The Great Moravia (in the literature also Moravian Empire , Great Moravia or Altmähren called) was the early medieval rule structure of the West Slavic Moravians , whose core area in the historical region of Moravia and today's Slovakia was. The cities of Mikulčice , Staré Město and Nitra formed its centers of power . The Moravian Empire, which was the first significant Slavic state , existed to varying degrees from the 9th century to the beginning of the 10th century and was ruled by the Mojmirid dynasty during this period .
The Moravian Empire was of great cultural importance in connection with the work of the Byzantine scholars and priests Cyril and Method , who in 863 became the first Slavic country to introduce the Old Slavic language codified by them on the basis of the Glagolitic script as the liturgical language . This old Slavic writing culture reached the Bulgarian Empire from 886 , where the transition to the Cyrillic script took place, and also spread to the Serbs , Croats and, at the turn of the 11th century, and then mainly in the form of Cyrillic , to the Kievans Rus .
The Moravian Empire is nowadays seen by Slovakia in particular as a kind of early precursor state. To a certain extent, this also applies to the Czech Republic , as Moravia, which corresponds to the western part of the Moravian Empire, became part of Bohemia in 1019 . In the preamble of its constitution, Slovakia refers explicitly to the “spiritual legacy of Cyril and Methodius and the historical legacy of the Great Moravian Empire”.
There is disagreement among historians about the correct name for the early medieval Moravian state. The mainly in the Czech and Slovak history most widely used, but unknown in contemporary sources of the 9th century term "Great Moravia" or "Great Moravian Empire" was the Greek name ἡ μεγάλη Μοραβία of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII. Deduced that these Used in his work De Administrando Imperio in the middle of the 10th century . However, Emperor Constantine did not use this term to refer to the size of the Moravian state at the time or to its power. In historiography, however, the term has become established precisely in this understanding.
German and Austrian historiography is critical of these terms or rejects them entirely. Are favored, the terms Moravia or Great Moravia . The renowned Austrian medievalist Herwig Wolfram writes :
“Nevertheless, one would do well not to speak of a“ Great Moravian Empire ”. The expression, which is particularly fond of nationalist historiography, has no contemporary equivalent, but is derived from the "Great Moravia" of Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos. The [...] Emperor, however, meant by "large" that a place and country name is either "older" or "foreign" as opposed to "small" in the sense of "belonging to the Reich." "
Eric J. Goldberg also rejects the terms "Greater Moravia" or "Greater Moravia Empire" in his study "Ludwig the German and Moravia", which was published by the renowned German medievalist Wilfried Hartmann in the anthology "Ludwig the German and his time":
“The grandiloquent designation“ Great Moravia ”or“ Great Moravian Empire ”is of little help when referring to this Slavic kingdom, as it is based on a misreading of the Byzantine treatise De administrando imperio by Emperor Constantine VII from the 10th century. [...] Constantine VII. Uses the expression megále Morabía in the sense of "Old Moravia", not "Greater Moravia". "
The nationalistic interpretation of the name as an "empire" has been scientifically completely discredited.
In his 2010 monograph on early medieval Moravian history, the Czech historian Martin Wihoda almost exclusively uses the term “Old Moravia” ( Stará Morava ). British and American historians such as Paul M. Barford, Eric J. Goldberg and Alexis P. Vlasto only use the term “Moravia” ( Moravia ) in their work . Slovak historiography meanwhile sticks to the traditional name "Greater Moravia" (Slovak: Veľká Morava ). The term “Moravian Empire” is regarded by the late leading expert in Moravian history, the historian Lubomír E. Havlík, as the correct name for the Moravian state structure - as “the result of the expansion of the Moravians, the emerging early medieval Moravian nation”.
The contemporary Latin sources mention the Moravian state as the "Moravian Empire " ( Regnum Marahensium , Regnum Marahaorum , Regnum Marauorum , Regnum Margorum ), the "Moravian Empire " ( pl. Regna Marahensium ), "Moravian Land" ( terra Maraouorum ) or simply as " Moravia ”(Marawa, Marauia, Maraha). In addition, the terms "Kingdom of Rastislav" ( Regnum Rastizi ) and "Kingdom of Svatopluk" ( Regnum Zwentibaldi ) have survived. The country is referred to as "Moravia" (M.ráwa.t) in the records of Arab traders. The Old Slavic sources speak of the “Moravian Land” ( Moravьska země ), the “Moravian Lands” ( pl. Moravьskyję strany ), the “Moravian Region” ( Moravьska oblastь ), the “Upper Moravia” ( pl. Vyšnęję Moravy ) or just from "Moravia" ( Morava , Marava , Murava ).
