The Magyars (singular in Hungarian magyar [ ˈmɒɟɒr ], plural magyarok [ ˈmɒɟɒrok ]), also Magyars or Hungarians , are a people in Central Europe . They speak Hungarian , a language from the Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric language family .
The term Hungarian can also refer generally to the citizens of the State of Hungary or, in historical texts, to the inhabitants of the historical Kingdom of Hungary , regardless of their ethnicity. In scientific texts, to avoid this ambiguity, the term Magyars is often preferred when referring to the ethnic group.
Worldwide there are about 14 million Magyars, of whom about 9.5 million live in Hungary, another 2.4 million as large minorities since 1918 outside Hungary in neighboring countries and about 1.5 million in other countries:
|Country / Territory||Number of Hungarians and people of
|Zakarpattia Oblast ( Ukraine )||156,600||(2001)|
Situation outside of Hungary
The Magyar minorities who live in the neighboring states of the Hungarian mother country are formally recognized and have various minority rights: schools with mother tongue teaching, religious services in their mother tongue, they are allowed to found associations and also have their own press in Hungarian. Romania and Slovakia have their own ethnic-based parties ( UDMR , SMK and Most-Híd ) that are represented in parliament and were part of the governing coalition. The Romanian and Slovak state broadcasters also have Hungarian-language programs on their programs, while cable TV usually includes the largest Hungarian TV channels. In Serbia, like many other nationalities, Hungarians enjoy autonomy within Vojvodina . In Slovakia, in addition to around 780 Hungarian-speaking schools (585 of which are purely Hungarian-speaking), a state-financed, purely Hungarian-language university in Komárno has been available to the around 520,000 Hungarians in Slovakia (the only Hungarian university without tuition fees), and the state has established Hungarian cultural associations and publishers financed.
The discrimination by the Beneš decrees in the years 1945-1948 is no longer relevant today. Nowadays there are individual verbal failures by nationalist parties and their representatives, for example Corneliu Vadim Tudor from the Greater Romania Party or Ján Slota from the Slovak National Party . The latter was a coalition partner in the government of Slovakia under Robert Fico from July 2006 to July 2010 .
The largest group of Hungarians abroad lives in Romania . Their number is around 1.4 million (6.6% of the country's population). Many of them (around 670,000) are Szekler and live in the Szeklerland (Székelyföld) , an area in south-east Transylvania that encompasses today's Covasna (Kovászna) , Harghita (Hargita) districts , most of the Mureș (Maros) district and small parts of the district Bacău ( Bákó , in the Moldavia part of the country, not in Transylvania) - a small area around Ghimeş-Făget (Gyimesbükk) - and parts of the Alba district - the area around Rimetea (Torockó) , known as the exclave Arieș Scaun (Aranyosszék) (the area in and around Thorenburg (Torda) ) - includes. The other 760,000 Hungarians mostly live in cities like Klausenburg , Neumarkt am Mieresch , Großwardein , Sathmar , Arad , Timisoara , Neustadt etc. They can also be found as closed ethnic majorities or minorities in the northern partium , in the "woodland" (Szilágyság) , in Kalotaszeg , in some areas of the "Transylvanian Heath" (Câmpia Transilvaniei) , between the Little Kokel and the Great Kokel , in the Kreischgebiet (Körösvidék) and in the northern Banat . They are also native to small linguistic islands in the south of Transylvania as well as in the Maramureș district , in the Moldau (the Tschangos ) and in the southern Banat.
Number of Magyars in Romania
The group of 458,467 Magyars in Slovakia live in the south of the country, most of them on the Great Schüttinsel , in the area north of it between the Little Danube and the Waag (sometimes called Mátyusföld by the Hungarians ), in the area between the rivers Waag and Eipel and on the north bank of the Eipel. They also live in the Gemer region and an area in the very south-east of Slovakia around Kráľovský Chlmec (50,000 Hungarians), that is in and around Medzibodrožie (ung. Bodrogköz ). There is also a Hungarian language island to the east of Nitra , which bears the ethnographic name Zobor . In addition to the Hungarians mentioned above, another 50,000 people in Slovakia state Hungarian as their mother tongue.
