|Historical region :||Transylvania|
|Time zone :||EET ( UTC +2)|
|Area :||38.62 km²|
|Residents :||18,227 (October 20, 2011)|
|Population density :||472 inhabitants per km²|
|Postal code :||335700|
|Telephone code :||(+40) 02 54|
|License plate :||HD|
|Structure and administration (as of 2016)|
|Community type :||Municipality|
|Mayor :||Ovidiu-Laurențiu Bălan ( PSD )|
|Postal address :||Piața Aurel Vlaicu, No. 3
loc. Orăștie, jud. Hunedoara, RO-335700
The small town of Orăştie is located in the south of the Transylvanian Basin , about 4 kilometers south of the Mureş River , north of the Șureanu Mountains (Mühlbacher Mountains) in the so-called Unterwald . At the mouth of the Sibișel in the Orăştie - a left tributary of the Mureș -, the European route 68 and the Arad – Alba Iulia railway line , the city is located about 30 kilometers east of the district capital Deva (Diemrich) .
The city was mentioned as early as 1224 in the golden charter of the Hungarian King Andreas II , the fundamental document that gave the German immigrants ( Transylvanian Saxons ) their special legal status. In the document, the place - still called Waras in Latin - is named as the westernmost point of the royal floor. Orăştie is located on the western edge of Transylvania and, as an administrative center, it was one of the historic seven chairs of the royal floor. Founded by Germans, in the Middle Ages the place was a center for craftsmen, especially the blacksmith and furrier guild. Not far from the village, near Unterbrodsdorf (today Șibot , Alba district ), the battle on the Brodfeld took place on October 13, 1479 on the banks of the Mureș . The place was then visited and plundered several times by the Turks.
Since Broos was also a spiritually and culturally important place for the Romanians living freely on the royal soil , the Palia (Palia de la Orăştie) - the first Romanian translation of the Old Testament - was printed here by Șerban Coresi in 1582 . In 1663 Prince Michael Apafi had a reformed school built; this became the local high school in 1910.
The population of Orăştie developed as follows:
The highest population and at the same time the largest number of ethnic Romanians since 1850 was determined in Orăştie 1992. The highest population of Germans (1,467) was registered in 1880 and that of Roma (988) in 2011. In 1900 and 1910, 80 and 78 inhabitants respectively knew each other as Czechs . Serbs (highest population 17 in 1930), Ukrainians (highest population 10 in 1992) and Slovaks (highest population 40 in 1930) were also registered in almost every census .
- Orăştie Castle, first mentioned in 1544, was conquered during the Turkish era in 1561 and renovated in 1631. Today the ruins of the castle can be seen in the center of the city.
- The fortified church , built at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century, is a listed building. Enclosed by a wall, the churches of the Protestant community AB (German preaching language) and those of the Reformed community (Hungarian preaching language) stand side by side.
- The Reformed Church - a former Romanesque basilica - built in the 14th century, was converted into a Gothic one in the 16th century . After the church tower fell apart (1839), it was rebuilt in 1752 or 1840–1843 (according to different statements). The church has the largest choir of any church in Transylvania.
- In 1820 the Protestant church was built next to the reformed one, and the tower from 1839–1842.
- The synagogue, built in the 18th century, is a listed building.
- The ruins of the Romanian Greek Catholic Church , which was destroyed by fire in 1810 and built in the 18th century, is a listed building. In 1935 the Greek Catholic parish built a new church, but had to surrender it to the Orthodox parish after the communist regime of Romania banned it from exercising its faith . At the end of 2000, the parish began again with the construction of a church, which was completed in 2008.
- The Roman Catholic church Mănăstirea Franciscană , built in the 13th century, was destroyed in the Turkish times and also by fire, rebuilt in the 18th century and is a listed building.
- The Adormirea Maicii Domnului Orthodox Church , built in the 17th century, is a listed building.
- The Orthodox Cathedral Sf. Arhangheli Mihail şi Gavriil , with impressive frescoes , was built in the interwar period (from 1936) and inaugurated on September 2, 1945.
- The city's museum, opened in 1952 and redesigned in 1999, contains numerous archaeological finds from the region.
- In the center of the village is the statue of Burebista , King of the Dacians .
- Nicolaus Olahus (1493–1568), son of Stephan Olahus, the magistrate of Broos - spent his childhood here. The humanist wrote the historical and ethnographic work "Hungaria".
- Albert Amlacher (1847–1939) was a Protestant theologian, historian and writer.
- Carl Henning (1860–1917) was a doctor, inventor of the elastic Henning prosthesis (facial prosthesis) and poet
- Alois Lode (1866–1950), was professor of hygiene in Innsbruck , 1910/11 rector of the university
- András Szőllősy (1921–2007) was a composer and musicologist
Information from the official Orăștie website:
- Rahat in Israel since July 16, 1997
- Criuleni in the Republic of Moldova , since October 1998
- Fenouillet in France , since October 22, 1999
- Helmstedt in Germany, since (according to different information) June 17 or 24, 2002
- Sliedrecht in the Netherlands , since May 28, 2003
- Gerasa in Jordan , since September 1st, 2008
- 2011 census in Romania at citypopulation.de
- Dictionary of localities from Transylvania
- 2011 census in Romania ( MS Excel ; 1.3 MB)
- Census, last updated November 2, 2008, p. 11 (Hungarian; PDF; 1.1 MB)
- Orăștie website, Sights, accessed on December 28, 2010
- List of historical monuments of the Romanian Ministry of Culture, updated 2010 (PDF; 7.10 MB)
- Pictures and information about the fortified church on the website of the Ministry of Culture of the Hunedoara district, accessed on December 28, 2010 ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Heinz Heltmann, Gustav Servatius (Ed.): Travel Guide Siebenbürgen. Kraft, Würzburg 1993, ISBN 3-8083-2019-2 .
- Orăștie, Greek Catholic Church, website, accessed December 28, 2010
- Orăștie, Roman Catholic Church, website, accessed December 28, 2010
- Orăștie, Orthodox Church, website, accessed December 28, 2010
- Image of the Orthodox Cathedral ( Memento from August 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Orăștie website, personalities, accessed on December 28, 2010
- http://www.orastieinfo.ro/personalitati/albert_amlacher/albert_amlacher.html ( Memento from April 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (Romanian)
- Heinz Huber: History of the Medical Faculty Innsbruck and the Medical-Surgical College (1673–1938) . Böhlau, Vienna Cologne Weimar 2010, p. 243, digitized
- Orăștie website, partnerships, accessed on January 11, 2011
- Web presence of Helmstedt, Tourismus, accessed on January 11, 2011 ( Memento from June 10, 2013 in the Internet Archive )