treaty.

Second Byzantine period

The Patrikios Niketas Chalkutzes undertook a campaign to Cyprus in 965 under the Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phocas , with which he restored the Byzantine sovereignty. He also subjugated the emirate of Tarsus on the opposite coast of Asia Minor and other areas east of it, which he reintegrated into the Byzantine Empire. All Muslims were expelled from the conquered areas. A Byzantine garrison was established on the island. In 1042 the strategos Theophilos Erotikos rebelled against Empress Zoe in Cyprus .

Remains from the time of the second Byzantine rule are sparse, both in terms of buildings and other finds. Even in what is now the capital Lefkosia, there are hardly any remains. According to Anna Komnena , Alexios I and probably other Komnenian emperors seem to have used the island as a place of exile for "dissatisfied" nobles. The majority of the landlords (archons) seem to have resided in Constantinople and rarely or never visited the island personally.

In 1092 (or 1094) the governors of Crete and Cyprus rebelled against Emperor Alexios I. The Megas Doux Johannes Dukas first put down the Cretan uprising, the leader Karykes was murdered by his supporters on the news of the arrival of the Byzantine army . Dukas sailed on to Cyprus and was able to take Kyrenia without major resistance. Rapsomates , the leader of the Cypriot uprising, was supported by some “immortals” ( athanatoi ), but according to Anna Komnena's report, he had no military experience. He left Lefkosia, later Nicosia , and occupied the heights of the Pentadactylos above Kyrenia. He initially avoided a direct attack and sent several messages to Dukas. His soldiers began to overflow, and as he sought battle, more units left him. Rapsomates then fled to Nemesus to embark for Syria. Persecuted by Manuel Boutoumites, he finally fled to the Church of the Holy Cross, where Boutoumites captured him and brought him before John Dukas. His further fate is unknown.

In view of the advance of the Seljuks in Anatolia , Alexios I operated the expansion of the fortifications on the island; he even had a permanent construction crew there. Among other things, the castle of Kyrenia was expanded (the chapel of St. George goes back to this expansion), and St. Hilarion , Buffavento and Kantara were built or expanded in the Pentadaktylos . The castles fit completely into the terrain and are partly built from bricks, a material that was used for this for the first time.

Alexios appointed Eumathios Philokales to Stratopedarchen and asked him troops and warships available during the Civil Pares Kallio was appointed judge and tax collector. Apparently this happened as part of a major reorganization of the Cypriot administration, perhaps because the importance of the island as a bridgehead to Cilicia and Syria in the course of the 1st Crusade now received greater attention. Among other things, Philokales seems to have commissioned the painting of the Parekklesion of the Holy Trinity in the monastery of St. Chrysostom, north of Lefkosia. St. Nicholas at Kakopetria in Troodos is one of the few churches that have survived from this period.

In 1098 Cyprus was sacked by troops of the Bishop of Pisa , who had sailed in support of the Crusaders but had been defeated with Greek fire by the Byzantines in a sea battle between Patara and Rhodes . When the stratopedarch Eumathios Philokales attacked the looters, the ship's crews fled to Bohemond from Taranto to Laodicea , those left behind drowned while trying to escape or were taken prisoner.

In 1153 Rainald von Chatillon , the second husband of Constance of Antioch , went on a raid on Cyprus. The Templars and Thoros II of Lesser Armenia meanwhile undertook a campaign against the Byzantine possessions in Cilicia to distract the Byzantines. Rainald had extorted the money for the campaign from the Latin Patriarch of Antioch Aimerich von Limoges (1139–1193). The governor of Cyprus, Johannes Dukas Komnenos , a nephew of Emperor Manuel , was warned by a message from Baldwin from Jerusalem, but could no longer take timely countermeasures. After an initial victory by the Byzantines, the Frankish and Armenian troops occupied the island for about three weeks and mercilessly plundered it. Johannes Komnenos and the leader of his troops, Michael Branas, were captured. The Franks pillaged cities and monasteries, killed and raped the inhabitants and stole their cattle. When rumors of an imperial relief force were raised, Rainald withdrew to Antioch, before he had forced the Cypriots to buy back the stolen cattle. Rainald kidnapped Johannes Komnenus, Michael Branas and leading citizens and bishops to Antioch and held them there until the ransom was paid. He had others mutilated and sent to Constantinople, which in 1160 led to Emperor Manuel I marching into Antioch.

The island suffered greatly from the earthquake of 1157. In 1158 the Egyptians attacked the island and a brother of the governor was taken prisoner. The island had a short period of independence after the fall of the Komnen dynasty in Constantinople in 1185 under Isaac Komnenus , who was crowned basileus (Greek for emperor and king). Emperor John II had already considered handing Cyprus, Antioch and part of the Anatolian south coast over to his youngest son Manuel. Isaac also brought high-ranking artists to the island, as evidenced by the painting of the Panagia Arakiotissa church near Lagoudera in Troodos. It was completed in 1192 and is entirely in the capital city style. Isaac's reign was ended in 1192 by the Crusaders under Richard Plantagenet.

Crusader and Kingdom of Cyprus

From 1192 to 1489 the island was under the rule of the Latins. Richard I the Lionheart , who was on the sea route to Acre as part of the Third Crusade , had conquered the island in 1191 on the way.

Conquest of the island by Richard the Lionheart

Richard's sister Johanna and his bride Berengaria of Navarre were stranded on the island after a shipwreck, whereupon Richard landed at Lemesos (Limassol) on May 6, 1191 , allegedly to forestall a possible capture of his relatives by Isaac Komnenos . Isaac appeared to Richard rather brusquely and self-confidently, whereupon Richard and his superior crusader army quickly conquered the island. Richard benefited from the support of the noble families of Cyprus who had suffered under Isaac's rule for the past seven years. Isaac was eventually captured and imprisoned before Richard continued his crusade to the Holy Land . With the conquest of Kyrenia Richard had also captured the Cypriot treasury.

An uprising against the administrators appointed by him Robert of Thornham and Richard de Camville was quickly put down. Before the fall of Acre , Richard sold the island for 100,000 white Bézants to the Templar Grand Master Robert de Sablé , who transferred the administration of the island to Armand Bouchart . At Easter 1192 the population rose against the new masters. In Kallinikisis, the former Lefkosia, known by the Templars as Nicosia , an angry crowd attacked the garrison and could only be repulsed with difficulty. The Templars then returned the island to Richard, even though they forfeited their deposit of 40,000 Bezants. In 1192, Guido von Lusignan , the titular king of Jerusalem, bought the island for 60,000 Bézants and since then has ruled as Cypri Dominus (Lord of Cyprus), but also continued his title of king. Richard compensated Guido with Cyprus for tolerating the coronation of Guido's rival Conrad of Montferrat in the remaining Kingdom of Jerusalem . Richard was probably able to use the collected proceeds to cover the costs of his campaigns in Palestine.

Kingdom of Cyprus

After Guido's death in 1194, his brother Amalrich (Aimery) succeeded him as Lord of Cyprus after the loss of Jaffa . He began to build a Catholic church organization and in 1196 recognized Emperor Heinrich VI. as his liege lord, with which he legitimized his position against the formal claims of the Byzantine emperor . Heinrich made him king, like Leo I of Lesser Armenia before, and thus expanded his position in the eastern Mediterranean. Both Dietrich von Flanders , the husband of Isaac's daughter, and Count Leopold VI. of Austria , a second cousin of Isaac, laid claim to the island, but to no avail. Byzantine attempts at reconquest were more than half-hearted.

