Finno-Ugric peoples

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Ural (Finno-Ugric and Samoyed) peoples

The term Finno-Ugric peoples (also Finno-Ugric peoples ) summarizes those peoples, populations or groups of people who used and use Finno-Ugric languages in the past and in the present . If one includes the linguistically related Samoyed peoples , one also speaks of the Uralic peoples or the Uralic family of peoples.

Common early history of the Urals

In a sense, the Finno-Ugric peoples share a common early history, but their later histories have been different. The ancestors of the Uralians (Finno-Ugrians and Samoyed ) most likely come from central or eastern Siberia . Linguistic, archaeological and genetic studies support an origin in eastern Siberia and a subsequent wandering about 2500 years ago. According to some historians, including the Finnish linguist Juha Janhunen , the Urals' original homeland is either between the Ob and Yenisei or near the Sayan Mountains between Russia and Mongolia.

The Uralians can be associated with indigenous peoples throughout northern Eurasia, including the Volga and Ural regions. The Jukagirs in northeast Eurasia also show strong evidence of cultural and linguistic contacts. There is much to suggest that in large parts of northern Eurasia there has been a continuity of Ural populations since the Neolithic cultures of the 3rd millennium BC. On the other hand, immigration, overlap and cultural influences from the Eurasian steppes are also visible. The peasant cultures of southern Europe Uralier expanded at the expense of hunters, collectors, Rentierzüchter- and fishing cultures of the northern Uralier (the ancestors of the seeds and Samoyed ) to the north. This process, which lasted for almost three millennia, continued in the early 20th century with the migration from Komi to the tundra east and west of the Urals.

The testimonies of the ancient Uralians or Finno-Ugrians are linked by archaeologists to groups of related (archaeological) cultures. In the 2nd millennium BC, these include the Bronze Age Posdnyakovsk culture and the Prikasansker culture in the greater area to the west and east of the Volga river system. In the last millennium BC, until about 300 BC. They are followed by the Iron Age Gorodetsko-Djakovsk culture and the Ananino culture . From these cultures the late antique and early medieval Finno-Ugrians emerged, about which reports can be found in written sources from the 1st millennium AD. The relatively closed Finno-Ugric settlement area in central and northern Eastern Europe was dissolved by the immigration of Baltic, Eastern Slavic and Turkic-speaking population groups and the adoption of their language by the long-established residents. Seen in this way, in addition to today's Finno-Ugric peoples such as the Finns , Magyars (Hungarians) and Estonians , parts of today's Scandinavians , Russians , Balts and the Turkic peoples of the Volga-Ural region can be considered ethnic descendants of the ancient Finno-Ugrians.

The Baltic Finns

The Baltic Sea Finns have been shaped by the border location between the Central and Northern European and Eastern European "cultural areas". They were under the rule of German knights , belonged to Sweden or Russia . The Protestant-influenced Finns and Estonians only achieved statehood in the 20th century. The ancestors of today's less than 1000 Livs gave Livonia their name and the majority of them were absorbed by the Latvians . The Ingrier (Ingermanlander, Ingrianland Finns) form an outer group of Finns . You live in Leningrad Oblast . Particular ethnic groups of the Estonians are the Võro -speaking South-Estonians and their linguistically related Christian-Orthodox Seto (Setu) .

The Baltic Sea Finns also include the small peoples of the Ischoren , Wepsen and Woten , who were shaped in the past by the Christian Orthodox tradition . The Karelians with their Subethnien (actual Karelian, Lüdier and Livvier or olonetzer Karelian) are now a minority in the belonging to Russia 's Republic of Karelia . The southern or Tver Karelians form an outer group. They live in the Tver region north of Moscow.

Finno-Ugric peoples and their neighbors in the early Middle Ages

The Finnish Tschuden and Wes played a role in the Nestor Chronicle, which was enriched with mythological elements . This historical work from the 12th century explains that these ethnic groups together with the Slavs of Northeast Europe in 862 "called" the Varangians to their area. If one follows the statements of the chronicle, they laid the foundation stone for the rise of the Rurikids and the emergence of the Kiev Empire . At that time there was a tribal principality of the Wes in Belozersk . In the 10th century on Tschudische (Tschudnizewa) Street in Novgorod there were apparently Chudian members of the upper class and in the Tschudenhof (Tschudin Dvor) in Kiev there were Chud followers of the Grand Dukes. In the Novgorod republic, which was breaking away from the Kiev empire , Tschuden and Voten also played a certain role, as the birch bark document № 614 (end of the 13th century) seems to prove.

