Neumarkt am Mieresch
|Historical region :||Transylvania|
|Time zone :||EET ( UTC +2)|
|Area :||50 km²|
|Residents :||127,849 (October 20, 2011)|
|Population density :||2,557 inhabitants per km²|
|Postal code :||540xxx|
|Telephone code :||(+40) 02 65|
|License plate :||MS|
|Structure and administration (as of 2016)|
|Community type :||Municipality|
|Structure :||2 districts / cadastral communities: Mureșeni , Remetea|
|Mayor :||Dorin Florea (independent)|
|Postal address :||Piața Victoriei, no. 3
loc. Târgu Mureș, jud. Mureș, RO-540026
Târgu Mureș [ ˈtɨrɡu ˈmureʃ ] (older spelling Tîrgu Mureș ; German Neumarkt am Mieresch , Hungarian Marosvásárhely [ ˈmɒroʃvaːʃaːrhɛj ]) is a city in Transylvania , Romania . It is the capital of the Mureș County .
Târgu Mureș is located on the Mureș River (German Mieresch , Hungarian Maros ) in the historical Maros-Torda County . The area is characterized by mountains and forests. In addition to some lakes, streams and rivers such as the Mureș, there are also underground waters.
The continental temperate climate creates large seasonal temperature fluctuations with hot, dry summers and cold winters.
Târgu Mureș was founded by the Szeklers . It is mentioned in documents in 1300 as Forum Siculorum and in 1332 as Novum Forum Siculorum . The history of the city, like the whole of Transylvania, was determined by the Kingdom of Hungary , the Principality of Transylvania and, from the end of the 17th century, by the Habsburg Monarchy , later Hungary and then Romania. In 1482 the place received the right to hold markets. The first school is mentioned in 1492. The Transylvanian state parliaments have often taken place here since the 15th century. In 1571, on one of these diets, freedom of belief was declared for the Principality of Transylvania. Around 1600 the city suffered several times from incursions by Turkish and Austrian troops. The castle was built between 1605 and 1652.
In the 19th century the city began to industrialize; In 1871, Târgu Mureș was connected to the railway network when the Alba Iulia railway was put into operation.
In 1918 (contractually agreed in 1920) the city became part of Romania. As a result of the Second Vienna Arbitration Award , Târgu Mureș became part of Hungary again from 1940 to 1944. After the communist seizure of power as a result of the Second World War, the industrial settlement was forced; Large companies emerged in the chemical, mechanical engineering, food and wood processing industries.
In March 1990 there were ethnic riots in Tîrgu Mureș .
In 1850 only 7855 people lived in the city, 80% of them Hungarians. In 1910, the 22,790 (89.3%) Hungarians lived in the city, which at that time still belonged to Hungary, 1717 Romanians (= 6.7%) and 606 Germans (= 2.4%), totaling 25,517 inhabitants. In the first census under Romanian rule (1920), 3246 citizens (i.e. more than 10%) identified themselves as Jews. In 1941 - under Hungarian rule in the meantime - 44,933 people lived in the city, of whom only 1756 referred to themselves as Romanians (compared to 9795 in 1930), which was based on the flight of some Romanians, but above all on a tactically justified change in the stated nationality . Only 514 Jews were registered. In 1948 there were again 762 Jews living in Târgu Mureș , both survivors of the municipality and newcomers from other parts of Romania.
In the period after the Second World War, there was a serious shift in the ethnic composition of the city: in 2002, 63,673 of the 128,612 inhabitants were Romanians (= 49.5%) and 61,707 Hungarians ( Szekler ) (= 48.0%). This makes Târgu Mureș the place with the numerically largest Hungarian minority in all of Transylvania and Romania.
Economy and education
There are the following universities in Târgu Mureș:
- University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Natural Sciences and Technology Târgu Mureș The former University of Petru Maior was integrated into the UMFST in 2018.
- Târgu Mureș University of the Arts
- Ecological University Dimitrie Cantemir
- Sapientia, Technical and Humanistic University
Culture and sights
- The Palace of Culture ( Palatul Culturii ), built from 1911 to 1913 in the Hungarian Art Nouveau style - today also the seat of the Philharmonic - has majolica bricks. The facade as well as the interior are decorated with colorful mosaics . There is a magnificent hall of mirrors in the palace. The building also houses an interesting history and art museum and is a listed building.
- The town hall ( Primăria ) was built 1936–1942 in the Romanian Brâncoveanu style .