Number of Magyars in Slovakia
(*) Between 1945 and 1948, around 80,000 Hungarians from Slovakia and between 72,000 and 73,000 Slovaks from Hungary were relocated to the other country as part of a “population exchange”, depending on the source; Otherwise, the temporary decline in 1950 is due to a state-sponsored “switch” of many Hungarians with Slovak ancestors to Slovak nationality, which took place around 1946–1949 and was subsequently gradually reversed.
The third largest Hungarian ethnic group in terms of numbers lives in the Autonomous Region of Vojvodina (ung. Vajdaság ). The approximately 250,000 Hungarians live mainly in the north of Vojvodina, that is, in the northern Batschka (Bácska) and in the northern Banat . In the south of Vojvodina they are sporadically distributed over several small Hungarian villages or village communities, surrounded by many other nationalities that are at home in Vojvodina. Well-known Serbs of Hungarian descent are the tennis player Monica Seles , the soccer player Albert Nađ and the singer Magdi Rúzsa .
Number of Magyars in Vojvodina
In the Ukrainian administrative area of Transcarpathia (Hungarian Kárpátalja ) there is also a significant Hungarian minority of around 150,000 to 200,000 people. They live there in around 130 communities and make up the majority of the population in 80 of them. Hungarians live mainly in the lowlands (as an ethnic majority) and in the cities (e.g. Uzhhorod , Mukachevo , Berehove , Khust , etc.). In 2014, the Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán called for self-government and the possibility of dual citizenship for the Hungarian minority of Ukraine .
According to a census in 2001, there are around 10,000 Austrian-born Hungarians living in Austria. A significant number of Hungarians live mainly in the capital Vienna . The majority, however, is known as Burgenland Hungary and lives in the south-easternmost federal state of the republic, Burgenland . Here they are particularly at home in the four villages of Oberpullendorf (Felsőpulya) , Oberwart (Felsőőr) , Siget in der Wart (Őrisziget) and Unterwart (Alsóőr) .
The Hungarians in Croatia today are particularly at home in the Drava - Danube region in eastern Croatia. This part of Croatia is also called "Draueck" (ung. Drávaköz ) and represents the Croatian part of the historical Baranya County . Most Magyars therefore live in the Osijek-Baranja County (today's Croatian County). There is also a significant Hungarian minority in the Vukovar-Syrmia and Bjelovar-Bilogora counties .
In the area of the "Murinsel" (Croatian Međimurje ) between the Mur and the Drava in the northernmost part of Croatia with the center of Čakovec only about 50 Hungarians live. You can read more about the Hungarians in the Slovenian part of the Drava Mur region under Slovenia.
From 1921 until today, the number of Hungarians in Croatia has fallen dramatically. This is also shown in the following table:
Number of Magyars in Croatia
According to the 2001 census, there are 6,243 Hungarians in Slovenia. These are particularly at home in the Prekmurje (ung. Muravidék ) region. The number of Hungarians in Slovenia has almost halved in the last 50 years.
Number of Magyars in Slovenia
When and where the ethnogenesis of the Magyars took place and since when they settled in their present homeland is still controversial in historical research.
According to the prevailing thesis, the Magyars descend from a nomadic people whose " original home " is believed to be in the Urals . The “Magyar conquest ” in the Pannonian Plain took place under Prince Árpád at the end of the 9th century AD . This theory of continuity , however, has been repeated and has been questioned up to the present day. The Hungarian historian Imre Boba and other authors advocate speaking of an ethnic unity of Hungarians (Magyars) in today's sense only after the Hungarian conquest in the Carpathian Basin, since their tribal confederation would have only recently formed from groups of different origins. The Finno-Ugric Proto-Magyars from the Ural region are therefore only one of the elements from which the later Hungarians were formed.
A minority of researchers use archaeological, linguistic and anthropological arguments to support the theory of the "double land grab", according to which the ancestors of the Magyars had been in the Pannonian plain before the land grab by Árpád and his people, around the 5th or 6th century settled into which they immigrated in several waves and where they coexisted with Slavic peoples. The Árpáds ethnic group would have formed only a small upper class after their "invasion" at the end of the 9th century, which gradually assimilated to the majority population.
