Course of the Ob within its catchment area
|location||Russia : western Siberia|
|Drain over||Whether → Kara Sea|
|origin||Confluence of the Bija and Katun rivers near the city of Biysk
|muzzle||in the Obbusen ( Karasee )
|Height difference||162 m|
|Bottom slope||0.04 ‰|
|Catchment area||2,972,497 km²|
| Discharge at the Saleechard
A Eo gauge: 2,430,000 km²
Location: 287 km above the mouth
NNQ (March 1969)
HHQ (August 1979)
|2120 m³ / s
3,458.51 m³ / s
12,492.19 m³ / s
5.1 l / (s km²)
32,631.61 m³ / s
43,473 m³ / s
|Left tributaries||Irtysh , Vasyugan|
|Right tributaries||Ket , Tom , Tym , Awake|
|Reservoirs flowed through||Novosibirsk Reservoir|
|Big cities||Biysk , Barnaul , Novosibirsk , Nizhnevartovsk , Surgut|
|Medium-sized cities||Salekhard , Labytnangi|
|Ports||Barnaul, Novosibirsk, Nizhnevartovsk, Surgut, Labytnangi|
|Navigable||on the entire run|
Whether at Barnaul
Other names of the Ob are Mansi and Khanty Ас ( As , literally "big water"), Nenets Саля-ям ( Salja-Jam , literally "headlands River"), Selkup Колд (also Колтте, Колтту, Колта; according to Kold, Koltte , Kolttu, Kolta ), Куай (also Квай; corresponding to Kuai, Kwai; literally "soul"), Еме (also Ема, Эме; corresponding to Jeme, Jema, Eme; literally "mother"), Tatar Омар (also Умар, Эмар, Умар-Ыймар, Умар-Дьюмар; corresponding to Omar, Umar, Emar, Umar-Ymar, Umar-Djumar ) and teleutically Тойбодым ( Toibodym; literally "great river").
The Ob river is formed by the union of the two rivers Bija and Katun, coming from the Altai in southern Siberia, near the city of Biysk . It passes the city of Barnaul and flows into the Novosibirsk reservoir , at whose dam the city of Novosibirsk is located.
Then it flows in a north-westerly direction through the West Siberian lowlands . He passes the cities of Nizhnevartovsk , Surgut and Khanty-Mansiysk . After the last-mentioned city and about 300 km further north-west, the Ob is divided into the Big Ob and Little Ob (446 and 456 km long, respectively), which flow together again in a northerly direction - east of the Urals - before the North Siberian Salekhard .
From this city, where the Ob bends eastward to flow roughly parallel to the Arctic Circle , it is only a short distance by Russian-Siberian standards to its confluence with the Obbusen ( Обская губа , Obskaja guba ). This 750 km long and up to 70 km wide bay is no longer a river, but as an estuary already part of the Kara Sea , which in turn belongs to the Arctic Ocean ( Arctic Ocean ) . However, it has a strong current flowing northwards, driven by the large masses of water of the Ob.
The length of the ob can be measured in several ways:
- 3650 km = Whether without Katun (longest source river)
- 4338 km = Ob with Katun = Ob – Katun
- 5410 km = Irtysh –Ob = length of the Irtysh (4248 km) + length of the Ob-Unterlauf (1162 km)
Depending on the type of measurement, the Ob is in fourth, sixth, fifteenth or twenty-fourth position in the list of the longest rivers on earth .
To the 5410 km maximum river length (Irtysh – Ob) one can add the length of the 750 km long Obbus , the elongated estuary of the Ob, so that there is a total of 6160 km of flow from the source of the Irtysh to the north end of the estuary.
The catchment area of the Obs is 2,972,497 km² (more than 8.3 times the area of the Federal Republic of Germany ). Its longest tributary, the Irtysh, accounts for around 1,673,000 km² and its source rivers Bija and Katun around 37,000 and 70,000 km², respectively. The Ob river basin is the seventh largest in the world.
In addition to Russia, Kazakhstan , the People's Republic of China and Mongolia also have a share in the Ob's catchment area. The shares of China and Mongolia are limited to the Irtysh and its tributaries, while Kazakhstan also has a share of the Alei catchment area .
Around 85% of the Ob catchment area lies in the West Siberian Plain , only in the south and south-east the Ob flows through the upper reaches of the South Siberian high mountains of the Mongolian and Great Altai and the Kuznetsk Alatau as well as the low mountain range of the Salair Ridge .
The Ob flows through landscapes of the most diverse natural spatial conditions. From the deserts and semi-deserts in its headwaters over the steppe landscapes on its upper course and the swampy taiga landscape on its middle and lower course to the southern foothills of the forest tundra and tundra in the area of the mouth and the obbus, it crosses the typical continental vegetation on its course. and climatic zones of Central and North Asia .
|Catchment area of the Ob|
|Total area in km²||Country||Area share in km²||Percentage ownership %|
The Ob shows a typical nival discharge regime . With these, the runoff is mainly controlled by the snowmelt . Strong discharge peaks in spring and early summer and low water from late summer to the end of winter are therefore typical. On the upper reaches of the Ob, the nival runoff regime is still pronounced in the mountainous variant, but this soon changes into a nival regime in the lowlands.
The Ob in Barnaul, for example, has its lowest monthly discharge values in February with an average of around 281 m³ / s, the month with the highest discharge volumes is June with a good 3660 m³ / s, with a catchment area (total and effective) of 169,000 km² (average values 1922-2000). The lowest low water was measured in March 1956 with 191 m³ / s, the highest high water in June 1969 with 7080 m³ / s.