In addition to the Lusignans, a number of mainly French Catholic families settled in Cyprus who had lost their possessions in the Holy Land. The House of Lusignan alone enfeoffed 300 knights and 200 non-noble horsemen (sergeants). The Greek landowners were apparently largely expropriated for this. In Famagusta, but also in Lefkosia and Limassol, numerous Syrians who had fled the Mamluks settled . There were Jews living in Lefkosa, Famagusta and Paphos.

The land now either belonged directly to the king, was held as a fief by his barons or belonged to one of the knightly orders. The Templars and Hospitallers in particular had extensive possessions. Only Catholics could receive fiefs and become members of the courts of justice (both the High Court, the Haute Court and the cour des bourgeois and the cour des suriens ). The royal chancellery bore the name Syngriton (from the Greek sekreton, the name of the corresponding institution in Byzantium), here mainly men of Greek and Syrian descent seem to have worked, so the institution was probably taken over relatively seamlessly from the Byzantine period. There were only two major cities on the island, Nicosia and Famagusta, between 760 and 850 villages.

A peculiarity of Cypriot feudalism was its urbanism: most of the Frankish aristocrats lived in townhouses in Nicosia, not on their estates. Occasionally Greek nobles were knighted, but only when they had converted. It was only in the last century of the Lusignan rule that Greek seems to have asserted itself more and more against French in the upper class. Under the last Lusignan kings, more and more Venetian aristocrats settled on the island or acquired large land holdings here. The Cornaro were among the largest landowners on the island even before Catherina's marriage.

The estates of the nobles and the king were usually by a bailiff managed or leased. The goods were usually only leased for five years. Each local village had a catepan who was responsible for tithing . The locals were either free farmers who had leased the land (Francomati) or serfs (Paroikoi) who were tied to the ground and had to pay 1/4 to 1/3 of the harvest to the landowner. Often they had to do labor two days a week on the Demesne , the landlord's estate on the réserve . Some landlords were able to demand additional corvées at harvest time . Serfs could buy themselves out with the permission of the king. Children of serfs automatically became serfs even when the other parent was free. Slaves, mostly Muslims, were used for agricultural work, especially in the sugar cane and cotton fields.

Catholic monasteries appropriated the land of the Orthodox Church or it was secularized and given as a fief. A Catholic archbishop was installed in Nicosia , with bishops in Famagusta , Paphos and Limassol , while in 1196 the number of Orthodox bishops was reduced from 14 to four (Chronique de Amadi) . They were reduced to co-adjudicators of the Latin bishops, but in day-to-day business a policy of apartheid seems to have existed, and the Latins did not interfere in the pastoral care of the Orthodox Church, which, however, had few resources, for example for church building.

Latin diocese Byzantine Diocese
Nicosia Nicosia, Soli , Tamassus, Tremetuscha, Kition , Kythrea, Kerynia , Lapithos
Famagusta Konstantia, Karpasia
Limassol Kurion, Amathous
Paphos Paphos, Arsinoe

There were some large landowners who were not nobility. Most of the Maronites and Armenians belonged to the civil class. The Maronites ("Syrians") had come to the island together with the Lusignans or in 1291 after the fall of Acre . They spoke Arabic and had their own church, which was under Rome, but for Example approved priestly marriage. Before the Ottoman conquest, they lived mostly in Famagusta. Most of the Armenians immigrated after 1322 and also had their own church and probably kept their language. They were under royal jurisdiction. The royal house and the nobility were connected to Lesser Armenia through various marriage connections.

It is unclear to what extent wine, cotton and sugar cane were commercially grown . The cultivation of sugar cane in particular seems to have increased in the late period of the kingdom, but was only possible in the water-rich plains of the Mesouria and Morphou , while otherwise the carob tree dominated. Mc Neil puts the establishment of large sugar cane plantations around 1370, and it is thought that these monocultures favored the occurrence of the locust plagues that plagued the island between 1351 and 1915.

The Lusignan do not seem to have had their own fleet, but instead hired Italian seafarers when necessary. The nobles were obliged to serve in the army for four months, but only if the king himself was in the field.

The kings of Cyprus were often seen by their contemporaries as effeminate and decadent. Benvenuto da Imola claims that they "surpass all other kings and peoples of Christianity in their excess of luxury, gluttony, effeminacy, and in all kinds of excesses."

After 1204, Walter von Montbéliard , the regent of Cyprus, made attacks on Satalia and Rhodes, but they were unsuccessful. In 1208 the Republic of Genoa was granted trade concessions. At the end of the 13th century, the Rum Seljuks signed a peace treaty with Hugo I , which was only broken in 1292 by a Cypriot attack on Alaya . But there still seems to have been trade relations. The main ports were Satalia and Alaya.

Friedrich II. And imperial governor

King Hugo I died in Tripoli in January 1218 . He left behind the daughters Maria and Isabella and an eight-month-old son, the future King Henry I. His widow, Alice of Jerusalem-Champagne , appointed Philip of Ibelin as regent, which she soon regretted.

In 1228, Emperor Frederick II went east on the Fifth Crusade to regulate the situation in the Kingdom of Jerusalem . He set five Baillis as regents on Cyprus in 1229 , Amalrich Barlais , Amaury von Bethsan, Hugo von Gibelet , Wilhelm von Rivet and Gauvin Cheneché. However, the powerful Ibelin family were unwilling to recognize them and tried to continue to rule in the name of the underage king. Eventually a civil war broke out, which the Lusignans won. In the unrest in 1231 thirteen Greek priests suffered martyrdom for refusing to perform the Lord's Supper according to the Latin rite. In the battle of Agridi the army of the imperial governors was defeated, Kyrenia fell in 1233 after a long siege. The crew under Philip Chenard was able to withdraw to Syria.

In 1248/49, Saint Louis , who was on the way to Egypt as part of the Sixth Crusade , spent the winter in Cyprus.

In 1269 the kings of Cyprus became kings of Jerusalem again, a title that they carried on after the kingdom of Jerusalem was finally conquered and smashed by the Mamluks in 1291.

Mamluk invasion attempt

When Prince Edward's crusade was in the Holy Land together with the main Cypriot army in 1271 and had shocked Tripoli there in May, the Mamluk Sultan Baibars attacked Limassol with 17 ships in July 1271 , while the forces of King Hugo III. was in Acre. However, eleven ships ran onto a reef and fell into the hands of the Cypriots, after which the attack was stopped. 1,800 men were captured.

Further Mameluk attacks were feared now and then but never took place. Instead, the Mamluks gradually destroyed almost all of the old sea towns on the Syrian coast. Since Egypt did not have any wood stocks suitable for shipbuilding and the overall seafaring status did not have a high status, the Mamluks rarely undertook maritime activities.

After the fall of Acon

When Acre, the last significant fortress town of the Franks in the Holy Land, fell to the Mamluks in 1291, most of the survivors fled to Cyprus, whose supply was a problem. The Hospitaller Order (also called Johanniter ) established command offices on the island and tried to undermine the authority of King Henry II. After ongoing conflicts, the knights finally conquered Rhodes in 1309 , where they established an independent rule. Henry II granted commercial privileges to Pisa and Barcelona , which angered the Genoese, who feared for their traditional supremacy. In 1296 Pope Boniface VIII gave the Templars tax exemption for the transport of goods to and from Cyprus in a bull.

