|Historical region :||Transylvania|
|Time zone :||EET ( UTC +2)|
|Area :||58.83 km²|
|Residents :||61,123 (October 20, 2011)|
|Population density :||1,039 inhabitants per km²|
|Postal code :||330005-330260|
|Telephone code :||(+40) 02 54|
|License plate :||HD|
|Structure and administration (as of 2016)|
|Community type :||Municipality|
|Structure :||Deva, Archia , Bârcea Mică , Cristur , Sântuhalm|
|Mayor :||Mirica Muntean ( PSR )|
|Postal address :||Piața Unirii, no. 4
orașul Deva, jud. Hunedoara, RO-330152
|City Festival :||Folk festival, the 3rd weekend in January|
The place was also mentioned under the German names Schlossberg and Denburg .
The city of Deva is located on the left bank of the Mureș ( Mieresch ), south of the Transylvanian Ore Mountains in the historical region of Hunyad County ( iron market ). In the northern half of the Hunedoara district, on the European route 68 and the Arad – Alba Iulia railway line , the city lies at the foot of a volcanic cone - which dominates the city center - on which the ruins of the former castle of Deva stand.
Construction of the 36-kilometer-long Deva – Brad line began in 1939, interrupted in 1945 and resumed in 1979. After the railway line went into operation in the early 1980s, it was largely shut down in 1996 due to unsuitable soil conditions in the area of the municipality of Vălișoara . Today the railway line is only used for the transport of stones from the nearby quarries.
After the castle was built in the 13th century, Deva was first mentioned in documents in 1332. In the 14th century it became the administrative center of Hunyad County. Settling the region is sufficient - according to reports by C. Gooss , G. Téglás , JM Ackner , I. Andrieşescu , O. Floca , and others. a. - back to Roman and Neolithic times.
The Transylvanian Saxons were among the first to immigrate to today's settlement . In the 16th century - at the time of the Turkish wars - the place suffered several devastating destruction. In the 18th century, most of the residents were Romanian servants . Deva many came Hungary and Romanians from other regions of Transylvania and from the from the Turks conquered Banat ; the latter later founded the district of La Șvabi ("with the Swabians"). In 1721 it was Catholic Bulgarians from Little Wallachia who settled in Deva. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the Chango Hungarians from the Moldova also settled here .
The population of Deva developed as follows:
The highest number of inhabitants (78,438) in the area of today's municipality - and at the same time that of the Romanians (69,446) - was determined in 1992. The highest population of Germans and Hungarians was registered in 1977 and that of Roma (878) in 2002.
Furthermore, in almost every census, some residents identified themselves as Ukrainians (highest population 30 in 1992), Serbs (highest population 40 in 1992) and Slovaks (highest population 54 in 1930).
- The ruins of Deva Castle - one of the strongest fortresses in Transylvania - on a volcanic cone 371 m above sea level. M. This was mentioned for the first time in 1269 and in 1321, together with the surrounding area, was an estate of the Hungarian King Charles I. It came into the possession of Johann Hunyadi in the 15th century . After the uprisings of the Kuruc from 1687 to 1706 it was taken over by the troops of Emperor Charles VI. occupied and renovated. Participants in the Horea uprising failed in November 1784 when attempting to take the castle. After a visit by Emperor Franz I in 1817, it was renovated again and after the gunpowder explosion in 1849 it was finally abandoned with soldiers killed. The ruins can be reached on foot or with a 278-meter-long inclined elevator .