In Slovak historiography, some nationalist historians (e.g. Milan Stanislav Ďurica ) try to portray the Moravian Empire as a Slovak state and use the term “Slovak Empire” (Slovak: Slovenská ríša ). However, this interpretation is firmly rejected by the Historical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences .
When exactly the Slavic Moravian tribe was formed is unknown. The Czech historian Dušan Třeštík suspects that the Moravians probably formed together with the other Slavic tribes at the turn of the 6th century to the 7th century. Written evidence about the Slavs north of the Danube, in the historical region of Moravia and Slovakia , does not begin until the year 822, but their history can be traced back to the 8th century using important archaeological sources. At this time, several centers emerged along the river March (Slavic: Morava ), such as the castles in Mikulčice , Staré Město and Olomouc , which dominated the extensive area of Moravia. With the exception of the centers on the March in the 8th century, there were no other castle complexes in the area of today's Slovakia. These emerged only at the turn of the 8th to the 9th century, after what is now western Slovakia, starting from the centers on the March , was liberated from the influence of the Avars . Devín and Nitra were among the most important castles on Slovak territory . In the year 796 the area of the Moravians was subordinated to the diocese of Passau , around the year 800 the first Christian churches were built. Sometime between 817 and 822 the Moravians recognized the sovereignty of the Bavarian-Franconian King Ludwig the German over their territory, as a result of which their messengers took part in the state parliament in Frankfurt in 822.
The exact date of the foundation of the Moravian state or empire is controversial, Dušan Třeštík assumes that the Moravian state process began around 790 and was completed around 831 under the Moravian prince Mojmir I (around 830-846). After he had united the Moravians under his rule, Mojmir carried out a Christian mass baptism of the Moravian ruling class in 831 and from 833, when he drove the Pro- Frankish Moravian local prince Pribina from Nitra, on a confrontation course with the Frankish Empire. In earlier historiography, the year 833 was traditionally considered to be the actual founding date of "Greater Moravia". In the Slovak standard work on the subject of Nitrianske kniežatstvo , the historian Ján Steinhübel argues that an independent principality of Nitra existed in the area of today's Slovakia and parts of northern Hungary in the years 805 to 833 , which was only annexed by Mojmir I to his Moravian Empire in 833 . The new “Great Moravian” state emerged through the merger of these two state structures. However, this claim is rejected by leading Czech and British historians, especially since Steinhübel does not substantiate his thesis with either written or archaeological sources.
In August 846, Ludwig the German moved with a Frankish army against the Moravian Empire, deposed Mojmir and installed his nephew Rastislav (846–870) as the new Moravian ruler, from whom Ludwig hoped greater vassal loyalty. The exact background that led to the deposition of Mojmir I is controversial among historians. Historian Eric J. Goldberg takes the view that Mojmir has become a serious threat to King Ludwig due to its policy towards a sovereign Christian-Slavic kingdom and has therefore been deposed. Dušan Třeštík counters this by saying that the formulation in the primary sources is too general and that Ludwig attacked the Moravians as part of an overall offensive against the neighboring Slavs.
In the early 850s, Rastislav began to lead a policy that was increasingly independent of Eastern France. In the year 855, Ludwig the German marched with a Frankish army against the Moravians, but was defeated by Rastislav's fortress. As a result, Rastislav was able to temporarily stop paying tribute to Eastern France and chased the entire Bavarian clergy out of his country. Rastislav's endeavors to withdraw his land from the Frankish sphere of influence with the help of Byzantium and the Eastern Church became of historical importance. After Pope Nicholas I. Rastislav's request to send Slavic-speaking priests to set up his own Moravian church organization, Rastislav turned to the Byzantine Emperor Michael III in 862 .
He complied with the demands of the Moravian prince and sent the Byzantine priests and scholars Kyrill and Method , who arrived in the Moravian Empire in 863. The Old Slavonic language , created by Cyril with the help of the Glagolitic alphabet , was introduced as the first Slavic country as a liturgical language in Moravia. In 864, Louis the German attacked the Moravian Empire and forced Rastislav to surrender to the Devín . The expelled Bavarian clergy could now return to Moravia, but the work of Kyrill and Methods as well as the Slavic liturgy continued. Cyril and Method went to Rome in 867 to have the Pope legitimize their Slavic liturgical language against the Bavarian clergy. In the same year Pope Hadrian II raised the Slavic liturgical language as equal with Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Two years later Kyrill died in Rome, his brother Method was appointed Moravian Archbishop (of the Moravian Empire and the Balaton Principality ) in 870 , but was only able to return to Moravia in 873 after three years imprisonment in Bavaria.
