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Coat of arms of Ploieşti
Ploiești (Romania)
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Basic data
State : RomaniaRomania Romania
Historical region : Great Wallachia
Circle : Prahova
Coordinates : 44 ° 56 '  N , 26 ° 1'  E Coordinates: 44 ° 56 '19 "  N , 26 ° 1' 21"  E
Time zone : EET ( UTC +2)
Height : 160  m
Area : 58.2  km²
Residents : 209,945 (October 20, 2011)
Population density : 3,607 inhabitants per km²
Postal code : 100xxx
Telephone code : (+40) 02 44
License plate : PH
Structure and administration (as of 2016)
Community type : Municipality
Mayor : Adrian-Florin Dobre ( PNL )
Postal address : B-dl Republicii, no. 2
loc. Ploieşti, jud. Prahova, RO-100008
Website :

Ploieşti [ ploˈjeʃtʲ ] (outdated also Ploeşti ) is a large city in Romania with about 230,000 inhabitants in the administrative urban area and about 300,000 inhabitants in the urban agglomeration . The city is the administrative seat of the district ( Romanian Județ ) Prahova .


Ploieşti is located in the Wallachian Plain (Câmpia Română) at the southern foot of the Carpathian Mountains between the river valleys of the Prahova and Teleajen and about 60 kilometers north of the Romanian capital Bucharest .


The region has been discontinuously settled since prehistoric times. Permanent settlement has probably existed since the late Middle Ages, when shepherds settled here on the sheep drive from the mountains. The name of the city is probably due to a garrison of border soldiers ( Romanian : plăieșii , singular: plăiaș : border hunters, border soldiers).

Modern times

The first documentary mention was made in 1596 during the reign of Prince Mihai Viteazul (Michael the Brave) , under which the town gained city ​​rights . He gained military importance through the garrison, economic importance through the wool trade and the trade in grain and other agricultural products. In 1774 Alexandru Ipsilanti assigned the previously vacant place to a boyar as an hereditary estate, which led to small wars that only ended with the establishment of the Principality of Romania.

In the 19th century, oil production began near the city . The first refinery was established in Ploieşti in 1855. In 1864 the road between Ploieşti and Braşov (Kronstadt) was opened. In 1872 the Bucharest – Galați – Roman railway through Ploiesti was put into operation. In 1879 there was a connection to Brașov , which at that time still belonged to Hungary. Mechanical drilling methods had been in use since around 1890, oil production increased considerably and industrialization was hasty with poor working-class neighborhoods on the periphery and industrial mansions in the center.

In 1870 the " Republic of Ploieşti " , which lasted only one day, was proclaimed, a revolt against the monarchy of Charles I.

During the First World War, the oil wells were shut down by British sabotage, but were repaired by the Central Powers that occupied Romania.

Second World War

The refinery after a US Air Force bombing on August 1, 1943.

Battle for the oil plants

During the Second World War , the oil fields and refineries of Ploieşti were one of the most important sources of raw materials for the German Empire . On August 1, 1943, American planes bombed the production facilities and refineries during Operation Tidal Wave . This was followed by further area bombing by the United States Army Air Forces and the Royal Air Force as part of the air raids on Ploieşti , which at times severely damaged the oil systems and required frequent repairs. The total production capacity eventually dropped to 50%. The last air raid took place on August 19, 1944. On August 23, 1944, Romania carried out a political and military turnaround after the royal coup, as a result of which the German troops left the country. On August 24, 1944, the oil facilities were captured by the Red Army .

The American air force lost 230 aircraft and 1,550 flight personnel in the air raids, and 1,700 US soldiers were captured. The Romanian side had 800 casualties and 750 civilians wounded, 9,000 houses and buildings were destroyed and 23,000 people were homeless.

Number of Jewish residents in Ploieşti
year Jews
1930 3843
1941 3596
1942 2075
1943 1200
1944 760
1947 3000

Persecution of Jews in Ploieşti

34 percent of the city's Jews, who made up 5 percent of the population, were engaged in trade. The remainder worked in liberal professions or were employed in banking, medical fields, and industry. The Jews were an important segment of the population and mostly belonged to the middle class. In addition to the other reprisals of the fascist leadership of the state , the danger of sabotage was justification for the evacuation of many Jews from the city. 1172 male Jews were interned in the camp near Teiş (Dâmbovița) , many of them were later transferred to the camp in Găeşti . In 1941 the property of Jews was nationalized. In the same year, the internees and other displaced persons were initially released to rural areas, where they were again subjected to reprisals and forced labor through local initiatives. At the time of Operation Tidal Wave there were 1,200 Jews in the city; at the end of the war, the number was 760.

