Trullo ( Italian ), plural Trulli , is a name for the round houses that occur mainly in Apulia , the stone roofs of which taper towards the top in a cantilever vault (so-called "false vault") and with a symbolic keystone, the zippus , but often with a ball or other symbol.
Trulli are cantilevered structures made of dry masonry and are erected without mortar. The scale-like dark rubble stone roofs give the whitewashed trullo, which originally stood in the fields and not in the village, its characteristic appearance.
Due to their construction of solid natural stone with very thick walls and tiny windows, the trulli offer good protection against the persistent summer heat in Puglia, because the interior only heats up slowly. In winter, however, a trullo stores the heat generated by an open fireplace for a long time.
The 'poor people's houses', which were forgotten until the middle of the last century, have since experienced a renaissance; some are now also being offered as holiday apartments. In Alberobello there is a spacious closed quarter that is entirely built with trulli. This has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1996 . Trulli are also very widespread in the neighboring communities of the region and are often used as residential buildings, often lined up and connected to one another.
In Apulia and Sicily there are rustic stone buildings without a pointed roof, the Pagghiara (plur. Pagghiara).
These houses began to be built in the 17th century on behalf of Count Giangirolamo II Acquaviva d'Aragona. Since he did not want to pay taxes to the government, he asked the farmers to build their houses without cement and mortar, but only from stone. In the event of a royal inspection, they could easily dismantle the stone houses and later rebuild them easily.
Origin of the construction
Originally the construction method probably came from the area around today's Harran , Turkey.
In Germany, between the towns of Flonheim , Erbes-Büdesheim and Siefersheim in Rheinhessen, there are trulli-like rotundas in the vineyards that were built in the 18th century and served as shelters . Popularly they are called "Wingertsheisje" or "s weis Heisje" because they are in the vineyards. The rotunda is considered to be a landmark of Flonheim, one of which is now owned by the municipality. In a side valley of the Wiesbach, the Aulheimer Grund, there is a building at the level of the Aulheimer Mühlen, the lintel of which bears the year 1756 and the initials "HZ". They stand for Johann-Hannes Zimmer (1703–1781), the landlord of the Gasthof Zum Engel .
There are other trulli in southern Wonnegau (Monsheim- Kriegsheim , Flörsheim-Dalsheim , Wachenheim , Mölsheim , Gundheim and Worms- Pfeddersheim ). Eight trulli can be found in the district of Bockenheim an der Weinstrasse (Palatinate) and one in Reinheim an der Blies . In honor of the trulli, the trullo cycle tour has been organized in the community of Monsheim (since 1997) and the neighboring community of Bockenheim (since 2007). On the third Sunday in June, almost 20 Trulli are served and approached and hiked on the signposted circular route.
Its construction is attributed to Lombard migrant workers who worked in the Flonheim sandstone quarries between 1720 and 1760 . The cones of these trulli are - like their Apulian models - made in a cantilever construction from stones without mortar. The tips also crown keystones with a ball. However, it is also assumed that the trulli could represent the simplest of buildings without a conscious model, since the conical construction is a prototype of human habitation.
- Hans-Jörg Koch: Rheinhessen wine paradise - vines, culture, land and people: Trulli (stone vineyard houses). Verlag der Rheinhessische Druckwerkstätte Alzey, 1982, ISBN 3-87854-029-9 , pp. 89-92
- The history of the Trulli of Alberobello (German)
- Main features of a trullo (English, French)
- Il Trullo (Italian)
- Description (Danish)
- Wine experience at the trullo . Rhein-Zeitung No. 91 of April 20, 2015, p. 32
- Hans-Jörg Koch: Weinparadies Rheinhessen - vines, culture, land and people: Trulli (stone vineyard houses). Verlag der Rheinhessische Druckwerkstätte Alzey, 1982, ISBN 3-87854-029-9 , pp. 89-92