From 1320 the Ghazi emirates of Anatolia began to equip their own fleets, which especially sought to control the seafaring between Rhodes and Cyprus.

Under Hugo IV , Cyprus concluded a holy union with Venice , the Pope and the Hospitallers in 1334 , which was supposed to stop the further advance of the Turks into Asia Minor. Around 1337 Alaya , Siq, Anemurium and Satalya seem to have been in Cypriot hands. In 1344 Smyrna was conquered by a crusade league and remained in the hands of the Hospitallers until 1402.

In 1348 the island was from the plague ravaged, 1351 by a plague of locusts .

Crusade against Alexandria

Under Hugo's successor Peter I (1359-1369), the Lusignans tried to take positions on the mainland themselves and in 1344 captured Satalia and Korykos on the territory of the Emir of Tekke . They occupied them with a garrison that was able to repel Turkish attacks in 1361, 1362 and 1370. Korykos remained in Cypriot hands until 1448. 1362–1365 Peter undertook a major trip to Europe to promote a crusade against the Mamluks . He visited Venice, Genoa, Avignon, Paris, London, Prague, Krakow and Vienna, among others. Although the interest of the inner Europeans was little, he managed to raise a large army. With this army and a fleet of 115 ships, which had been provided by Venice, the Johannites and Peter, he attacked Alexandria in 1365 . The city was plundered, the branches of Venice's European trade rivals were also massacred, some of the inhabitants were massacred and 5000 people were abducted as slaves. 70 barges were required to transport the booty away. After that, the fleet returned to Limassol and disbanded. Lasting military successes were not achieved, although further raids on the Syrian coast took place in 1366 and 1367 (Ayas, Tripoli and Beirut). Venice and Genoa seem to have eventually forced Peter to make peace in order to be able to pursue their commercial interests in Egypt again.

The king's military ventures had put a heavy strain on the island's finances, the barons were becoming increasingly defiant, and the king's brothers and wife, Eleanor of Aragon , were also suspected of conspiracy. In January 1369, the king and his lover Johanna l'Aleman were surprised in their sleep by Johannes von Gaurelle , Heinrich von Gibelet and Philip von Ibelin , emasculated and beheaded.

The fall of the kingdom and the Genoese protectorate

The decline of the Lusignans began under his 15-year-old son Peter II (1369-1382), who was crowned king in Ammochostus in 1372 . The island became a bone of contention between the Genoese and Venetians, who increasingly seized power. Peter ceded Satalya to the Turks, perhaps in the hope of finding allies against the Genoese here. Genoa had trade concessions on the island since 1208, Venice since 1306 (see Venetian Colonies - Cyprus ). The trading posts in the coastal cities and in Lefkosia were quasi-extraterritorial areas ruled by the Genoese Podestà and the Venetian Bailò , who increasingly interfered in the internal affairs of the kingdom. Street fighting broke out in Famagusta between the Venetians and Genoese, after which a squadron under Pietro di Campofregoso occupied Famagusta in 1374 and demanded high reparations and an annual tribute. For almost a century Cyprus remained a Genoese protectorate, the Maona Cypri , a society of Genoese bankers, de facto controlled the island; Ammochostus had been officially ceded to Genoa by James I. Coin finds show that the silver content of the coins was greatly reduced and overall coinage fell sharply, an indication of how much money was flowing west. Peter raised a number of Greek farmers to the civil class in order to improve tax revenues.

In 1383 Genoa even seems to have allied itself with Ibrahim I of Karaman against Peter II, but there was never a Turkish attack. Muslim slaves have been occupied on the island since around 1400. Some of the slaves were forcibly baptized, but others appear to have retained their beliefs. Another plague of locusts is documented in 1411, which lasted three years and caused a famine. King Janus finally ordered eggs and newly hatched insects to be collected and buried in pits, which seems to have been effective; the next mass occurrence is only documented again in 1423.

Loss against Mamluken

Cyprus on a map (1482)

In 1425 the Mamluks were able to invade Limassol Castle after Muslim slaves opened the gates for them. In order to combat the increasing Christian piracy, especially by Catalans, who had their bases in Cyprus, a Mamluk unit landed in Avmediou in 1426 . King Janus' troops were defeated at Khirokitia , Limassol, Lefkosia and the royal castle of Potamia in the district of Nicosia were sacked and numerous prisoners were taken. King Janus publicly swore the vassal oath to Sultan Barsbay (1422–1438) in Cairo . He was released for a ransom of 200,000 florins and an annual tribute obligation.

The island was economically weakened and Venice imposed a trade boycott. From 1427 there were peasant revolts under an emperor Alexios. In 1438 the plague also broke out.

Under John II and his wife Helena Palaiologina , daughter of the Byzantine despot Theodor II Palaiologos and niece of Emperor John VIII Palaiologos (1425–1448), the Latin rulers came closer to the religion and culture of their Greek subjects. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, a number of Byzantine refugees settled on the island; a number of aristocratic names are recorded for the first time. It seems that it has now also become possible for Greeks to acquire land.

Civil war and takeover of Venice

John II's successor was his daughter Carlotta after his death in 1458 , who married Louis von Savoyen , Count of Geneva, in 1459 . Her claim to the throne was contested by her half-brother Jacob II , the Archbishop of Nicosia, a son of John II and his mistress Mariette of Patras , with the support of the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt. He broke the resistance of the barons in 1460 and took Kyrenia and Famagusta in 1464 with the help of Egyptian troops and Spanish and Sicilian mercenaries . Venice had financed its ventures generously, probably to eliminate its old rival Genoa. Queen Charlotta died childless and exiled in Rome in 1487. The titular claim to the crown of Jerusalem and Lesser Armenia fell to the House of Savoy .

Caterina Cornaro

Jacob II married the Venetian Caterina Cornaro in 1473 , whose family had long possessions in Cyprus. Shortly after the wedding, Jakob died under mysterious circumstances, possibly he was poisoned. Jacob's posthumously born son Jacob III. also died in 1473. Queen Katharina Cornaro was thus regent of Cyprus. An allegedly planned uprising by the Spanish followers of Jacob II, which was supposed to prevent the excessive influence of the Venetian advisors on the queen, was cruelly suppressed by the intervention of the Venetian doge Pietro Mocenigo . In 1489 Katharina Cornaro finally felt compelled to cede the kingdom to the Republic of Venice.

Venetian rule

In 1488 the Council of Ten Catharina's brother Giorgio Cornario , one of the richest men in Venice, was sent to Cyprus. Since the Venetians feared a marriage between Catharinas and a member of the ruling house of Naples (Aragon), he should persuade his sister to abdicate in favor of the republic. In February 1489 Katharina Cornaro renounced the crowns of Cyprus, Lesser Armenia and Jerusalem , Francesco Priuli took over the administration. Cyprus was part of the Republic of Venice until 1570 , but continued to pay tribute to Egypt. The island was administered from Nicosia by the so-called Rettori , a governor and two senators who were each elected for two years and were under close control by the Council of Ten. They also had jurisdiction over the neck and taxation. Only the offices of the Viscounts of Famagusta and Nicosia were reserved for Cypriots, their occupation mostly had to be bought with gifts or "credits" to the Signoria. In 1510 Efgenios Singriticus, brother of the governor of Limassol, paid 2,000 ducats to obtain this rank, and in 1515 a further 5,000 ducats.