- The Magna Curia Castle , built in the 16th century in the Renaissance style, restored by the Transylvanian Prince Gábor Bethlen in 1621, was rebuilt in the Baroque style in the 18th century . Before that, there was a castle courtyard from the 13th century, which was destroyed by the Mongol storm of 1241. Since 1882 is here that from the former "Muzeul Judeţean" ( Kreismuseum emerged) Museum of Dacian and Roman Civilization ( Muzeul Civilizatiei Dacice şi novels ). The museum houses archaeological collections from prehistory, early history , the Dacian , Roman and the Migration Period and the early Middle Ages , as well as numismatic collections, arts and crafts collections, ethnological objects (such as costumes, tools, ceramics and icons ), as well as scientific objects , especially paleontological collections. Its library contains more than 40,000 volumes. The busts of Horia , Cloşca and Crişan - the leaders of the Horea uprising - can also be seen here.
- The Franciscan monastery and the Catholic church , both baroque buildings, built in the 18th century, are under monument protection.
- Two monuments of the Dacer king Decebalus and that of the Roman emperor Trajan in front of the town hall of Deva.
- The tower of an Orthodox church in the Orthodox cemetery, built in 1700, is a listed building.
- Since 1978 the national center for women's gymnastics has been located in Deva. Here trained u. a. the Olympic champions Ecaterina Szabó , Lavinia Agache , Daniela Silivaș , Lavinia Miloșovici , Simona Amânar , Maria Olaru , Andreea Răducan , Daniela Șofronie and Monica Roșu .
- The local soccer team Mureşul Deva won a season in the third Romanian league that was internationally acclaimed because of the curious outcome .
- Franz Davidis (1510–1579), Unitarian theologian, died on the Deva fortress
- Johann Sigismund Zápolya or Szapolyai János Zsigmond (1540–1571), former King of Hungary, buried in Deva
- Franz Nopcsa (1877–1933), scientist, born in Deva
- Petru Groza (1884–1958), Prime Minister in the first communist government, founded the Ploughers' Front ("Frontul Plugarilor") in Deva in 1933
- Nicolae Irimie (1890–1971), painter, born and died in Deva
- Iulia Cibișescu-Duran (* 1966), composer
- Daniela Silivaș (* 1972), gymnast, three-time Olympic champion
- Maria Neculiță (* 1974), artistic gymnast
- Raluka (* 1989), singer
- Lidia Buble (* 1993), singer
- Florentina Iușco (* 1996), athlete
Information from the official Deva homepage:
- Arras in France since June 1, 1998
- Yancheng in China since November 12, 1998
- Szigetvár in Hungary since March 15, 2001
- Cherbourg-en-Cotentin in France since 2004
- 2011 census in Romania at citypopulation.de
- elections 2016 in Romania ( MS Excel ; 256 kB)
- Dictionary of localities from Transylvania
- Information on the Deva – Brad railway line on forumtrenuri.com; accessed December 12, 2010 (Romanian)
- The Deva – Brad railway line, sold as old iron . accessed on April 14, 2011 (Romanian)
- Heinz Heltmann, Gustav Servatius (ed.): Travel Guide Siebenbürgen. Kraft, Würzburg 1993, ISBN 3-8083-2019-2 .
- Institute Of Archeology - Deva accessed on December 11, 2010 (Romanian)
- Census, last updated November 2, 2008, (PDF; 1.1 MB) p. 2 (Hungarian)
- Muzeul Civilizaţiei Dacice şi Romane on the Poarta către patrimoniul cultural al Românieides website of the Institutul Național al Patrimoniului (Romanian), accessed on March 18, 2019.
- Official website of the museum (Romanian), accessed on March 18, 2019.
- Bust of Horea , Cloșca and Crișan
- List of historical monuments of the Romanian Ministry of Culture, updated 2010 (PDF; 7.10 MB)
- Statue of the Roman emperor Trajan in front of the town hall
- Pictures and information about the tower ( Memento of the original from February 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Ministry of Culture of Hunedoara County; Retrieved December 25, 2010
- Deva, capitala lumii ... la gimnastică .
- Gimnastică artistică ( Memento from April 16, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
- Teodora Stefanov: Concert with problem for Lidia Buble. She needed a doctor , accessed on May 30, 2016 at click.ro on August 28, 2016 (Romanian)
- Deva website