Before the "Hungarian conquest"
According to the academic majority opinion, the Finno-Ugric peoples settled between the 6th and 4th millennium BC. Around the Ural Mountains , mainly on its east side, and the Ob river . Archaeological finds in this area suggest that the Urals in the 4th millennium still largely lived on the eastern slopes of the central and southern sections of this mountain range. Individual groups broke between 4000 and 3000 BC. In east and west direction. The Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric language family is composed of the languages of the two Obugian peoples Chanten (Ostyak) and Mansi (Woguls) as well as Hungarian (Magyar).
Dissolution of the Finno-Ugric community
After the dissolution of the Finno-Ugric community, the Ugric branch moved from its West Siberian settlement area in a south / south-east direction. Some researchers assign the Bronze Age Andronowo culture in southern Siberia and Central Asia (2nd millennium BC) to the Ugrians. The Andronowo culture is more widely assigned to the Indo-Iranian language family . The Ugrians of the South Urals were probably in close contact with the neighboring proto-Iranian Andronowo culture and their culture was similar to this. Horse breeding played a special role in cattle breeding . This can be proven today on the basis of archaeological finds.
The Ugrians took over the permanent settlements from the Urirans, where they stayed from now on. At that time you gained your first experience in metal processing. Around 1000 BC Around the end of the Bronze Age , around the end of the Bronze Age , there was another warming, which caused the vegetation zones to expand further north. This climate change meant that the Ugrian settlement areas slowly changed from forest steppes to dry steppes . In this situation, the Ugrians split into the ancestors of today's Obugriers (Chanten, Mansen) and the ancestors of today's Magyars. The Obugriians moved north into the region of the lower Ob , avoiding the increasing desertification . The ancestors of today's Magyars stayed in their settlement area, but changed their way of life and became nomadic people .
Around 500 BC The Magyars came into contact with the Iranian peoples of the Scythians and Sarmatians after being forced to migrate in the direction of the southern Urals by a cooling climate . This can be proven by diverse archaeological finds, which prove a similarity of cultures at that time. Furthermore, some loan words such as tej (“milk”), fizetni (“numbers”), tíz (“ten”) and arany (“gold”) were taken from (proto-) Iranian .
From Magna Hungaria to Levedien
Scientists assume that around 500 AD the Magyar tribes left the steppe area in the southeastern Urals and moved westward as a horsemen to what is now Bashkiria . Today very little is known about the triggering reasons for this migration, but there are many indications that the Magyars actually undertook this migration. This area was later named Magna Hungaria ("Greater Hungary") in medieval sources . According to the Hungarologist Holger Fischer , the ethnogenesis of the Magyars took place here, i.e. the development of their own ethnic identity. The Dominicans Julian wanted to in 1236 in an unclear just described region on the Volga remaining here have encountered "Hungary". Another indication that Magyars were in Magna Hungaria are archaeological finds in the area. They came across death masks , such as those already used by the Obugriern and also tombs from the time of the conquest of today's Hungary were found in the area.
Probably from the first half of the 8th century the Magyars settled in Levedien (Hungarian Levédia ), probably named after Levedi, a Magyar tribal chief. This area was roughly between the Don and the Azov Seas . In the immediate vicinity of their new settlement area was the Khanate of the Khazars , an association of Turkish and Mongolian tribes, which were ruled by a Khan and whose territory included the steppe north of the Caucasus . The Magyars also submitted to this Khan and partially gave up nomadism. Today this can primarily be understood from a linguistic perspective. In the Hungarian language there are around 200 loanwords adopted from the Turkic languages in the fields of agriculture (e.g. búza , "wheat"; eke , "plow"), viticulture and horticulture (e.g. gyümölcs , "fruit") ; szőlő , "grape"), cattle breeding (e.g. ecör , "ox"; gyapjú , "wool"; sajt , "cheese") and handicrafts, which were incorporated into the language at this time and which are due to the increasing sedentariness of the Point out Magyars.
The Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII was the first to mention the names of the seven Hungarian tribes around 950 AD in his work De administrando imperio : Nyék, Megyer, Kürtgyarmat, Tarján, Jenő, Kér and Keszi. He also describes: The Magyars “never had their own prince or a foreign prince over them, but there were some voivods among them, the first of whom was Levedi.” ()
Emperor Constantine also reports that Levedi, as a military leader, was given, among other things, a Khazarin as a wife from the Kagan , as a sign of solidarity with the Khazarian Khan . From Constantine's report and from other sources it can be deduced today that the Magyars had both a tribal organization and a dual principality at that time. In this so-called double principality there was a religious head (kende) and a prince (gyula) who held the de facto power in his hands. The Magyars probably took over this institution from the Khazars.