Venetian bridge over the Tzielefos (near Paphos)

In Venetian times there were about ten noble families of Greek descent on the island, including the Podokataros, Kontostefanos, Sozomenos, Boustron, Singriticus, Laskarios and Paleologos. Some go back to the Byzantine nobility, others seem to have risen from the civil service under the Lusignans and the Venetians.

The Franconian nobility no longer had any political power, and the island's 'Grand Council' was in fact insignificant. According to a ranking of 1544, the Counts of Jaffa and Karpaz, Venetian aristocrats, held the highest position among the island’s aristocrats, followed by the Greek Syngriticus family as Counts of Rocca as successors to the Frankish family Grinier (Grenier), which died out in 1503, and the Frankish family de Nores as Count of Tripoli . The difference between the old Frankish nobility and the Venetian nobility remained until the island was conquered.

The Orthodox Church now received full religious freedom. However, through brutal economic exploitation and corrupt administration and jurisdiction, the Venetians made themselves hated by the rural population. In 1508, the Austrian Martin von Baumgarten , who had visited the island in the spring of 1507, wrote: "All residents are slaves of the Venetians" and describes the heavy tax burden that was accompanied by two days of forced labor per week. The cultivation of sugar cane was increasingly being replaced by cotton , but several periods of drought made agriculture difficult and led to hunger riots. Agriculture suffered from repeated plagues of locusts , but the monocultures probably also had a negative impact. In 1511, large quantities of grain had to be imported from Syria to avert a famine. In 1521 francomati and parici were obliged by the governor to collect and deliver certain quantities of grasshopper eggs. The provision was not enforced permanently, probably also because of the resistance of the peasants; so the problem persisted. An earthquake struck the island in 1542, followed by another in 1556.

Map of Cyprus. Engraving by Giovanni Francesco Camocio, 1566

In 1562 there was a peasant uprising against the Venetians under Jakob Didaskalos from Nicosia , but it failed. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the increasing Ottoman threat led the Venetians to seek to improve relations with the local Orthodox upper class, not just in Cyprus but especially in Crete . However, the population was still predominantly hostile to Venetian rule, centuries of oppression could not be easily forgotten. Some families, especially the Syngritico, who emerged from the official nobility, used their wealth from agriculture and trade to buy into offices and titles. Efgenios (Zeno) Singriticus was considered the richest man in Cyprus in the 1520s. There was also a conversion to the Catholic Church. The Greeks Livio and Caesae Podokataro were Latin bishops of Nicosia in the 16th century.

The Regno di Cipro, which was compiled between 1510 and 1521, lists all the bailiwicks (baliazzi) and manors (casali) of the crown and is an important document for the population history of the island. In 1563 Elijah of Pesaro reported that only Famagusta were Jews. They were all driven out of Nicosia by attacks during Easter.

See also

Ottoman time

Conquest by the Ottoman Empire

Fortification of Kyrenia

After the Mamluks were subjugated by Selim I in 1516/17 , Venice paid 8,000 ducats a year to the Sublime Porte. A Turkish attack was to be expected after the loss of Nauplia and Monemvasia , even if Venice had bought more years of peace through its neutrality during the siege of Rhodes . From 1540 the fortifications of Nicosia , Kyrenia and Ammochostos (Famagusta) were renewed, while the Byzantine or Lusignan mountain fortresses of Buffavento , St. Hilarion and Kantara as well as the port fortifications in Paphos and Limassol were razed. The Venetian renegade Joseph Nasi , who was sentenced to death in absentia in Venice in 1553, an important advisor to Selim II , repeatedly advised the island to be conquered. In 1568 a Turkish fleet appeared in front of Famagusta, but withdrew without an attack.

March 1570 the Venetians were asked to surrender by a Turkish envoy. At the beginning of July Admiral Piyale Pascha and General Lala Kara Mustafa Pascha landed on the island with 360 galleys. The Ottomans besieged Nicosia with 50,000 men. Venice had sought support since January 1570, but it was not until the end of August 1570 that the Holy League gathered a fleet in Crete under Giovanni Andrea (Giannandrea) Doria , a great-nephew of Andrea Doria . However, their departure was constantly delayed by the intervention of Philip II . After the fall of Nicosia, the fleet withdrew. Only a small division reached the besieged Famagusta in January 1571 .

That year, Famagusta, which was heavily fortified but strategically ill-advised, fell after an 11-month siege . The Venetian governor of Cyprus, Marcantonio Bragadin , was tortured by Mustafa Pascha for several days and then killed; his ears and nose were cut off and skinned alive. Mustafa accused him of violating the very generous surrender conditions, in particular he had executed Muslim pilgrims who were trapped in the city and whose release had been expressly stipulated. Kyrenia surrendered after Efgenios (Zeh no the younger) Synglitico, Count of Rocca, the leader of the Venetian troops, was killed with his brother Tommaso, the Visconte of Nicosia. Pietro Paolo Synglitico tried to organize the resistance in the mountains, and Iehan Synglitico an attack on the Turks in the Paphos area. Both surrendered after the fall of Nicosia. The flat country was occupied without a fight. Occasionally, as in Lefkara , the Turks were greeted as liberators. In the area of ​​Paphos, peasants under the leadership of Iehan Synglitico also fought against the Turks, which the chronicler Andrea Calepio deserves a special mention.

Members of the Sozomenos, Podocataros and Synglitico families found refuge in Venetian territory after the fall of the island. Some family members were also ransomed from Ottoman captivity and went to Venice. They converted to Catholicism and were soon integrated into Italian society. Alessandro Synglitico, for example, became Sindaco of the University of Padua in 1591 .

Ottoman rule

Cyprus early 18th century

On March 7, 1573, Venice recognized the cession of Cyprus to the Ottoman Empire in a treaty . Cyprus was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1571 to 1878 as Vilayet Kıbrıs . The governor was the Kapudan paşa (Commander in Chief of the Navy ), a member of the Dīwāns , which also administered Rhodes and Crete. Many officers ( sıpahis ) of the Ottoman army that conquered the island settled here, mostly in the countryside. They were responsible for collecting taxes. The seat of government became Lefkosia, and this is where the administration settled. The peasants were freed. They could continue to cultivate their fields, but, as before, had to pay taxes. They now had full freedom of movement and settlement, and forced labor for the landlord was abolished. You could also sue the sipahi if he tried to collect illegal rent.

After the Ottoman conquest, settlers were sent to the depopulated island, mainly from southern Anatolia, including Yörükken , Christians and Jews. The possessions of the Johanniter were taken over by the Ottomans, and Turkish villages such as Armenochori, Phinikas and Temblos were founded in former Templar commandants . Mostly immigrants from Anatolia were settled here. The places Pano and Kato Arodes are named directly after the Hospitallers, who were also known as the Arodites after they took Rhodes. Akoursos and Mora were also in former Johanniter properties. There were also black African slaves on the island in Ottoman times who came here via Egypt, but Christians were forbidden to buy them. Most of them converted to Islam. Government and administrative offices were largely reserved for Muslims, but were open to converted Cypriots. Converts were quickly assimilated into Turkish society. In the 1630s and 1640s, the island was again overshadowed by plague epidemics. The potato was introduced to the island by Syrian Arabs and was mainly grown on the fertile terra rossa soil.