The amount of water near the estuary at Salekhard is around 3,460 m³ / s in March and 32,630 m³ / s after the snow melt in June (average values 1930–1999), with a catchment area of 295,000 km² in total or 243,000 km² effectively. The mean discharge here is 12,490 m³ / s. The lowest measured runoff values in Salekhard were 2,120 m³ / s in March 1969, the highest 43,470 m³ / s in August 1979.
In relation to its respective catchment area, the Ob has an average annual discharge rate of 8.81 l / (s · km²) on the upper reaches in Barnaul (average values 1936–1989) and 5.25 l / (s · km²) on the lower reaches in Salekhard ( Average values 1936–1994).
Ice drift and ice rush
The Ob is covered with ice for an average of 150 days a year on its upper reaches and an average of 220 days on the lower reaches. Ice rushes are very common in spring when the river's ice on its upper reaches and the snow in the catchment area in the south are already melting, but the middle and lower reaches are still frozen.
The ice dams piled up by the ice drift dam the river, and the water level can rise several meters in a very short time. These spring floods can flood the Ob valley to a width of over 40 km. In order to accelerate the breaking of the ice and prevent flooding, explosive charges are repeatedly dropped from the air onto the ice dams, for example in the Novosibirsk region.
The Irtysh, which is significantly longer at the confluence than the Ob with its source rivers, is its most important tributary . There are around 150,000 rivers in the entire Obs catchment area.
Looking downstream, the Ob is fed by these rivers, among others (first line: source rivers; with details of the catchment area in km², length in km and discharge in m³ / s):
|Left tributaries||Right tributaries|
The Ob river is one of the most important waterways for developing the north of Siberia, alongside the Yenisei in central Siberia and the Lena in eastern Siberia. The river is navigable on its upper course for an average of 190 days and on the lower course for 150 days of the year. In 1973 there were more than 260 ports and landing stages as well as more than 150 industrial quays in the Ob river system .
The most important ports on the Ob are Novosibirsk (founded in 1936), Surgut (1964) and Labytnangi (1948). The Ob mainly serves to transport goods such as logs , sawn timber , building materials , food and coal to and from the north. The railroad, for example the Trans-Siberian Railway , which crosses the Ob in Novosibirsk, and its branch lines take over the transport in the west-east direction . In addition to transporting goods, the Ob is also used for passenger transport, including long-haul routes in the area of the river and its tributaries, and for excursion boats.
In addition to its importance as an inland waterway , the Ob is also used to generate energy; the hydropower plant on the Novosibirsk reservoir , for example, supplies Novosibirsk with electricity. The annual usable amount of energy in the Ob river system was estimated at 250 GWh.
The approximately 50 species of fish found in the Ob, its tributaries and the Obbus form the basis of river fishing on the Ob. Occurring species are sturgeon , including, for example, the sterlet , pike , carp fish such as various rutilus and carassius species, aland and hazel , burbot , river perch and various salmon fish such as njelma and coregonus species such as muksun , great veal and peled vendace .
According to Greenpeace estimates, more than 125,000 tons of crude oil from the area of the West Siberian oil disaster flows into the Arctic Ocean every year. It cannot be ruled out for the future that the water of the extremely radioactively contaminated Karachay Lake will come into contact with the Ob via groundwater currents.
The Ob flows through the Novosibirsk reservoir (1,072 km², maximum 8.8 billion m³)
Places on the river
The largest cities on the river are the metropolis of Novosibirsk and the cities of Barnaul, Surgut and Nizhnevartovsk. Below are the most important places today or historically on the Ob, its tributaries or in the immediate vicinity with their affiliation to the federal subjects of Russia in the direction of flow:
|Federation subject||left bank||right bank|
Autonomous circle of
the Khanty and Mansi
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
Note: * mainly on the right bank
- Article Ob in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D083478~2a%3D~2b%3DOb
- Whether at the Saleechard gauge - hydrographic data at R-ArcticNET
- Malychina, SI: Наши реки (Our rivers) . In Природы Алтая (Prirody altaja) No. 1–2 (169–170), January – February 2010, p. 16
- Maloletko, A .: «Обь» - и «вода», и «душа», и «мать» ("Ob" - and "Water", and "Soul", and "Mother") . In: Аргументы и Факты ( Argumenty i Fakty ) ( Tomsk edition ) No. 5 (353)
- Ob . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon 1905 on zeno.org
- Article Obbusen in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D083287~2a%3DObbusen~2b%3DObbusen
- Article Irtysh in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D056573~2a%3DIrtysch~2b%3DIrtysch
- Article Bija in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D120496~2a%3DBija~2b%3DBija
- Article Katun in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D059999~2a%3DKatun~2b%3DKatun
- United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) : Ob River Basin. (PDF (1.7 MB)) In: Drainage Basins of the White Sea, Barents Sea and Kara Sea. Pp. 51–52 , accessed on June 18, 2011 (English, p. 51).
- Whether in the Encyclopædia Britannica (English)
- Whether at the Barnaul gauge - hydrographic data from R-ArcticNET
- UNESCO - Ob at Barnaul ( Memento of the original from November 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- UNESCO - Ob at Salekhard ( Memento of the original from November 24, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Ob on protown.ru (russ.)
- Whether in the State Water Directory of the Russian Federation (russ.)
- List of Inland Waterways of the Russian Federation (Government Ordinance of December 19, 2002, Russian)
- Article inland ports of the Ob-Irtysh Basin in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D083288~2a%3DBinnenh%C3%A4fen%20des%20Ob-Irtysch-Beckens~2b%3DBinnenh%C3%A4fen%20des%20Ob-Irtysch-Beckens
- Julia Ponomarewa: Leaks in Russian oil pipelines. in: Russia beyond the headlines (The Moscow News), August 30, 2012, on rbth.com