In the years between 820 and 839 there were revolts in the Khazar Empire, in which the Magyars also took part. The attempt of the insurgent cabars (or kawars; part of the Khazars, i.e. to be attributed to the Turkic peoples) to overthrow the khan and gain power in the khanate failed. Many of the rebels then fled to the Magyars, which the Kabars joined as the eighth tribe. The Turkic speaking cabarets assimilated quickly in terms of language. As a result, the relationship between Magyars and Khazars was permanently disturbed and the Magyars found themselves forced to migrate again after 840 under the pressure of the resurgent Khazars.
They moved further west into the so-called "Zwischenstromland" (Hungarian Etelköz ). The exact location of Etelköz has not yet been fully clarified, but it is believed that it must have been northwest of the Black Sea and east of the Carpathian Mountains , i.e. possibly between the Dnieper and Dniester rivers in what is now southern Ukraine . Here the ugrischsprachigen Magyars met (together with their member Kawaren) to the Onogurs , another Turkic people, which is also the Proto-Bulgarians is counted (hence "Onogur-Bulgarians"). From these the exonym "Hungarian" is derived , with which the western neighboring peoples refer to the Magyars. According to the historian Martin Egger and other scientists, the ethnic unity of the Hungarians / Magyars, who later invaded the Carpathian Basin, first emerged in Etelköz, through mixing of the Ugric element of the (proto-) Magyars with the Turkish elements of the Kawars and Onogurs. Although the area was ideal for the way of life of the Magyars with intensive livestock farming and extensive agriculture, they continued to face attacks by the Khazars. The Magyars in Etelköz maintained contacts with the Byzantine Empire , the Danube Bulgarians and Eastern Slavs , and to a lesser extent the Moravians and Franks .
Land acquisition in the Pannonian Plain
During this time, the Magyars got to know the Pannonian Plain for the first time through the participation of their riding troops in armed conflicts . Therefore, historians assume that the escape from Etelköz and migration to the Carpathian Basin between 894 and 897 was a planned one. It had various reasons. So the Magyars allied themselves with the Byzantines, who were at war with the Bulgarians at the time . 895 they made again Byzantium military assistance as they the First Bulgarian Empire under Tsar Simeon I attacked. With the help of the Byzantine fleet, the Magyars crossed the Danube and won against smaller Bulgarian units at Dorostol (the greater part of the Bulgarian army was in Thrace , where Simeon I was preparing a campaign against Byzantium). After several successes by Byzantium, the Bulgarians had to give up and made peace with the Byzantine Empire. However, Simeon I allied himself in 896 with the Pechenegs coming from the east, who had been driven from their homeland in 894 by the Oghusen .
The Bulgarians and Pechenegs then went to war against the Magyars, in that the Bulgarians attacked the war troops of the Magyars and the Pechenegs stormed the poorly protected places of residence of the Magyars. This superiority defeated the Magyars in Etelköz . So the tribal association decided to flee with their large herds of cattle over the northern and northeastern passes of the forest and eastern Carpathians . According to legend, they used the Verecke pass .
After crossing the Carpathian Mountains, the Magyars first settled on the upper Tisza . The number of Magyar “invaders” (with their affiliated peoples) is estimated at 400,000–500,000. The Pannonian Basin was already populated by around 200,000 members of non-Magyar peoples ( Slavs , (proto-) Bulgarians , Moravljanes , possibly Avars and others). Some of them fled, joined the Magyars or were subjugated. The advocates of the theory of "double land grabbing", however, assume that the conquerors were far in the minority compared to the previous residents. The historian Gábor Vékony gave their number with only about 5000 men carrying weapons and their families. In grave sites, a ratio of around 100 to 1 between alleged members of the local population groups and those of the conquerors was identified. According to this theory, the newcomers only formed the upper class and gradually mixed with the majority population. This is compared to the situation of other conquerors peoples in the early Middle Ages, such as the Germanic Burgundians and Franks in France today, the Turkic Bulgars on the lower Danube, the Varangians (Rus) in Kiev and Novgorod or the Scandinavians (Norman) in Normandy , while ruled the respective area and gave the country and people their name, but linguistically adapted to the majority population found in each case.