- The Teleki Bolyai Library , built in the Baroque style between 1799 and 1803, is one of the most important libraries in Transylvania. Many valuable old books can be seen here. In the library there is also a museum that commemorates Farkas and János Bolyai and is a listed building.
- The origins of the Reformed Church go back to the 14th century. The Orthodox Cathedral ( Catedrala Ortodoxă ) , built after the annexation to Romania, is impressive . Not far from this is the catholic church, which is well worth seeing.
- The facade of the synagogue ( Sinagoga ) from 1899–1900 with a large central rose window is highlighted by two corner towers. The main room with side galleries is covered by a dome over an octagonal base.
- The medieval castle with the reformed church, built in the 15th century, is a listed building.
- The Roman Catholic Church Sf. Anton der Minoriten , built 1740–1767 and the Minoriten monastery built in 1750 and renovated in 1903, are listed as historical monuments.
- The wooden church Sf. Arhanghel Mihail , built in 1793 and renovated in 1814, is a listed building.
The city has an international airport (Transilvania Airport) with direct flights to many European destinations: Budapest , Karlsruhe , Dortmund , Frankfurt-Hahn , Madrid-Barajas , Milan-Bergamo , Memmingen , London Luton , Paris-Beauvais and Rome-Ciampino . Since 2011, Târgu Mureș has been an operational base of the low-cost airline Wizz Air .
The municipal company Transport Local S.A. operates the city and suburbs bus routes. The Maros-Torda small train runs in and around Târgu Mureş .
Târgu Mureș is via the European route E 60 from the direction of Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg) ; Coming from Reghin (Sächsisch-Regen) via the national road DN 15 , it is connected to the E 578 , which is connected to the international trunk road network. As part of the construction of the A3 motorway (Autostrada Transilvania) , the city will also be connected to the motorway network.
Sons and daughters
- Petru Maior (1754–1821), theologian, historian, Romanist
- Gyula Ostenburg-Morawek (1884–1944), officer
- Alexandru Schwartz (1909–1994), football player
- Ludovic Csupor (1911–1985), Communist Party leader of the Hungarian Autonomous Region
- Gertrud Stephani-Klein (1914–1995), children's book author and publicist
- Tibor Diamantstein (1925-1995), immunologist
- Alexandru Nilca (* 1945), fencer
- Uri Mayer (* 1946), conductor and violist
- Ladislau Șimon (1951-2005), wrestler
- László Bölöni (* 1953), footballer
- Attila Bartis (* 1968), writer and photographer
- Olga Nemes (* 1968), table tennis player
- György Dragomán (* 1973), writer and translator
- Kinga Dobay (* 1975), opera singer
- Sabin Tambrea (* 1984), actor and musician
- Cristian Codrin Gherhard (* 1989), handball player and model
- Mónika Sinka (* 1989), soccer player
- Zsuzsánna Sinka (* 1989), soccer player
- Hunor Szőcs (* 1992), table tennis player
- Bernadette Szőcs (* 1995), table tennis player
- Ilinca (* 1998), singer
Personalities who have worked in the city
- Georg von Aranka (1737–1817), writer and lawyer, assessor
- Farkas Wolfgang Bolyai (1775-1856), mathematician
- János Bolyai (1802–1860), mathematician
- Alexandru Todea (1912-2002), bishop
- András Sütő (1927–2006), writer
Information from the official website of Târgu Mureș:
- IX. Budapest District in Budapest ( Hungary )
- Baja in Hungary
- Bournemouth in England
- Chișinău in the Republic of Moldova
- East Renfrewshire in England
- Güzelçamlı near Kuşadası in Turkey
- Ilmenau in Germany
- Kecskemét in Hungary
- Szeged in Hungary
- Zalaegerszeg in Hungary
- elections 2016 in Romania ( MS Excel ; 256 kB)
- City website, accessed November 3, 2009
- 2002 census, accessed on November 3, 2009 (PDF; 1.2 MB)
- Târgu Mureș University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Natural Sciences and Technology
- Web presentation of the University of Petru Maior
- Web presentation of the University of the Arts Târgu Mureș
- Web presentation of the Ecological University Dimitrie Cantemir ( Memento of the original from July 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Web presentation of the University of Sapientia
- List of historical monuments of the Romanian Ministry of Culture, updated 2010 (PDF; 7.10 MB)
- Information on the airport website ( Memento of the original from December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. accessed on November 30, 2015 (Romanian)
- cities of Târgu Mureș