Meanwhile, there had been a change of power in Moravia. After Ludwig the German was defeated again by Rastislav in another attack on Moravia in 869, he used his co-regent and nephew Svatopluk I to depose Rastislav in 870 and occupy the Moravian Empire. After Svatopluk had been accused of treason by the Eastern Franks in 871 and deposed and abducted as Moravian ruler, a successful anti-Frankish uprising broke out under the leadership of the Moravian prince Slavomir, as a result of which Svatopluk was dismissed and was able to assert himself again as prince of the Moravian Empire.
Svatopluk destroyed the Frankish occupation army in 871 and concluded a peace agreement with Ludwig the German in 874, which gave him extensive freedom of action while maintaining his loyalty to the Franks and paying tribute. After the agreement, Svatopluk began a rapid expansion of the Moravian Empire through wars of conquest and marriage policy. In the period from 874 to 884 he was able to incorporate Wislania , Pannonia , the rear Tisza , Silesia , Bohemia and Lusatia into the Moravian Empire. The so created Slavic empire covered about 350,000 km² with about one million inhabitants. Svatopluk successfully fended off the attacks of the new East Franconian king Arnulf of Carinthia and the nomadic cavalry people of the Magyars , whom he called to Central Europe, in the years 892 to 893. In church politics he pursued a line oriented towards the Vatican and asked the latter in 880 to place the Moravian Empire directly under the protection of the Holy See. In the same year the Pope responded with his letter “ Industriae tuae ” Svatopluk's request and recognized the Moravian Empire as an independent state. After the death of Archbishop Methods 885, at the request of Pope Stephen V, Svatopluk forbade the Old Slavic liturgy introduced under Rastislav and replaced it again with the Latin one. In 886 the Moravian priests who wanted to adhere to the Slavic liturgy were expelled from the masses.
Prince Svatopluk I died in 894, his successor on the Moravian throne was his eldest son Mojmir II (894–902 / 7). He was immediately faced with a series of serious problems, such as the separation of conquered territories, the pressure of the Eastern Franconian Empire, the steadily increasing Magyar danger and internal conflicts. According to Dušan Třeštík, Mojmir II managed to cope with this skillfully from the start. In the year of his father's death, he concluded a peace treaty with the East Franconian King Arnulf of Carinthia in order to be able to securely take over power in the Moravian Empire. After Bishop Wiching, who was responsible for the Moravian Empire, defected to King Arnulf in 893 , the Moravians did not have a recognized bishop. In a letter addressed to the Pope in 898/899, Mojmir II asked him to renew the Moravian Archdiocese. The Pope complied with Mojmir II's request and sent Archbishop John and Bishops Benedict and Daniel to Moravia.
In 895 the Bohemians broke away from the Moravian Empire, whereupon Mojmir II led a futile campaign of reconquest against them. In 896, with the permission of the Moravians, the Magyars settled in the rear part of the Tisza and undertook joint raids against the Franks with the Moravians. In 897 the Sorbs also declared themselves independent from the Moravian Empire. In the Moravian Empire itself there was a civil war in 899 between Mojmir II and his brother Svatopluk II (894-899), who probably resided in Nitra , during which the Bavarian army liberated the defeated Svatopluk II and brought him to Bavaria. In the year 900 the Magyars occupied the Franconian Pannonia after a campaign in Italy in order to settle permanently in the Carpathian Basin.
According to the Czech historian Martin Wihoda, the increasing self-confidence of the Magyars forced the Moravians to act. At the beginning of the year 901 Mojmir II concluded a peace treaty with the Bavarians and with their help fended off a Magyar attack from the Pannonia they ruled in 902. The stability in the central Danube region that arose with the mutual peace treaty also favored Bavarian-Moravian trade in the next few years, as evidenced by the Raffelstetten customs regulations . In 904, however, the Magyar Prince Kursan was murdered at a banquet table in Bavaria, whereupon the revenge of the Magyars was directed not only against the Bavarians, but also against the empire Mojmir II, allied with them. Dušan Třeštík suspects that the Moravian army was destroyed by the Magyars in 905–906 in a single battle near Nitra, in the course of which Mojmir II died. As a result of this catastrophe, according to archaeological sources, the Moravian Empire is said to have sunk into chaos and pagan uprisings. The devastating defeat of the Bavarians at the Battle of Pressburg in 907, during which they tried again to restore the old conditions, meant the final fall of the Moravian Empire.