The occupation of the entire Carpathian Basin by the Magyars took place gradually. Stages of the conquest were the area on the western side of the Eastern Carpathians, later the area up to the Danube, and in 899, after the successful battle of the Brenta against the Italian king Berengar I , the Magyars occupied all of Pannonia.
Many factors were decisive for the successful capture and long-term establishment of the Magyars in the Carpathian Basin. It was easy to conquer, because it was on the edge of three great empires that were at war with one another ( Moravian Empire , Eastern Franconia , First Bulgarian Empire ). The area was relatively sparsely populated. The strategic position of the landscape, almost completely enclosed by a mountain range, favored the defense of the territory, especially against the Pechenegs in the east.
From here the Hungarian horsemen set off again and again on raids across Europe, which went down in history as Hungarian invasions . They raided areas in Bavaria , Italy , France and Spain, among others . After 901 the center of their settlement area shifted west to Lake Balaton . From here the Magyars conquered areas from the Marcha orientalis to the Enns (eastern Austria ) and today's Slovakia.
After the Magyars were defeated by the East Franconian and Bohemian troops in the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 , they withdrew from what is now Austria (except from today's Burgenland ) and settled in what is now western Hungary . Gradually the nomadic people of the Magyars settled down . From the last quarter of the 10th century, the Hungarians were under Prince Géza and Stephen I. Christianized . The latter is considered to be the first king of the Kingdom of Hungary, founded in 1000 .
Since the establishment of the Kingdom of Hungary
In the High Middle Ages, Hungary was relatively densely populated. The Mongol conquests in the 13th century, especially the campaign of Jötschis and his son Batu Khan in 1241, resulted in a sharp decline in population. The battle of Muhi ended with a crushing defeat for the Hungarian army.
With the conquest of the Balkans by the Ottomans ( Turks ) in the 16th century, today's Hungary in particular was partially depopulated. Since that time and for almost 400 years that followed, the country and its history were closely linked to the Habsburg monarchy . After the Ottomans were driven out, the depopulated areas were repopulated by Slovaks , settlers from Germany and other parts of Europe (especially as part of the three main waves of resettlement in 1690, 1711 and 1745) .
However, the multi-ethnic state that developed from this was characterized by internal tensions (aspirations for independence of the non-Magyar peoples, nationality conflicts in the course of the Magyarization policy ). This favored the destruction of the heterogeneous Kingdom of Hungary in the years after the lost First World War .
“But in these circles one also found ways that lead out of the misery. A newly emerging art genre, film, became an almost purely Hungarian domain in Hollywood as in Berlin . A flood of talented journalists, playwrights and cabaret artists poured from Budapest over the world. The humiliated country exported tournament riders, tennis cracks, fencing teachers and, last but not least, restaurateurs, who introduced Pörkölt and goulash soup to an exotic audience . "
The word magyar (formerly megyeri ) is the self-designation of the Magyars today. It appears in Muslim sources as early as the 9th and 10th centuries . It is probably a compound of magy (<Ugric * mańćε = human, male, gender) and he (i) (also human, male, gender). Other researchers claim that the word magyar originally meant "men of the earth".
The Magyars were - according to the prevailing opinion in the study of history - a Eurasian equestrian people. However, it should be noted that the word was initially only the name of one of seven (different) nomadic tribes who made raids in Europe in the 9th and early 10th centuries , as far as the Pyrenees . The tribes were called Meder (Megyer), Tarján, Jenő, Kér, Keszih, Kürt-Gyarmat and Nyék . Towards the end of the 10th century it is the Magyar tribe - d. H. the descendants of Árpáds - managed to unite the remaining tribes under his suzerainty.
In the 10th century the ethnic group was referred to by the sources of the time as Ungari or Ougri . The Franconian chronicle writers used the Latin term (H) hungarus almost from the beginning . Many texts from that time also refer to them as Turks (especially the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII around 950 ) or, by mistake, as Huns or Avars , as their way of life was similar to that of these two peoples.