According to the English traveler Richard Pococke , who visited Cyprus in the autumn of 1736, mixed marriages between Christians and Muslims were common. Pashley (1837) reports that Muslims even sponsored Christian children. The most important difference between the population groups was religion, not ethnicity , a condition that would last into the early 20th century. The syncretistic group of Linobambaki has also been reported.

British rule

The articles History of Cyprus since Colonial Times and History of Cyprus # British Rule overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. Bibonius ( discussion ) 08:30, 10 Jul. 2019 (CEST)
Old building in Nicosia from the British colonial era

The Mediterranean has been a transit route since the Suez Canal opened in November 1869. For Great Britain its colonies (the largest of them British India ) could then be reached much faster and with less risk. Great Britain and the Ottoman Empire agreed on June 4, 1878 in an initially secret contractual agreement in Constantinople that the island of Cyprus should be ceded to the British, but that the sultan would nevertheless retain some sovereign rights there. In return Great Britain guaranteed the Ottoman possessions in Asia and promised support against a possible Russian advance against the Straits of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles .

The Russian Army had advanced in the Russo-Ottoman War (1877-1878) until shortly before Istanbul and had forced the signing of the Peace of San Stefano on March 3, 1878 , which led to extensive territorial losses for the Ottomans on the Balkan Peninsula. These territorial losses were , however, partially revised again at the Berlin Congress from June 13, 1878 to July 13, 1878.

The Ottoman Empire received a later agreed tribute payment of 92,746 pounds sterling for the ceded Cyprus. The British thus gained influence in the region, the Ottoman Empire a partner in its struggle with the tsarist expansion and development in the Balkans. The conflict then taking place between Great Britain and Russia for supremacy in Central Asia is known as The Great Game .

The British set up a high commission under Sir Garnet Wolseley , against which the resistance of the Greeks under Archbishop Sophronios III. who wanted to join Greece, the Enosis . When Sophronios died in 1900, there was a 10-year succession dispute between the two Kyrillos (from Kition and Kyrenia). With the entry of the Ottoman Empire into the First World War (1914) on the side of the Central Powers , the island was annexed by the British on November 5, 1914. Unrest in 1921 led to the banishment of the journalist N. Katalanos and the historian Pierre Zannetos. In the Peace Treaty of Lausanne (summer 1923), Turkey retroactively agreed to the annexation of the island by Great Britain, which it had formally owned until then. The annexation was legitimized under international law. Cyprus became a British crown colony in 1925 . Even today there are two large British bases on the island: Akrotiri and Dhekelia .

British soldiers in Cyprus during World War II, 1941

In 1928, in response to further unrest, the British began “dehellenization”, which led to the October 1931 revolt. After the revolt was put down, the ringleaders (including two bishops) were deported and the British took over the education system. After the death of Kyrillos III. in 1933 they banned the election of a successor. Only at the beginning of the Second World War did the situation change. Unlike the Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, Cyprus was never occupied by the Axis Powers during World War II. Local elections were held in 1943 and in 1947 an archbishop ( Makarios II ) could again be elected. In 1950 Makarios II had a referendum held; 96% of the Greek Cypriots voted to join Greece (Enosis). He died that same year, followed by the Bishop of Kition as Makarios III. The Greeks of the motherland openly supported the enosis under Field Marshal Papagos and Archbishop Spyridon . In 1954, after the rejection of the Anschluss by the UN, unrest broke out again. Colonel Georgios Grivas headed the underground terrorist movement EOKA in 1955 and called for a revolt. In 1957, tensions reached a new high with the establishment of the Turkish TMT. The Turkish and Greek ethnic groups settled in separate areas neither in the Ottoman nor in the British period. The following figures are from the 1946 census, Armenians and Maronites are not included.

Distribution of Muslims in the cities, 1946 census
city Turks Greeks
Famagusta 2500 13,100
Kyrenia 550 2200
Larnaka 2900 10,700
Limassol 3400 18,950
Lefkosa 10,400 20,300
Paphos 1150 3600

The distribution of the villages of the ethnic groups in the individual districts was as follows (individuals in predominantly Greek or Turkish villages are not included):

district Turkish Greek Mixed
Famagusta 24 47 46
Kyrenia 8th 29 10
Larnaka 8th 28 23
Limassol 7th 87 19th
Lefkosa 27 105 45
Paphos 28 73 23
total 112 369 146

As Beckingham points out, religion and language were not congruent. There were Muslim villages where mainly Greek was spoken, such as Lapithiou , Platanisso , Ayios Simeon and Galinoporni .


The British colony gained independence on August 16, 1960 on the basis of the Zurich Agreement between Great Britain, Greece and Turkey (1959); the Greek- and Turkish-speaking ethnic groups were given equal rights. Archbishop Makarios (1913–1977) was elected as the first president . In the constitution, which was largely determined by Great Britain , the Turkish ethnic group was granted permanent representation rights. In particular, the Vice-President, who should always be provided by the Turkish Cypriot side, was granted extensive veto rights. On August 16, 1960 the active and passive right to vote for women was introduced.

In 1963 Makarios wanted to enforce a new constitution in which, among other things, the veto rights of the president and the vice-president should be dropped. As a result, tensions arose, the villages of Turkish-speaking Cypriots were systematically cordoned off, and parts of the army wanted to establish a connection with Greece ( Enosis ). With the Turkish Cypriots, the idea of Taksim , the division of the island, prevailed. The civil war that followed , also triggered by acts of terrorism on both sides (Grivas), was ended by the deployment of UN troops and a ceasefire was concluded on August 10, 1964. The UN troops were also used to supply Turkish villages (e.g. Erenköy / Kokkina ), some of which had been sealed off from the outside world for months by Greek nationalists . Ledra Street in Nicosia was cordoned off with barbed wire by British troops in 1964 after rioting between Greek and Turkish Cypriots.

Summer 1974: coup against Makarios, Turkish intervention and occupation of the northern part

Buffer zone and British military bases

On July 15, 1974 Makarios III. overthrown by a coup by the Cypriot National Guard . The aim of the coup, directed by the Greek military government , was the elimination of Makarios and the annexation of Cyprus to Greece in clear violation of the Zurich and London agreements , so the President Nikos Sampson, appointed by the coup plotters, proclaimed the enosis with Greece.

The Turkey as one of the guarantor powers intervened on July 20 with the posting of invading forces in Operation Atilla with reference to Articles II and IV of London guarantee agreement of 1959. On 23 July 1974, then plunged the Greek military government and the military coup on Cyprus collapsed. Nevertheless, on August 14, 1974 , the Turkish military, under the government of Bülent Ecevit , ordered the invasion to be expanded, contrary to international law. By August 16, 1974, the Turkish forces had taken control of most of the north of the island as part of Operation Atilla II . Although this area made up just under 37% of the national territory of the Republic of Cyprus , 70% of all economic output was generated there up to 1974. These included 66% of all tourist facilities, 80% of all citrus trees and the island's commercial port in Famagusta. A total of 162,000 of the Greek Cypriots, who made up the clear majority of the island's population with a total of 506,000 inhabitants or 79%, were expelled from the now occupied part of Cyprus or fled during the invasion, a small minority remained on the Karpas ( Rizokarpaso ) peninsula , as did Arabic-speaking Maronites . Then around 48,000 Turkish Cypriots, who at that time made up around 19% of the island's population with a total of 118,000 inhabitants, had to leave the south of the island. Your land ownership has been registered to facilitate return on return. According to the Turkish Foreign Ministry, 120,000 Greek and 65,000 Turkish Cypriots were affected by the resettlement.