Since the history of Saxony reports a victory of the Moravians over the Magyars in 906, some historians have suggested that the Moravian Empire continued to exist after 906 and 907. For example, Lubomír E. Havlík argues that the Moravian Empire was only compelled to pay tribute by the Magyars between 924–926, that the Moravian church organization survived and that the old rulers were not removed until 1055 by the Bohemian Duke Spytihněv II . Havlík argues that later written sources mention four bishops residing in Moravia for 910, the Moravian Archbishop Johannes (Jan) should have held his office until 925 and in Salzburg from 925-927 a certain Mojmir and from 925-931 a certain Svatopluk Documents are kept as witnesses. It is said to have been members of the Mojmirid dynasty who fled into exile as a result of a Magyar attack on the Moravian region in 924–925. In addition, a Magyar prisoner of war testified in 942 in Spain that there is a city / country called "Morava" (Moravia) north of the Magyar settlement area.
The geographical location of the Moravian core area was undisputedly localized for a long time in the south of the historical region of Moravia and the neighboring Slovakia along the river March (Slavic: Morava ).
It was only in the last three decades of the last century that hypotheses emerged according to which the Moravian Empire in southern Slavic territory extended along the Morava river in Serbia (e.g. Imre Boba 1971).
The German historian Martin Eggers then moved the location of the Moravian core area along the river Tisza in the 1990s .
In the new core territories adopted by Boba and Eggers, however, the numerous archaeological finds from the 9th century that existed in traditional Moravia, especially in the castles of Veligrad (Staré Město) and Morava (Mikulčice-Valy) , are completely absent . Military events such as B. the expulsion of prince Pribina from Nitra or the war with a prince of Kraków and the annexation of Bohemia by Svatopluk I, can be assumed more from traditional Moravia. In addition, in a description of Alfred the Great (around 890) , the Moravian Empire is clearly localized as Maroara on the traditional West Slavic territory in geographical contact with Bohemia.
- Stefan Albrecht : History of Great Moravia Research in the Czech Countries and Slovakia. Slovanský Ústav, Prague 2003.
- Wolfgang H. Fritze : Greater Moravia and the Slavs on the Elbe and the Baltic Sea. In: Ders .: Early days between the Baltic Sea and the Danube. Selected contributions to the historical development in Eastern Central Europe from the 6th to the 13th century. Edited by Ludolf Kuchenbuch and Winfried Schich (= Berlin Historical Studies, Volume 6) Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-428-05151-3 , pp. 100–110.
- František Graus : The nation formation of the Western Slavs in the Middle Ages (= Nationes. 3). Jan Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1980, ISBN 3-7995-6103-X .
- Jan Filip : Bohemia and Moravia. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 3, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1978, ISBN 3-11-006512-6 , pp. 129–157.
- Lumír Poláček : Great Moravian Empire. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 13, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1999, ISBN 3-11-016315-2 , pp. 78-85.
- Lumír Poláček, Petr Velemínský: Mikulčice and the problems of the social structure of Great Moravia - possibilities and limits of the investigation. In: Felix Biermann, Thommas Kersting, Anne Klammt: Social groups and social structures in the West Slavic area. (= Contributions to the prehistory and early history of Central Europe, vol. 70) Beier & Beran. Archaeological specialist literature, Langenweißbach 2013, ISBN 978-3-941171-85-5 , pp. 405-422.
- Radoslav Večerka: Notes on so-called Moravisms in Old Church Slavonic. In: Irina Podtergera (Ed.): Intersection Slavic Studies. East and West in scientific dialogue. Celebration for Helmut Keipert on his 70th birthday. Volume 2: Influence Research. V&R unipress et al., Göttingen et al. 2012, ISBN 978-3-89971-972-7 , pp. 405-414.
- Herwig Wolfram (Ed.): Salzburg, Bavaria, Austria. The Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum and the sources of their time (= communications from the Institute for Austrian Historical Research . Supplementary volume. 31). Oldenbourg, Vienna et al. 1995, ISBN 3-7029-0404-2 .
- Paul M. Barford: The Early Slavs. Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe. Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY 2001, ISBN 0-8014-3977-9 .