Until well into the 19th century, Hungarian authors, both popular and scholarly, assumed that the Hungarians were descended from or related to the Huns and Scythians . The Finno-Ugric origin and kinship hypothesis was rejected many times. The well-known Hungarian saga of the brothers Hunor and Magor ("ancestors" of the Huns and Magyars) and the miracle deer ( csodaszarvas in Hungarian ), which is already known by the Iranian- speaking Scythians as the golden deer, is cited for the relationship between Hungarians and Huns . Already in the Renaissance there was a cult around Attila who was accepted as the ancestor of the Hungarians. This experienced a new edition in the romantic nationalism and historicism of the 19th century. Attila is one of the most common male given names among Hungarians to this day, while it is very rarely given among other European peoples. There is a “Holy Hunnic Church” in Hungary in the 21st century, which tries to get recognition as an ethnic minority (2005: 2381 supporters).
In addition, Emperor Constantine VII wrote in De Administrando Imperio that a Hungarian embassy had reported to him that the Magyars were usually called sabartoi asphaloi , which is generally translated as “strong / steadfast / reliable Sabirs ” (actually one in late antiquity people of Turkish or Hunnic origin living north of the Caucasus).
The forms used today (H) hungarus, (H) hungary, Uhri, Vengry, Hungarian, Hongrois etc. found their way into the European languages through Germanic mediation. The word can be traced back to the Turkish proto-Bulgarian tribal name onogur ( on = ten + ogur = tribe), which arose from the fact that the ancestors of the Hungarians lived in close association with the Onogur Empire in the 5th and 6th centuries , the leading tribal association of the Onogurs was called. The 'H' presented in Hungarus , Hungarn etc. is probably due to the common equation of Hungarians with the Huns in the Middle Ages.
- Wolfgang Jahn, C. Lankes, W. Petz, E. Brockhoff (eds.): Essays on the Bavarian State Exhibition 2001. Regensburg 2001, ISBN 3-9804433-6-1 , ISBN 3-7917-1753-7 .
- Gyula László: The Magyars. Their life and civilization. Corvina, Budapest 1997, ISBN 963-13-4807-5 .
- Paul Lendvai : The Hungarians. A thousand years of history. Munich 2001, ISBN 3-442-15122-8 .
- László Révész: Archaeological research on the time of the conquest of Hungary. Results, methodological problems, unresolved issues. In: Joachim Henning (Ed.): Europe in the 10th century. Archeology of a New Age. Mainz 2002, ISBN 3-8053-2872-9 , pp. 123-130.
- Mechthild Schulze-Dörrlamm: The Hungarian invasions of the 10th century as reflected in archaeological finds. In: Joachim Henning (Ed.): Europe in the 10th century. Archeology of a New Age. Mainz 2002, ISBN 3-8053-2872-9 , pp. 109-122.
- Péter Veres: The ethnogenesis of the Hungarian people. Problems of ecological adaptation and cultural change. Ethnographical Institut of the Hungarian Acad. of Science, Budapest 1996, ISBN 963-567-001-X .
- Alfried Wieczorek, Hans-Martin Hinz (Hrsg.): Europes Mitte um 1000. Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8062-1544-8 , ISBN 3-8062-1545-6 .
- Herbert W. Wurster (Ed.): Bavaria - Hungary. A thousand years. Catalog for the Bavarian State Exhibition 2001. Passau 2001, ISBN 3-927233-78-1 .
- Joachim von Puttkamer: Everyday school life and national integration in Hungary. Slovaks, Romanians and Transylvanian Saxons dealing with the Hungarian state idea 1867–1914 (= Southeast European Works, vol. 115), Oldenbourg, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-486-56741-1 , p. 11. Full text .
- 2006-os jelentés a Kárpát-medencén kívül élő magyarság helyzetéről ( Memento of December 10, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- slovak statistic portal ( Memento of November 14, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
- Stephan Löwenstein: Entitlement to all Hungarians. FAZ of May 20, 2014, p. 8.
- Population of Austria in 2001 by colloquial language, nationality and country of birth (PDF)
- Croatian Central Statistical Office (CroStat), 2001 census
- Martin Eggers: Contributions to the formation of tribes and land acquisition of the Hungarians. Part 2: Hungarian tribal formation. In: Ungarn-Jahrbuch , Volume 23, 1997/1998, pp. 1–64, on pp. 2–3.