On October 1, 1974, the Cypriot Turks proclaimed the Turkish Autonomous Administration in Cyprus . This administration saw itself as an interim administration until a federal state was established. As a result, a separate federal state was proclaimed in 1975, the Turkish Federal State of Cyprus . This saw itself as part of a future Cypriot federation, but was only recognized as such by Turkey. On November 15, 1983, the parliament of the Turkish Federal State of Cyprus proclaimed independence , citing the right of peoples to self-determination . On November 18, 1983, the United Nations Security Council declared the Declaration of Independence to be legally invalid, by 13 votes against Pakistan and with Jordan abstaining , as it was incompatible with the Treaty establishing the Republic of Cyprus and the related Guarantee Treaty ( resolution 541 ). Another resolution ( Resolution 550 ) on non-recognition was passed on May 13, 1984, against the vote of Pakistan and with the United States abstaining . Only Turkey accepted the peoples' right to self-determination as the legal basis for the declaration of independence, while the states of the Security Council rejected this mainly for reasons of international law, but also as a violation of the Cyprus resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations . The non-aligned saw the declaration of independence as a violation of their own declarations, further concerns related to the fear for world peace.

Since then the island has been divided. A little more than 57% of the island's area is under the control of the Republic of Cyprus, almost 37% have formed the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus , which is only recognized internationally by Turkey, since 1983 , a little more than 5% take the buffer zone administered by the UN peacekeeping force (~ 2 7%) and the military bases Akrotiri and Dekelia (~ 2.7%), which are under British sovereignty . After the end of the Greek military dictatorship in December 1974, Makarios returned to Cyprus and remained head of state until his death in 1977.

Attempts at reunification

In view of the impending accession of the Republic of Cyprus to the European Union , efforts intensified to overcome the division of the island beforehand. Finally, on April 26, 2004, separate votes took place in the two parts of the country on the adoption of the " Annan Plan " by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan , which provides for the reunification of the two parts of the island into a single state. The Greek Cypriot population in the south of the island, with a turnout of 88% , rejected the plan with 75.8% of the vote, while the Turkish Cypriot population in the north of the island agreed with 64.9% with a turnout of 87% . However, the approval of both ethnic groups would have been required for a successful vote. Thus, effective as of 1 May 2004, the Republic of Cyprus , although de jure in their entirety the European Union at, in fact is currently but only the southern part of the island EU member.

Representatives from the United Nations , the United States of America and the European Union expressed deep regret at the result. EU enlargement commissioner Günter Verheugen spoke of a "missed opportunity". He sees himself "personally deceived by the Greek Cypriot government". The Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called on the EU to reward Ankara as well as the internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus for their positive stance. He ruled out a new referendum. In contrast, Tassos Papadopoulos , the then President of the Republic of Cyprus, stated that the vote was not a rejection of a final solution to the conflict. Annan expressed the hope that the Greek Cypriots would change their minds after a sober analysis.

With the electoral defeat of Papadopoulos, who was always skeptical of reunification, in the presidential elections in 2008 and the victory of unification advocate Demetris Christofias , a new opportunity opened up to overcome the split. Immediately after taking office, Christofias asked the UN to prepare new talks between the government of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus. During Christofias' term of office, which lasted until 2013, a reunification did not succeed. His successor was the conservative President Nikos Anastasiadis .

The border has been open in the old town of Nicosia on Ledra Street since April 3, 2008 . On the evening of April 3, it was closed again for a short time because the Greek Cypriot government complained that police officers from the Turkish Cypriot part had illegally patrolled parts of the street by entering the UN-controlled buffer zone.

2006: Lebanon War

Since the Israeli military action on Hezbollah, Cyprus has been the target of large numbers of refugees who have found it difficult to accommodate. Relations with Lebanon are traditionally close, with numerous Lebanese and Lebanese banks already settling on the island during the civil war.

2011: Munitions explosion at the Evangelos Florakis naval base

Aerial view of the destroyed turbine hall of the power station by a UAV  of the DLR

In the wake of one of the most powerful non-nuclear explosions ever caused by human hands , 15 people died and 60 were seriously injured in the explosion of 98 ammunition containers at the Evangelos Florakis naval base on the morning of July 11, 2011. Even the largest power plant of the island was severely damaged, due to the associated loss of various sea water - desalination plants led to bottlenecks in water supply on the island. There were several resignations from members of the government and senior military officials.

See also

Source collections

  • Arthur Bernard Knapp (Ed.): Sources for the History of Cyprus. Vol. II: Near Eastern and Aegean Texts from the Third to the First Millennia BC. Greece and Cyprus Research Center, Altamont, New York 1996.


Overview works

  • Costas P. Kyrris: History of Cyprus. With an Introduction to the Geography of Cyprus . Nicoles Publishers, Nicosia 1985, ISBN 978-9963-566-00-6 .
  • Franz Georg Maier : Cyprus, island at the crossroads of history. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1964.
  • Sibylle von Reden: The island of Aphrodite. Cyprus past and present. DuMont Schauberg, Cologne 1969. (Reprint: Cyprus. 2nd edition. Cologne 1974, ISBN 3-7701-0797-7 .)
  • Veronica Tatton-Brown (Ed.): Cyprus BC, 7000 years of history. British Museum, London 1979, ISBN 0-7141-1266-6 .


middle Ages

Modern times and modernity

  • Vera Costantini: Il sultano e l'isola contesa. Cipro tra eredità veneziana e potere ottomano , Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, Turin 2009.
  • Pascal Firges: Great Britain and the Ottoman Empire in the late 18th century. European equilibrium policy and geopolitical strategies. Sonnenberg, Annweiler 2009, ISBN 978-3-933264-56-5 .
  • George Francis Hill: History of Cyprus, 1949–1952. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1972.
  • Heinz A. Richter : History of the island of Cyprus.
  • Pavlos Tzermias : History of the Republic of Cyprus . Francke, Tübingen 2004.

Single topics


  • Andreas Demetriou: The impact of the late geometric style of Attica on the Free Field Style of Cyprus. In: Paul Åström , Dietrich Sürenhagen (ed.): Periplus: Festschrift for Hans-Günter Buchholz on his eightieth birthday on December 24, 1999. Göteborg 2000, pp. 43–58.
  • Einar Gjerstad: Greek geometric and archaic pottery found in Cyprus. Paul Aströms, Stockholm 1977 ( Scrifter Utgivna av Svenska Institutet i Athens. Volume 26).
  • A. Bernard Knapp: Cyprus's Earliest Prehistory: Seafarers, Foragers and Settlers. In: Journal of World Prehistory 23.2 (2010) 79–120.
  • Sturt W. Manning, Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Walter Kutschera, Thomas Higham , Bernd Kromer, Peter Steier, Eva M. Wild: Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700–1400 BC In: Science. Volume 312, No. 5773, 2006, pp. 565-569, doi: 10.1126 / science.1125682
  • Patricia Maynor Bikai: Cyprus and the Phoenicians. In: Biblical Archaeologist Volume 52, Issue 4, 1989
  • David A. Rupp: Constructing the Cypriot Iron Age. Present practice, future possibilities. In: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Volume 308, 2006.
  • David A. Rupp: Aspects of social complexity in Cyprus. In: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Volume 292, 1993, pp. 1-8.
  • David W. Rupp: Vive le Roi. The Emergence of the State in Iron Age Cyprus. In: DW Rupp (Ed.), Western Cyprus: Connections. Studies in Mediterranean Archeology 77. Paul Astrom's Forlag, Göteborg 1987.