- Nora Berend, Przemysław Urbańczyk, Przemysław Wiszewski: The Slavs and the Carpathian Basin in the Ninth Century: 'Great Moravia'. In: Nora Berend, Przemysław Urbańczyk, Przemysław Wiszewski: Central Europe in the High Middle Ages. Bohemia, Hungary and Poland. c.900-c.1300. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge et al. 2013, ISBN 978-0-521-78695-9 , pp. 56-60.
- Eric J. Goldberg: Struggle for Empire. Kingship and Conflict under Louis the German, 817-876. Cornell University Press, Ithaca NY et al. 2006, ISBN 0-8014-3890-X , (online) .
- Jiří Macháček : Disputes over Great Moravia: chiefdom or state? the Morava or the Tisza River? In: Early Medieval Europe . Vol. 17, No. 3, 2009, pp. 248-267, (online) .
- Ivo Štefan: Great Moravia, Statehood and Archeology. The 'Decline and Fall' of One Early Medieval Polity. In: Jiří Macháček, Šimon Ungerman (Hrsg.): Early history central places in Central Europe (= studies on the archeology of Europe. 14). Habelt, Bonn 2011, ISBN 978-3-7749-3730-7 , pp. 333-354.
- Alexis P. Vlasto: The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom. An Introduction to the Mediaval History of the Slavs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge et al. 1970, ISBN 0-521-07459-2 , (online) .
- Miroslav Lysý: Moravania, Mojmírovci a Franská ríša. Štúdie k etnogenéze, politickým inš! @ # $% ^ & * Úciám a ústavnému zriadeniu na území Slovenska vo včasnom stredoveku [= The Moravians, the Mojmirids and the Frankish Empire: Study of ethnogenesis, political institutions and the constitutional administration Slovakia in the early Middle Ages]. Atticum, Bratislava 2014, ISBN 978-80-971381-4-1 .
- Tatiana Štefanovičová: Osudy starých Slovanov [= fate of the ancient Slavs] (= Tradícia a dnešok. Vol. 10). Osveta, Martin 1989.
- Ján Steinhübel: Nitrianske kniežatstvo. Počiatky stredovekého Slovenska [The Principality of Nitra. The Beginnings of Medieval Slovakia]. 2. vydání. Rak, Bratislava 2016, ISBN 978-80-85501-64-3 , (standard work).
- Lubomír E. Havlík: Svatopluk Veliký, král Moravanů a Slovanů [= Svatopluk the Great, King of the Moravians and Slavs]. JOTA, Brno 1994, ISBN 80-85617-19-6 .
- Lubomír E. Havlík: Kronika o Velké Moravě [= Chronicle of Great Moravia]. 2., doplněné a upravené vydání, (Dotisk). JOTA, Brno 2013, ISBN 978-80-8561-706-1 .
- Zdeněk Měřínský : České země od příchodu Slovanů po Velkou Moravu [= The Bohemian lands from the arrival of the Slavs to Great Moravia]. Volume 1. 2., opravené vydání. Nakladatelství Libri, Prague 2009, ISBN 978-80-7277-407-4 .
- Dušan Třeštík : Počátky Přemyslovců. Vstup Čechů do dějin (530–935) [= The beginnings of the Přemyslids. The entry of the Czechs into history (530–935)] (= Česká historie. Vol. 1). Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, Prague 2008, ISBN 978-80-7106-138-0 .
- Dušan Třeštík: Vznik Velké Moravy. Moravané, Čechové a střední Evropa v letech 791–871 [= The emergence of Great Moravia. Moravians, Czechs and Central Europe in the years 791–871] (= Česká historie. Vol. 8). Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, Prague 2010, ISBN 978-80-7422-049-4 (standard work).
- Martin Wihoda: Morava v době knížecí. 906–1197 [= Moravia in the age of princely rule 906–1197] (= Česká historie. Vol. 21). Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, Prague 2010, ISBN 978-80-7106-563-0 .
Literature on the localization debate and alternative theories
- Henrik Birnbaum : For the (hopefully) last time about the well-traveled Method and the location of Old Moravia. In: Byzantinoslavica. 57, 1996, , pp. 188-193.
- Charles R. Bowlus: Franks, Moravians and Magyars. The Struggle for the Middle Danube, 788-907. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia PA 1995, ISBN 0-8122-3276-3 .
- Martin Eggers : The "Great Moravian Empire". Reality or fiction? A reinterpretation of the sources on the history of the central Danube region in the 9th century (= monographs on the history of the Middle Ages. Vol. 40). Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-7772-9502-7 (also: Munich, University, dissertation, 1991).