- Nora Berend, Przemysław Urbańczyk, Przemysław Wiszewski: Central Europe in the High Middle Ages. Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, c. 900-c. 1300. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge / New York 2013, Chapter Hungarian 'pre-history' or 'ethnogenesis' , pp. 61–82.
Nándor Dreisziger: When did Hungarians Settle In Their Present Homeland? Thoughts on the Dual Conquest Theory of Hungarian Ethnogenesis. In SJ Magyaródy: Hungary and the Hungarians. Matthias Corvinus Publishers, Buffalo (NY) 2012, pp. 212-218.
The same: The Hungarian Conquest of the Carpathian Basin, ca. 895-900. The Controversies Continue. In: Journal of Eurasian Studies , Volume 5, No. 2, 2013, pp. 30–42.
- Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, 1999, p. 19.
- Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, 1999, p. 13.
- Reinhold Vetter: Hungary. A country portrait. Ch.links Verlag, Berlin 2012, p. 119.
- Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, 1999, p. 16.
- Quoted from Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, 1999, p. 17.
- Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, 1999, pp. 17-18.
- Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, 1999, p. 18.
- Martin Eggers: Contributions to the formation of tribes and land acquisition of the Hungarians. Part 2: Hungarian tribal formation. In: Hungary Yearbook , Volume 23, 1997/1998, pp. 1–64.
- See Warren Treadgold: A History of the Byzantine State and Society , Stanford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8047-2630-2 ; Constantin Jireček : Chapter VIII. The Car Symeon. In: History of the Bulgarians , Georg Olm Verlag, 1977 (Orig .: Verlag von F. Tempsky, Prague 1876); Lexicon of the Middle Ages , Volume 2, p. 918.
- Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, 1999, p. 20.
- See Harald Roth (Hrsg.): Study Guide Eastern Europe. Volume 1: History of East Central and Southeastern Europe , Böhlau, Cologne 1999, ISBN 978-3-412-13998-8 .
- Akadémiai Verlag (Ed.): Magyar Néprajzi Lexikon . ISBN 963-05-1285-8 (Hungarian, mek.niif.hu ).
György Györffi: Hungary from 895 to 1400. In Jan A. van Houtte (ed.): European Economic and Social History in the Middle Ages. (= Handbook of European Economic and Social History, Volume 2) Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-12-904740-9 , pp. 625–655, on p. 627.
Rudolf Andorka: Introduction to sociological analysis of society. A study book on Hungarian society in European comparison. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2001, ISBN 3-8100-2548-8 , p. 250.
- Martin Eggers: Contributions to the formation of tribes and land acquisition of the Hungarians. Part 2: The Hungarian conquest. In: Hungary Yearbook , Volume 25, 2000/2001, pp. 1–34.
- Nándor Dreisziger: The Székely - Ancestors of Today's Hungarians? A New Twist to Magyar Prehistory. In: Hungarian Studies Review , Volume XXXVI, No. 1–2 (2009), pp. 153–169, at p. 159.
- Nándor Dreisziger: Church and Society in Hungary and in the Hungarian diaspora. University of Toronto Press, Toronto / Buffalo / London 2016, p. 9.
- J. Chambers: The Devil's Horsemen: the Mongol Invasion of Europe , London, 1979
- Gerhard Herm : The Balkans. The powder keg of Europe. Econ Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf u. a. 1993, ISBN 978-3-430-14445-2 , p. 315.
- Edit Szegedi: Historical awareness and group identity. The historiography of the Transylvanian Saxons between the Baroque and the Enlightenment. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2002, pp. 392, 407.
- Michael Mitterauer , Viktoria Djafari-Arnold: No problem for Attila and Leila? For naming in bicultural families. In: Traditions of naming. Onomatology as an interdisciplinary research area. at pp. 203-218, pp. 207-208.
- Klaus Rosen: Attila. The horror of the world. CH Beck, Munich 2016, p. 14.
- 2,381 Hungarians want to be regarded as descendants of the Huns. derStandard.at, January 7, 2005.
- Reinhold Vetter: Hungary. A country portrait. Ch.links Verlag, Berlin 2012, p. 119.