On November 10, 1940, the area was struck by an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.4 on the Richter scale . On the following day, Jews were called in to clean up. On the same day, 60 Jews were arrested and tortured by the police during a service. Eleven from this group were shot dead on November 27th against orders to the contrary. During the coup attempt by the far-right Iron Guard between January 21 and 23, 1941, the synagogues in Ploiesti were destroyed.

Of track systems Ploiesti Triaj came Jewish labor battalion Ploiesti in a labor camp used. Between June 1941 and February 1942 around 20 to 30 Jews from the city were drafted and exchanged for work on a monthly basis.


In the course of a wave of refugees from northern Romania to the area of ​​the city, there was a food shortage in Ploieşti after August 30, 1940. After a wave of air raids in April 1944, up to 85 percent of the city's population fled. During this time only the most necessary administrative tasks were carried out in the city.


Ploieşti (red square) - Romania - Neighboring towns: Buzău , Braşov , Piteşti , Târgovişte , Bucharest

The city council of Ploieşti, which was elected in 2016, consists of 27 elected representatives with the following party affiliations:

Political party Seats
Partidul Social Democrat (Social Democratic Party) 11
Partidul Național Liberal (National Liberal Party) 10
Partidul Alianța Liberalilor și Democraților (Liberal-Democratic Alliance) 4th
Partidul Mișcarea Populară (Popular Movement Party) 2


The population grew faster than most of the country's larger cities. The rapid population growth in the middle of the 19th and again in the middle of the 20th century is related to the oil boom after 1850 and the multifaceted industrial development of the city in the 1960s. Since around 1992 - with the diminishing importance of petrochemicals - and increasingly since 2010 - mainly due to emigration to Western Europe - the population has been falling again.

Among the approximately 77,000 inhabitants in 1930 were predominantly Romanians , besides about 3800 Jews , 1600 Hungarians , 1300 Germans and 1000 Roma . At the 2002 census, the city had 232,527 residents, including around 225,600 Romanians, 5900 Roma, 200 Hungarians and 100 Germans, Greeks and Turks. In 2009 the number of inhabitants was 229,285.

Population development of Ploieşti
year Residents
1810 2,024
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1899 (census)
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1912 (census)
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1930 (census)
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1992 (census)
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2002 (census)
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Town twinning

Ploieşti maintains twinning partnerships with the following cities:


Palatul Culturii built as Palatul Justiției by Toma Socolescu
  • The princely church was built in 1639 under the Wallachian prince Matei Basarab .
  • The house of Hagi Prodan ( Casa Hagi Prodan , 1785) is the oldest secular building in the city and a typical example of old Romanian architecture with oriental elements, a covered porch and carved wooden columns and is used as a museum.
  • The Casa Dobrescu (late 18th century) is now a museum for the writer Ion Luca Caragiale (1852–1912).
  • The clock and oil museum are located in two villas from the 19th century.
  • The Statue of Liberty (Statuia Libertății) , a representation of Minerva as a symbol of freedom, was donated to the city by France and erected in 1881.
  • Today's Palace of Culture in the city center was built between 1912 and 1918 in neoclassical style as a palace of justice.
  • The Paul Constantinescu Philharmonic is home to the city's internationally renowned Philharmonic Orchestra.
  • The central market hall ( Halele centrale , 1930-1935) with a monumental dome and a clock tower was built in the regionalizing style of brick and concrete.

Economy and Infrastructure

Sud station

The city is the center of Romania's oil production and industry, including Romania's largest oil refinery in Brazi just south of the city. Also OMV Petrom , Lukoil and Shell operate refineries. The large food companies located here include British American Tobacco , Coca-Cola , Efes , Interbrew and Unilever . There are also textile, metal and armaments companies, such as Electromecanica Ploieşti .


Ploieşti is one of the main railway hubs in the country with two main passenger train stations (Ploieşti Vest and Ploieşti Sud) and the Ploieşti Triaj marshalling yard . Local public transport in Ploieşti is ensured by the frequent trams, as well as by buses and trolleybuses of the RATP (Regia Autonomă de Transport Public) .


