Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima
|Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα
Panhellenic Socialist Movement
|Party leader||Fofi Gennimata|
|Secretary General||Nikos Androulakis|
|founding||3rd September 1974|
|Alignment||Social democracy , left-wing liberalism|
|Parliament seats||Kinima Allagis )(as part of|
|International connections||Socialist International (SI), Progressive Alliance|
|MEPs||Kinima Allagis )(as part of|
|European party||Party of European Socialists (PES)|
|EP Group||Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament (S&D)|
The Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima ( Greek Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα , Panhellenic (= all-Greek) socialist movement '), PASOK (ΠΑΣΟΚ) or PA.SO.K. for short , is a social democratic party in Greece . She is part of the Social Democratic Party of Europe and also a member of the Socialist International .
Due to the euro crisis , it suffered serious election losses and lost its status as a people 's party . Before the parliamentary elections in Greece in 2019 , she joined forces with other parties to form the Kinima Allagis .
The party was founded on September 3, 1974 by Andreas Papandreou , the son of Georgios Papandreou , whose electoral successes were rejected by King Constantine II and the Conservatives, which was one of the main reasons for the destabilization of the country and the military dictatorship that followed. It has its roots in several resistance groups that were active at home and abroad during the dictatorship and that joined PASOK before or shortly after the party was founded. These included the 1968 by Papandreou in exile founded Panellinio Apeleftheriotiko Kinima (Πανελλήνιο Απελευθερωτικό Κίνημα, Panhellenic Liberation Movement 'PAK) that Dimokratiki Amyna (Δημοκρατική Άμυνα, Democratic Defense' DA), the Center Union and other groups. The party won the parliamentary elections in 1981 with an absolute majority for the first time ; Papandreou became prime minister and enjoyed widespread popularity. After two terms in office, there was an all-party government under the conservative Nea Dimokratia (New Democracy), which also provided the head of government. In 1993 the PASOK won again, but could no longer build on the old successes. The government was overshadowed by old scandals, and Andreas Papandreou's health deteriorated dramatically. Three years later, Kostas Simitis took over the chairmanship of the party, which launched extensive reform and infrastructure projects and led Greece into the European Economic and Monetary Union . When in 2004 the polls predicted a slump in voter favor, a generation change was initiated and Giorgos Papandreou took over the party leadership. Although this is the son of the party founder, he is assigned to the reformer wing. In the 2004 election , PASOK lost the majority to Nea Dimokratia, and after the 2007 election it remained in the opposition.
From the early parliamentary elections on October 4, 2009, PASOK emerged as the strongest force; it reached 43.94% of the vote, won the absolute majority of mandates in the 300-member parliament with 160 seats and thus clearly distanced the new democracy of Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis . Papandreou became prime minister. He resigned on November 9, 2011 as part of the Greek sovereign debt crisis .
In the parliamentary elections on May 6, 2012 , PASOK was severely punished for the austerity and reform measures it represented to cope with the financial and economic crisis. It lost over 70% of its voters and with 13.18% of the vote and thus 41 seats, it was only the third strongest party. After the chairmen of Nea Dimokratia and SYRIZA failed to form a government coalition, Evangelos Venizelos was charged with forming a government. Although an agreement with Andonis Samaras , head of the conservatives, and Fotis Kouvelis, chairman of DIMAR , seemed achievable at first, the attempt failed because of Fotis Kouvelis ' condition that SYRIZA must also be involved in the government.
Since this election did not result in a governable majority, parliamentary elections were held again on June 17th . From this, PASOK emerged again as the third strongest party, with further losses, with its share of the vote falling to 12.28% and receiving 33 mandates. She then participated in a government with the conservative Nea Dimokratia and the moderate left-wing party Dimokratiki Aristera .
In the 2014 European elections , PASOK ran as part of the center-left electoral alliance Eliá ( Greek Ελιά, German: olive tree ), whose name is apparently inspired by the Italian L'Ulivo . Elia is largely seen as a barely disguised new founding of the weakened PASOK, through which numerous spin-offs such as the RIKSSY of the former PASOK Minister Andreas Loverdos are to be reunited with PASOK.
In the early parliamentary election on January 25, 2015 , PASOK only received 4.7% of the votes and thus 13 seats. In the radically changed political system that brought the extremely Europe-critical parties SYRIZA and ANEL to the government despite completely different political orientations, PASOK no longer played a role in the formation of a government and, like the ND, was in the opposition. While the conservatives at least assumed the role of opposition leader, PASOK was replaced and marginalized by the predominantly left-wing government of Alexis Tsipras, as it were, as the dominant left force. After the resignation of Venizelos, Fofi Gennimata , daughter of the co-founder of the party Giorgos Gennimatas and former multiple deputy minister, was elected on June 14, 2015 in a member survey with more than 51% of the votes in the first ballot as the new, first female leader of the party. Other candidates were Andreas Loverdos , multiple former minister, and MP Odysseas Konstantinopoulos. Gennimata announced that he would rebuild the party and seek cooperation with other center-left parties.