The Volga-Finnish and Permian peoples of eastern and northern Eastern Europe

The group of peoples mentioned, who inhabit the Volga-Ural region of Eastern Europe, includes the Syrian people, often just called Komi , the special ethnic group of the Komi-Ischemzen (they live in the tundra from the Kola Peninsula to northwestern Siberia ) and the southern from them living Komi-Permjak and Komi-Jaswinzen (Russian: Коми-язьвинцы), furthermore Udmurten , Mari and the two ethnic groups or peoples of the Mordvinen . The Bessermenen are an ethnic-denominational group of Muslims who speak Udmurt .

The ancestors of these peoples played an independent historical role in medieval Eastern Europe. The founders of several "Old Russian" cities ( Murom , Ryazan ) were actually Volga Finns . The Mordovian principalities in the forest steppe west of the Volga (12th / 13th centuries) were referred to in Russian chronicles as Purgasower Rus . The ancestors of the southern Komi may be associated with the Bjarmland of Scandinavian lore. The tribal confederations and early empires of the Eurasian steppe ( Sarmatians , Goths , Huns , Khazars ) and immigrants from the south ( Volga-Bulgarians , Tatars ) always exerted an important influence in the southern Volga-Ural region . The speakers of Volga-Finnish and Permian languages often belonged to the sphere of influence of these Eastern European multiethnic tribal associations and major states, which originated in the south. Until the Russian conquest, the Golden Horde and the Tatar Khanate Kazan (until 1552) played a central political role on the central Volga and in the Ural foothills.

In the north of the Volga-Ural region, the expansion of the Novgorod State or the Novgorod Republic began as early as the 10th century. The conquest and colonization of the entire area by the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Tsarist Empire was not completed until the 16th century. It was not until 1505 that the last Finno-Ugric principality in Eastern Europe came to an end with the dissolution of Greater Perm . The anti-colonial protest of the Volga-Finnish and Permian peoples often took religious forms. A movement for national autonomy did not emerge until the 20th century. In Soviet times, national republics and territories were created, but their autonomy remained very limited. Today they are minorities everywhere in the republics named after them.

Ugren and seeds

Information on the Sami and the Ugric peoples of the Hungarians , Khanty and Mansi can be found at the appropriate place. See also: jugories

Finno-Ugric Movement and Community

Since the 1st World Congress of the Finno-Ugric Peoples in Syktywkar ( Komi Republic ) in 1992 , Finno-Ugric peoples, countries and regions have been spoken of. In Estonia , Finland , Russia and Hungary there are state and semi-state political, scientific and cultural institutions that cultivate the Finno-Ugric community. The Finno-Ugric movement today also includes representatives of the peoples who speak a Samoyed language . The ethnofuturism movement that emerged at the end of the 20th century aims at the rebirth and renewal of Finno-Ugric identity.

List of the Finno-Ugric peoples

Historical names of people

Web links

  • Website of the information center of the Finno-Ugric peoples (English). There you will find information about the congresses of the Finno-Ugric peoples.
  • - Kyösti Julku: The different hypotheses about the origin of the Finno-Ugric peoples


Individual evidence

  1. Kristiina Tambets, Mait Metspalu, Valter Lang, Richard Villems, Toomas Kivisild: The Arrival of Siberian Ancestry Connecting the Eastern Baltic to Uralic Speakers further east . In: Current Biology . tape 29 , no. 10 , May 20, 2019, ISSN  0960-9822 , p. 1701–1711.e16 , doi : 10.1016 / j.cub.2019.04.026 , PMID 31080083 ( [accessed July 5, 2019]).
  2. ^ Proto-Uralic — what, where, and when? Juha JANHUNEN (Helsinki) - The Quasquicentennial of the Finno-Ugrian Society 2009
  3. German Dziebel: On the Home Land of the Uralic Language Family. Retrieved July 5, 2019 (American English).