- Early Middle Ages in the Czech Republic: Greater Moravia (information in Czech, German and English)
- Detailed chronology (in English)
- Reconstruction of a Great Moravian settlement near Modrá, South Moravia (in Czech)
- Peter Morvay: Podcast: Veľká Morava existovala len krátko a určite nebola slovenská [= Podcast: Great Moravia existed only for a short time and was certainly not Slovak] . In: dennikn.sk, December 22, 2017, accessed on January 1, 2020, 10:26 p.m. [Slovak]
- Havlík: Kronika o Velké Moravě , pp. 177–178.
- Greater Moravia and the Slavs on the Elbe and the Baltic Sea. In: Wolfgang Hermann Fritze et al .: Early Period between the Baltic Sea and the Danube: Selected Contributions to the History of Development in Eastern Central Europe from the 6th to the 13th Century . Duncker & Humblot, 1982, p. 109.
- Constitution of the Slovak Republic of September 1, 1992 . Retrieved July 30, 2013, 7:08 pm.
- Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců , 263.
- Wolfram: Österreichische Geschichte , p. 317.
- Goldberg: Ludwig the German and Moravia , p. 75, note 24.
- Nora Berend, Przemyslaw Urbanczyk, Przemyslaw Wiszewski: Central Europe in the High Middle Ages: Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, c.900 – c.1300. Cambridge University Press 2013, p. 57.
- see Wihoda: Morava v době knížecí
- see Barford: The Early Slavs , Goltberg: Struggle for Empire and Vlasto: The Entry of the Slavs .
- see the standard work by Ján Steinhübel: Nitrianské kniežatstvo .
- Havlík: Svatopluk Veliký , p. 45.
- Havlík: Kronika o Velké Moravě , pp. 354–355.
- see Milan S. Ďurica: Dejiny Slovenska , pp. 44–45.
- Frank Hadler: The Great Moravian Empire: Czechoslovak or Slovak Ur-State? Struggles for interpretation in the 20th century. In: Dietmar Willoweit, Hans Lemberg (Hrsg.): Empires and territories in East Central Europe: Historical relationships and political authority legitimation . Oldenbourg Verlag, 2006, p. 360 .
- Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců , p. 270.
- Třeštík: Vznik Velké Moravy , S. 107th
- Třeštík: Vznik Velké Moravy , p. 109 u. 112.
- Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců, p. 268.
- Třeštík: Vznik Velké Moravy, S. 125th
- Třeštík: Vznik Velké Moravy, p 107, Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců , p 271, Goldberg: Struggle for Empire , S. 138th
- Havlík: Kronika o Velké Moravě , p. 103, Třeštík: Vznik Velké Moravy , p. 131, Třeštík: Počiatky Přemyslovců , p. 271; Vlasto: The Entry Slavs , p. 24.
- Review of Steinhübel's work by Beata Pinterová, In: Südost-Forschungen 67 , Bratislava 2008, p. 17. (PDF; 483 kB)
- Goldberg: Struggle for the Empire , p. 138, Třeštík: Vznik Velké Moravy , pp. 147–155, Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců , p. 272.
- Hoensch: History of Bohemia , p. 36.
- Kováč: Dejiny Slovenska , p. 30.
- Havlík: Svatopluk Veliký , p. 27.
- Havlík: Svatopluk Veliký , p. 8.
- Třeštík: Vznik Velké Moravy , pp. 199–200.
- Třeštík: Počiatky Přemyslovců , pp 280-281.
- Havlík: Kronika o Velké Moravě , p. 363, Steinhübel: Nitrianske kniežatstvo , p.
- Třeštík: Počiatky Přemyslovců , pp 280-282.
- Havlík: Svatopluk Veliký , pp. 91–93.
- Třeštík: Počiatky Přemyslovců , S. 284th
- Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců , p. 285.
- Vlasto: The Entry of the Slavs , p. 83.
- Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců , p. 285.
- Wihoda: Morava v Dobe Knížecí , S. 87th
- Třeštík: Počátky Přemyslovců , pp. 286–287.
- Wihoda: Morava v době knížecí , pp. 87-89.
- Havlík: Kronika o Velké Moravě, pp. 303–308.
- Havlík: Kronika o Velké Moravě, p. 309.
- Journey of Wulfstan of Haithabu
- Večerka: Notes on so-called Moravisms , pp. 405–406.