The party chairmen Gennimata and Theocharopoulos from DIMAR declared the cooperation of both parties for the early parliamentary election on September 20, 2015 on a common list of candidates as Dimokratiki Symbarataxi (Δημοκρατική Συμπαράταξη). The alliance reached 6.28 percent in the election and landed in fourth place. For the first time since 2009, PASOK was able to win votes in a national election.
The PASOK logo shows a rising green sun, whereby green is not a symbol for an ecological attitude.
Results of parliamentary elections
|year||Percent%||Seats||be right||Party leader|
|1989 (June)||39.13||125||2,551,518||Andreas Papandreou|
|1989 (November)||40.68||128||2,724,334||Andreas Papandreou|
|2012 (May)||13.18||41||833,529||Evangelos Venizelos|
|2012 (June)||12.28||33||755.832||Evangelos Venizelos|
|2015 (January)||4.67||13||289,482||Evangelos Venizelos|
|2015 (September) (electoral alliance with DIMAR )||6.28||17th||341,390||Fofi Gennimata|
|2019 (As Kinima Allagis )||8.10||22nd||457.623||Fofi Gennimata|
Hellenic Parliament (1974-2009 elections)
- Klaus Hornung : Socialism and Communism in Greece . In: Dieter Oberndörfer (Ed.): Socialist and Communist Parties in Western Europe. Publication of the social science research institute of the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung . Volume 1: Südländer (= Uni-Taschenbücher . Volume 761). Leske + Budrich (UTB), Opladen 1978, ISBN 3-8100-0240-2 , pp. 267-345.
- Homepage of PASOK (Greek)
- http://dea.org.gr/%CE%B7-%CF%83%CE%BF%CF%83%CE%B9%CE%B1%CE%BB%CE%B4%CE%B7%CE % BC% CE% BF% CE% BA% CF% 81% CE% B1% CF% 84% CE% AF% CE% B1-% CF% 83% CF% 84% CE% B7% CE% BD-% CE % B5% CF% 80% CE% BF% CF% 87% CE% AE-% CF% 84% CE% BF% CF% 85-% CF% 83% CE% BF% CF% 83% CE% B9% CE % B1% CE% BB% CF% 86% CE% B9% CE% BB% CE% B5% CE% BB% CE% B5% CF% 85% CE% B8% CE% B5% CF% 81% CE% B9 % CF% 83% CE% BC% CE% BF% CF% 8D-% CF% 80% CE% BF% CE% B9% CE% BF-% CE% BC% CE% AD% CE% BB% CE% BB % CE% BF% CE% BD-% CE% AD% CF% 87% CE% B5% CE% B9-% CF% 84% CE% BF-% CF% 80% CE% B1% CF% 83% CE% BF% CE% BA
- Michael Kelpanides: Political System . Parties and associations. In: Klaus-Detlev Grothusen (Hrsg.): Südosteuropa-Handbuch Greece . tape III . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1980, p. 770 . P. 92f
- Greek socialists celebrate their victory Spiegel Online, October 4, 2009
- sueddeutsche.de, May 11, 2012: coalition talks in Athens have failed again
- Official result of the parliamentary election in June 2012 ( memento of the original from June 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Greek Ministry of Interior (Greek, English)
- Greece: New government is in place. In: DiePresse.com. June 20, 2012, accessed January 6, 2018 .
- EnetEnglish.gr, article from March 11, 2014: "Olive, River and Drachma Five Stars: the boom in political start-ups" (English)
- PASOK dares a new start with the new party leader in the Greek newspaper of June 15, 2015, accessed on June 19, 2015
- Gennimata easily beats off competition to become first woman to head PASOK e kathimerini from June 15, 2015, accessed on June 19, 2015
- Δημοκρατική Συμπαράταξη θα λέγεται ο εκλογικός συνδυασμός ΠΑΣΟΚ - ΔΗΜΑΡ. ANA-MPA , August 30, 2015
- Election results 1974–2009, Greek Parliament (English)
- Official election result May 2012, Greek Interior Ministry (Greek / English)
- Official election result June 2012, Greek Ministry of the Interior ( Memento of the original from June 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (greek / english)
- Official election result January 2015, Greek Ministry of the Interior (Greek / English)
- Official election result September 2015, Greek Ministry of the Interior (Greek / English)
- Official election result July 2019, Greek Ministry of the Interior (Greek / English)