|Small area until December 31, 2012 :
|34,513 (Jan 1, 2011)
|Population density :
|560 inhabitants per km²
|Telephone code :
|Postal code :
|Structure and administration (as of 2013)
|Community type :
|Attila Fördős (independent)
|Postal address :
|Március 15th tér 11.
|(Source: A Magyar Köztársaság helységnévkönyve 2011. január 1st at Központi statisztikai hivatal )
The area around Vác was probably inhabited for millennia because of its favorable natural location. The settlement that arose after the Magyar conquest around 896 in the Carpathian Basin on the Danube Bend was one of the bishops' seats of Hungary founded by King Stephen I immediately after the expansion of the state was completed. The first written mention of the city can be found in the Almanach von Yburg 1074, in which the city is called Watzenburg . Vác was also mentioned as "Wac civitas" in 1075 in a letter of foundation from the Abbey in Garamszentbenedek .
The city name Vác probably comes from a personal name. A legend tells that in 1074 Duke Géza and Prince László fought for the succession to the Hungarian throne in the area of today's city of Vác. A hermit named Vác is said to have lived in this area at that time. Another attempt to explain the city name derives from the Hungarian tribe Vath. The word Vác comes from Slavic and means: important settlement or center.
The medieval city center was originally a castle or fortress in the southern part of the city center, which was built on a hill on the river bank. After a vow, King Géza had a cathedral built in honor of the Virgin Mary on the castle grounds, in which he himself was buried in 1077.
In 1241 Mongolian Tatars invaded Vác. The population fled to the castle church, which was burned down by the Tartars, killing all those who had fled there.
King Béla IV had Vác rebuilt after the Mongols withdrew. During this time, settlers came to the depopulated Vác from the more densely populated western areas and from southern Germany. These new settlers built houses, shops and a St. Michael's Church in the style of their homeland around the current main square, the Place of March 15th (Hungarian : Március 15 tér ). They also gave the square the shape of an elongated triangle that is still preserved today.
The Ottoman occupation began in the middle of the 16th century . The armed conflicts at the end of the Turkish rule in the years 1684 to 1686 around the castle and the Danube crossing in Vác led to several storms on the town, which changed hands forty times during this time. From 1703 to 1711 the uprising of Francis II Rákóczi brought further suffering to the inhabitants of Vác. After all this warlike turmoil, Vác was depopulated and the infrastructure destroyed. In 1731 a fire destroyed most of the medieval city. From 1770 until the end of the 18th century, Vác was completely rebuilt as a baroque complex on the medieval foundations under the direction of his bishops. During this time, many new settlers immigrated from Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia, Serbia and Croatia; some even from France and Italy. These united to a self-confident Vácer citizenry, which worked on the renewed economic boom of the city.
The first Hungarian railway line was opened in the summer of 1846 between Vác and Pest ; it was later part of the railway connection running on the northern bank of the Danube from Budapest via Pressburg and Marchegg to Vienna , which was used by the Orient Express, among others, until the interwar period (see also Austro-Hungarian State Railway Company ). The Austro-Hungarian compromise in 1867 enabled the city to develop peacefully.
The friendly atmosphere of Vác attracted artists and scientists to the city. This time ended with the two world wars, which again inflicted victims on the population. The following years of communist intolerance until 1989 impaired people's living conditions. Since 1989 there have been new opportunities in restructured economic life. The churches have resumed their previous tasks in the higher education sector and enriched the educational offer in the city with the theological college. The historical buildings are gradually being restored and, together with the developed Danube bank promenade and several museums, make Vác attractive for tourists.
- The Spitzturm, the northern corner tower of the medieval city fortifications, is the only building in the city that has survived from the Middle Ages. Otherwise the city center is characterized by the Baroque style.
- The Cathedral of Vác was built between 1761 and 1777 at the instigation of Bishop Christoph Anton von Migazzi according to plans by the Austrian court architect Isidore Canevale in a late baroque-classicist style. It is the fifth episcopal church since the diocese was established in the 11th century. Inside, the picture on the main altar with the theme of the Visitation of the Virgin and the fresco in the dome (Triumph of the Trinity ) are worth seeing - both works by the painter Franz Anton Maulbertsch (1724–1796).
- The main square (Platz des 15. März) with its peculiar elongated triangular shape was built as a baroque square on medieval foundations at the beginning of the 18th century. In 2006 it was completely redesigned. On it are the uncovered foundations of St. Michael's Church from the 13th century.
- The Dominican Church on the main square (Church of the Whites, Fehérek temploma) was built in 1770 in place of the dilapidated St. Michael's Church, built in the 13th century. It is called the Church of the Whites because the Dominican monks wear white robes. Inside it contains magnificent Rococo furnishings. At its side is a fountain with the figure of Hedwig von Anjou, who was only canonized in 1997 .
- Behind the Dominican church is an old, traditional market with the carefully restored gate grille of the former episcopal mill.
- Building no. 20 on the main square is the former town hall, the cellar of which contains a wine bar with a wine collection.
- From the garden of house No. 19 on the main square or from Lajos-Katona-Straße you can get to the Greek Orthodox Church, built in 1790 and now used as an exhibition room.
- The town hall is located in house number 11 on the main square. It was built from 1735 to 1764 at the suggestion of Bishop Michael Friedrich Althann.
- Hauptplatz No. 7-9 was originally built as a seminary and has been used by the Sisters of Mercy as a chapel and church since 1763.
- In the middle of the square of March 15th is the fountain of the twin cities.
- Two medieval canons' houses on the main square No. 6 house the teaching institute for the deaf and dumb, which was founded in 1802 by András Cházár.
- The Vác synagogue in Eötvös utca, which was built between 1861 and 1864, has recently been externally restored.
- On Trinity Square (Szentháromság tér) is the Piarist Church of St. Anne, built between 1725 and 1745 and rebuilt in the Renaissance style in 1866, and the Trinity Column, which was erected between 1750 and 1755 after the plague epidemic of 1740–41.
- The only triumphal arch in Hungary, like the cathedral, was built at the instigation of Bishop Migazzi in 1764 by the imperial court architect Isidore Canevale in honor of Rex Hungariae or Empress Maria Theresa , head of state of Hungary, on the occasion of her official visit to the city.
Vac has the following towns twinning closed:
- Järvenpää in Finland , since 1984
- Deuil-la-Barre in Île-de-France ( France ), since 1991
- Odorheiu Secuiesc in Romania , since 1992
- Giw'atajim in Israel , since 1993
- Donaueschingen in Baden-Württemberg (Germany), since 1993
- Dubnica nad Váhom in Slovakia , since 2003
- Šahy in Slovakia, since 2004
There is a cooperation with the city