Mining in ancient times

  • Oliver Davies: The Copper Mines of Cyprus. In: The Annual of the British School at Athens . Volume 30, 1928-1930, pp. 74-85.
  • Joan du Plat Taylor : A Late Bronze Age Settlement at Apliki, Cyprus. In: Antiquaries Journal. Volume 32, 1952, pp. 133-167.
  • Bernhard Knapp: The Archeology of Community on Bronze Age Cyprus: Politiko Phorades in Context. In: American Journal of Archeology . Volume 107, 2003, pp. 559-580.
  • James D. Muhly: The Organization of the Copper Industry in Late Bronze Age Cyprus. In: E. Peltenburg (Ed.): Early Society in Cyprus. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1989.

middle Ages

  • Costas P. Kyrris: The nature of the Arab-Byzantine relations in Cyprus from the middle of the 7th to the middle of the 10th century AD , in: Graeco-Arabica 3 (1984) 149-176.
  • Louis de Mas Latrie : Histoire de l'Île de Chypre sous le régne des princes de la maison de Lusignan. Paris 1852–1861. [1]
  • Detlef Mewes: The castles of Cyprus. In: Castles and palaces in Saxony Anhalt. Issue 19, 2010.
  • Athanasios Papageorgiou: Les premières incursions arabes à Chypre et leurs conséquences. In: Aphieroma eis ton Konstantinon Spyridakin. Nicosia 1964, pp. 152-158.
  • Jean Richard: Le droit et les institutions franques dans la royaume de Chypre , in: Jean Richard: Croisés, missionnaires et voyageurs , Athens 1976, Variorum Reprints, London 1983.
  • Nicholas Coureas: Economy , in: Angel Nicolaou Konnari, Christopher David Schabel (eds.): Cyprus. Society and Culture 1191-1374 , Brill, Leiden / Boston 2005, pp. 103-156. ( academia.edu )
  • Nicholas Coureas: Latin Cyprus and its Relations with the Mamluk Sultanate, 1250–1517 , in: Angel Nicolaou Konnari, Christopher David Schabel (eds.): Cyprus. Society and Culture 1191-1374 , Brill, Leiden / Boston 2005, pp. 391-418. ( academia.edu )

Modern times

  • Richard Pococke : A Description of the East and some other countries. London 1743-1745.