Ploieşti is the location of the Universitatea Petrol-Gaze ​​din Ploieşti ( Oil and Gas University Ploieşti ), a technical university with teaching and research focus in the fields of mining, mineral oil production and processing as well as energy technology.


Ploieşti is home to the Romanian basketball series champions CSU Asesoft Ploieşti . There is also a horse racing track called Hipodrom Ploieşti where gallop and trotting races take place.


sons and daughters of the town

People who worked on site

  • Berl Broder (1815–1868), Yiddish folk singer, died in Ploieşti
  • Ion Luca Caragiale (1852–1912), writer, born in Haimanale, Prahova County, graduated from the St. Peter and Paul Lyceum in Ploiesti. He later named the city of Ploiesti as his hometown out of affection.
  • Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (1855–1920), one of the founders of the socialist movement in Romania. Lived in Ploiesti for a while.
  • Nicolae Iorga (1871-1940), historian, writer and politician, died in Ploieşti
  • Constantin Ion Parhon (1874–1969), endocrinologist. First Chairman of the Grand Romanian National Assembly (head of the state) between 1947 and 1952. He studied at the well-known St. Peter and Paul Lyceum in Ploieşti.
  • Vasile Paraschiv (1928–2011), activist and dissident, died in Ploieşti
  • Maria Albuleț (1932–2005), chess player, died in Ploieşti
  • Bujorel Mocanu (1962–2011), football player and coach, died in Ploieşti

Web links

Commons : Ploiești  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. 2011 census in Romania at
  2. ↑ Mayoral elections 2016 in Romania ( MS Excel ; 256 kB)
  3. Mihail Sevastos: Monografia orasului Ploesti. Cartea Româneascǎ, 1937 p. 952
  4. ^ Pál Hunfalvy: The Romanians and their claims . Techen, K. Prochaska, 1883. p. 3
  5. Frederic Gümmer: The role of underground relocation in German armaments production 1943-1945 . GRIN Verlag, 2008. p. 47. ISBN 978-3-638-92393-4
  6. a b (PDF; 2.3 MB), Central European University , Marin Sorin: The Social Consequences of the 1944 Anglo-American Bombing of Ploiești: A Grassroots Perspective. Budapest 2008, accessed on March 26, 2011.
  7. Pinkas Hakehillot: Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities, Romania, Volume 1 . Yad Vashem, Jerusalem 1969, p. 218-224 .
  8. a b c d e Laura Christina Geală: Istoricul communicății evreilor din Ploieşti . Bucharest 2008, p. 282 (Romanian).
  9. Mihail Sevastos: Monografia orasului Ploiesti . Cartea Româneasca, Bucharest 1937, p. 282 (Romanian).
  10. ^ Dino C. Giurescu: România în al doilea război mondial (1939-1945) . All Educational, Bucharest 1999, ISBN 973-684-036-0 , pp. 310 (Romanian).
  11. Ion C. Butnaru: The silent Holocaust: Romania and Its Jews, Volume 31 of "Contributions to the study of world history" and "Reference Guides to the State Constitutions of the United States" . Greenwood Publishing Group, 1992, ISBN 0-313-27985-3 , pp. 76/77 (English, ).
  12. ^ Radu Ioanid: The Holocaust in Romania: the destruction of Jews and Gypsies under the Antonescu regime, 1940-1944 . Ivan R. Dee, 2000, ISBN 1-56663-256-0 , pp. 46 (English).
  13. ^ , Foundation "Remembrance, Responsibility and Future" : Jewish Labor Battalion Ploieşti. October 23, 2002, accessed March 26, 2011.
  14. ^ Map of the 1930 census , accessed on August 12, 2009
  15. 2002 census (Hungarian), accessed on August 12, 2009.
  16. , Romania, as of January 2009.
  17. The Clock Museum in the web presentation of Ploieşti accessed on December 7, 2015 (Romanian).
  18. The Petroleum Museum in the web presentation of Ploieşti accessed on December 7, 2015 (Romanian).
  19. ^ Clubul Sportiv Municipal Ploieşti: Hipodrom. Retrieved January 2, 2018 (Romanian).
  20. ^ Marius Dobrin: Take Ionescu a great European and a democrat.
  21. Nichita Stănescu on the website of the Romanian Academy.