Web links

Commons : History of Cyprus  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Alan H. Simmons et al. a .: Faunal extinction in an island society. Pygmy hippopotamus hunters of Cyprus. New York / London, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Press 1999
  2. Jean-Denis Vigne et al .: First wave of cultivators spread to Cyprus at least 10,600 y ago. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . Online advance publication of May 7, 2012, doi: 10.1073 / pnas.1201693109
  3. Manning et al. a. 2006, 569
  4. For details on the distribution of ox skin bars : Serena Sabatini: Revisiting Late Bronze Age oxhide ingots. Meanings, questions and perspectives. In: Ole Christian Aslaksen (Ed.): Local and global perspectives on mobility in the Eastern Mediterranaean (= Papers and Monographs from the Norwegian Institute at Athens, Volume 5). The Norwegian Institute at Athens, Athens 2016, ISBN 978-960-85145-5-3 , pp. 15-62.
  5. Fulvia Lo Schiavo: Cyprus and Sardinia in the Mediterranean trade routes toward the West , in: Vassos Karageorghis , Dēmētrēs Michaēlidēs (ed.): Proceedings of the International Symposium Cyprus and the Sea , Nicosia 1995, p. 54 f. (Evidence of a Cypriot anchor).
  6. Vasiliki Kassianidou: Cypriot copper in Sardinia: Yet another case of bringing coals to Newcastle ?, in: L. Bonfante, V. Karagheorgis (Ed.): Italy and Cyprus in Antiquity: 1500-450 BC , Nicosia 2001, p. 110 .
  7. ^ N. Gale: Archeology, science-based Archeology, and the Mediterranean Bronze Age Metals Trade: A Contribution to the Debate. In: European Journal of Archeology. Volume 4, 2001, p. 125; ZA Stos-Gale, NH Gale, G. Bass, C. Pulak, E. Galili, J. Sharvit: The Copper and Tin Ingots of the Late Bronze Age: New Scientific Evidence. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Beginnings of the Use of Metals and Alloys (BUMA IV), Aoba, Japan: The Japan Institute of Metals 1998, pp. 117-118.
  8. ^ Heinrich Otten : New sources for the end of the Hittite empire. MDOG 94, 1969, p. 13 ff. - online
  9. britishmuseum.org ( Memento of 10 December 2007 at the Internet Archive )
  10. ^ Hector W. Catling : Some problems in Aegean prehistory, 1450-1380 BC Leopard's Head, Oxford 1989.
  11. Serena Sabatini: Revisiting Late Bronze Age oxhide ingots. Meanings, questions and perspectives. In: Ole Christian Aslaksen (Ed.): Local and global perspectives on mobility in the Eastern Mediterranaean (= Papers and Monographs from the Norwegian Institute at Athens, Volume 5). The Norwegian Institute at Athens, Athens 2016, ISBN 978-960-85145-5-3 , pp. 15–62, especially pp. 35–40 ( online as PDF on the website of the University of Bergen ).
  12. Patricia Maynor Bikai: Cyprus and the Phoenicians. In: Biblical Archaeologist. Volume 52, Issue 4, 1989, p. 204.
  13. Patricia Maynor Bikai: Cyprus and the Phoenicians. In: Biblical Archaeologist. Volume 52, No. 4, 1989, pp. 203-209.
  14. ^ David W. Rupp: Vive le Roi. The Emergence of the State in Iron Age Cyprus. In: DW Rupp (Ed.), Western Cyprus: Connections. Studies in Mediterranean Archeology 77. Paul Astrom's Forlag 1987, Göteborg, p. 156.
  15. ^ E. Gjerstad: The Phoenician Colonization and Expansion in Cyprus. Report of the Department of Antiquities in Cyprus, 1979, pp. 230-254.
  16. Berlin State Museums, Inv. No. VA 968 with text, translation and commentary by Eberhard Schrader: The Sargon Stele of the Berlin Museum (= treatises of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Berlin. 1881, 6). Berlin 1882, p. 24 f., Here p. 25: Col II (IV), lines 28-42: "... [Also the 7 kings of the country Jah (= Iadnāna / Cyprus), a region / [of the land of At] nan, ... / ... had heard of the deeds (which) I had [committed] in the middle of the land of Kaldi and Chattilandes, in the middle of the sea / [in the distance], had lost their courage ( she) / [fear he] grabbed her. Gold, silver, / [tools made of] KAL wood, from KU wood, the treasure of their land, / [to] Babylon to me / [they brought and] kissed my feet. “( Digitized version ). In addition and on the name Iadnāna "the islands of the Danaer" Vassos Karageorghis: Cyprus. In: The Cambridge Ancient History. Volume 3, Part 1. Second edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1982, p. 533 and Andres T. Reyes: Archaic Cyprus: A Study of the Textual and Archaeological Evidence. Oxford, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1994, p. 51; on the date Panajotis J. Stylianou: The Age of the Kingdoms: A Political Histoty of Cyprus in the Archaic and Classical Period (= Meletai kai Ypomnemata. Volume 2). Archbishop Makarios III Foundation, Nicosia 1989, p. 384.
  17. ^ Grant Frame: The Inscription of Sargon II at Tang-i Var (Tab. I – XVIII). In: Orientalia. Volume 68, number 1, 1999, p. 40, § 29.
  18. Andreas Fuchs: The annals of the year 711 BC. After prism fragments from Nineveh and Assyrian (= State Archives of Assyria Studies. ) Volume 8. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, Helsinki 1998, p. 145; to Iris von Bredow : contact zone Near East and Egypt. Places, situations and conditions for primary Greco-Oriental contacts from the 10th to the 6th century BC Chr. In: Geographica Historica. Volume 38, 2017, p. 45.
  19. Rykle Borger: The inscriptions of Asarhaddons, King of Assyria (= Archive for Orient Research . Supplement 9). Weidner, Graz 1956, pp. 59-61; Reinhard Senff: Soloi 1. In: Der Neue Pauly (DNP). Volume 11, Metzler, Stuttgart 2001, column 703; AT Reyes, Archaic Cyprus: A Study of the Textual and Archaeological Evidence, Oxford 1994,58,160 and O. Masson, Encore les royaumes chypriotes de la liste d 'Esarhaddon, Cahier du center d' études chypriotes 22, 1992, 27-29.
  20. Franz Georg Maier: Factoids in Ancient History. The Case of Fifth-Century Cyprus. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 105, 1985, pp. 32-39.
  21. ^ David W. Rupp: Journal of Mediterranean Archeology. 1998.
  22. ^ Henry J. Watkin: The Cypriote Surrender to Persia. In: The Journal of Hellenic Studies . Volume 107, 1987, pp. 154-163.
  23. ^ The Phoenician colonization and expansion in Cyprus. RDAC 1979
  24. Franz Georg Maier: Factoids in Ancient History. The Case of Fifth-Century Cyprus. In: Journal of Hellenic Studies. Volume 105, 1985, p. 32.
  25. Franz Georg Maier : Factoids in ancient history. The case of Fifth-Century Cyprus. In: Journal of Hellenic Studies. Volume 105, 1985, pp. 32-39.
  26. M. Masson S. Sznycer: Recherche sur les Phéniciens en chypre. Geneva / Paris 1972, pp. 97-100.
  27. Ammianus Marcellinus 14, 8
  28. ^ Strabo , Geographika 14 , 16, 4
  29. a b Strabo, Geographika 14, 6.6
  30. ^ TB Mitford: Milestones in Western Cyprus. In: Journal of Roman Studies . Volume 29, 1939, p. 187.
  31. ^ AHS Megaw: Byzantine architecture and decoration in Cyprus. Metropolitan or provincial? In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Volume 28, 1974, p. 71.
  32. ^ AHS Megaw: Byzantine architecture and decoration in Cyprus: Metropolitan or provincial? In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Volume 28, 1974, pp. 57-88.
  33. a b A. HS Megaw, Byzantine architecture and decoration in Cyprus. Metropolitan or provincial? ' In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Volume 28, 1974, p. 72.
  34. ^ AHS Megaw: Byzantine architecture and decoration in Cyprus. Metropolitan or provincial? In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Volume 28, 1974, p. 78.
  35. ^ AHS Megaw: Byzantine architecture and decoration in Cyprus. Metropolitan or provincial? In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Volume 28, 1974, p. 79.
  36. ^ AHS Megaw: Byzantine architecture and decoration in Cyprus. Metropolitan or provincial? In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Volume 28, 1974, p. 81.
  37. ^ AHS Megaw: Byzantine architecture and decoration in Cyprus. Metropolitan or provincial? In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Volume 28, 1974, p. 88; AHS Megaw: Background architecture in the Lagoudera frescoes. In: Yearbook of the Austrian Byzantine Society. Volume 21, 1972, pp. 195-201.
  38. templarhistory.com
  39. Peter W. Edbury: John of Ibelin's title to the County of Jaffa and Ascalon. In: The English Historical Review. Volume 98, 1983, pp. 115-133.
  40. Peter W. Edbury: The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374. Cambridge 1991.
  41. ^ Benjamin Arbel : The Jews in Cyprus. New evidence from the Venetian period. In: Jewish Social Studies. Volume 41, Issue 1, 1979, p. 24.
  42. ^ A b c Benjamin Arbel: Greek Magnates in Venetian Cyprus. The Case of the Synglitico Family. In: Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Volume 49, 1995 (Symposium on Byzantium and the Italians, 13th-15th Centuries), p. 325.
  43. ^ A b Chares Demetriou: Big Structures, Social Boundaries, and Identity in Cyprus, 1400–1700. In: American Behavioral Scientist. Volume 51, 2008, p. 1481.
  44. a b c Chares Demetriou: Big Structures, Social Boundaries, and Identity in Cyprus, 1400–1700. In: American Behavioral Scientist. Volume 51, 2008, p. 1483.
  45. ^ A b Chares Demetriou: Big Structures, Social Boundaries, and Identity in Cyprus, 1400–1700. In: American Behavioral Scientist. Volume 51, 2008, p. 1488.
  46. ^ Chares Demetriou: Big Structures, Social Boundaries, and Identity in Cyprus, 1400–1700. In: American Behavioral Scientist. Volume 51, 2008, p. 1487.
  47. ^ A b Chares Demetriou: Big Structures, Social Boundaries, and Identity in Cyprus, 1400–1700. In: American Behavioral Scientist. Volume 51, 2008, p. 1482.
  48. ^ Chares Demetriou: Big Structures, Social Boundaries, and Identity in Cyprus, 1400–1700. In: American Behavioral Scientist. Volume 51, 2008, p. 1486.
  49. ^ William McNeill: Venice. The hinge of Europe, 1081-1798. Chicago, 1974.
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  51. ^ WW Vernon, JP Lacaita (ed.): Benvenuto de Rambaldis da Imola. Commentum super Dantis Aldighierii Comoedium. Florence 1887, 5: 525, cf. also RM Dawkins (ed.): Leontios Makhairas. Recital concerning the Sweet Land of Cyprus entitled "Chronicle". Volume 2, Oxford 1932, p. 82.
  52. See Albrecht Fuess: Burned Shore. Effects of Mamluk Maritime Policy on Beirut and the Syro-Palestinian Coast (1250–1517). In: Islamic history and civilization. Volume 39. Brill Academic Pub, Cologne 2001.
  53. ^ Edward Peters: Henry II of Cyprus, Rex inutilis. A footnote to Decameron 1.9. In: Speculum. Volume 72, Issue 3, 1997, p. 769.
  54. ^ Ronald C. Jennings: The Locust Problem in Cyprus. In: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Volume 51, 1988, p. 279.
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  65. a b Maier: Cyprus, island at the crossroads of history. 1964, p. 110.
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