|This article was on the basis of substantive defects quality assurance side of the project, Turkey entered. Help bring the quality of this article to an acceptable level and take part in the discussion !|
Oghusen (in the Orkhon inscriptions : Oğuz , Turkish Oğuz ) is a designation for various historical Turkish tribal confederations , either alone or in combination with numerals , the relationship between them is unclear.
Oğuz is the old Turkish name. Historical Arabic sources refer toغوزّ DMG Ġuzz , Byzantine sources refer to the Oğuz with Ούζοι Ouzoi ( Us or plural the Usen or Uz ) . The Islamic authors as "Guzz" (to distinguish it from the east described Toquz Guzz whose context is unclear with the Uyghur) Oghusen designated were one of the political entities that after the collapse of Göktürkenreichs appeared or reappeared. They were under the rule of a yabghu . The eponym of this tribal union is the legendary military leader Oġuzhan .
After a century and a half on the Syr Darya River and the Aral Sea , the rule of the Yabghu disintegrated around 1050. Some of the clans converted to Islam and followed the Seljuks , who conquered Persia and a large part of the Islamic Middle East, later also Anatolia , and founded an empire there. The ancestors of the Ottomans also belonged to these groups . Today's Turks and Azerbaijanis emerged from these emigrants .
Arab and Muslim sources in the Seljuk Empire name Oghuz who have converted to Islam, but also members of other Turkish tribes who have convertedتركمن/ Turkmen . Turkmen completely replaced the name Oġuz at the time of the Mongol invasions (from the middle of the 13th century). From this point onwards, these Arabic sources only mention Turkmen and thus refer to the Islamized Oghuz. Modern elaborations use both terms in the form of Oghusen / Turkmenen .
The present-day Turkmens in Turkmenistan , on the other hand, presumably go back to the Oghuz who stayed at the Aral Sea at the time. They were Islamized only in the Mongol Empire and immigrated to their current settlement area after its collapse.
Origin of name
Oğuz is derived from the old Turkish word root oğ or uq . oğ or uq indicates a relationship. Other examples of words derived from this are the New Turkish terms oğul (the offspring, the son), oğlan (the boy, the boy; originally this was the plural of oğul ), oğlaq (young goat / young billy goat), oğuš / uğuš (clan , Tribe). oğša- / oqša- stands for resemble someone and possibly comes from the same root oğ / uq .
Thus Oğuz (and also Oğur ) is translated as “the relatives” and can therefore have meant “tribal association, clan , clan, tribe, tribal subgroup, association of related tribes / clans”. Therefore, in historical sources, the Oğuz is usually given a numerical prefix that indicates the number of subgroups, e.g. B. Üç-Oğuz (The Three Tribal Groups), Sekiz-Oğuz (The Eight Tribal Groups), Uighur Toquz-Oğuz (The Nine Tribal Groups).
The mention of Oğuz in Turkish and Uighur inscriptions (e.g. Orkhon runes ) probably refer largely to the Toquz-Oğuz.
The Oğuz and their subgroups
Rashid ad-Din reports that the Oğuz were divided into two sub-confederations: the Bozok and the Üçok . Mahmud al-Kashghari gives a slightly different listing of the subgroups of the Bozok and the Üçok. Another important historical source comes from Abu'l-Gazi . The names of these subgroups are still used today as place names and personal names over the entire area from the Balkans to Turkey and Iran to Afghanistan, which the Oghusen under the Seljuks and their successors roamed on expeditions of settlement and conquest.
The Bozok ("gray arrows") consisted of the following subgroups:
- Kayı , Bayat , Alkaevli , Karaevli , Yazır , Döğer , Dodurga , Yaparlı , Afşar , Kızık , Begdili and Karkın
The Üçok ("Three Arrows") consisted of the following subgroups:
- Bayındır , Beçenek , Çavuldur , Çepni , Salur , Eymür , Ulayundluğ , Yüreğir , İğdir , Büğdüz , Yıva and Kınık
The Seljuq dynasties, which are so important for further history, came from the Kınık, the Ottomans traced back to the Kayı, the Aq Qoyunlu traced back to the Bayındır.
The origin of the Oghusen is unclear. In addition to the seats at the Aral Sea and Syrdarya, which have been known since the 9th century, a people of this name can be found in the ancient Turkish inscriptions of Mongolia near the Kerulen and Selenga . At the time of the Gök-Turkish Empire (6th – 8th centuries), her name appears repeatedly in history. This name is often found in connection with changing numerals, usually as Toquz Oghuz (nine oghuz), Otuz Oghuz (thirty oghuz), Sekiz-Oghuz (eighth Oghuz) or Üç Oghuz (three oghuz). It is unclear to what extent these groups are ethnically linked to one another and whether the term Oghuz has a (common) ethnic meaning at all. In the Chinese sources, the various Oghuz cannot be identified by names. It is uncertain whether they have anything to do with the Oghusen discussed here. Only Ibn al-Athīr , a historian of the 12th / 13th centuries. Century reports on the origin of the Ghuzz of Balch , they came from the east in the time of the caliph al-Mahdi (775–785), accepted Islam and supported al-Muqannaʿ in his revolt against the caliph
The Oghuz are first mentioned as ghuzz in the work of the geographer Ibn Chordadhbeh in the 9th century . The Toquzghuzz ( Toquz Oghuz ), on the other hand, appear in the work of the Arabic author al-Masʿūdī in 943 as residents of the Uighur Empire of Chotscho .
Milan Adamović sees another mention of the name of the Oghuz in the Kültegin inscription from the year 732, in which an Oγuz Bilgä Tamγačï is mentioned as one of two members of the embassy of the Kaghans of On-Ok to the funeral ceremonies . He suspects that they emerged from the On-Ok.
In 766, the Karluken eliminated the rule of the Türgesch over the On-Ok, which disappear from history. Instead, the Oghusen are mentioned as the western neighbors of the Karluken in the following century. The Oghus ruler carried the title of Yabghu , his deputy that of Külerkin . The origin of both titles lies with the Karluken
Oghuz and Seljuks
From the 9th century the Oghusen are described on the lower reaches of the Syr Darja and in the area north of the Aral Sea . They were under the rule of a yabghu. They were only loosely organized in tribal units and mostly lived as cattle-breeding nomads. A large number of traders are also mentioned among them. The capital was Yengi-Kent (today "Yeni Kent", Turkish for "New City"). Other cities in their area were Cend, Sabran, Atlih, Salic, Ordu and Balac.
Little is known about their history. They are assigned a role in driving the Pechenegs to Eastern Europe and, in cooperation with the Kievan Rus, in the destruction of the Khazar Empire . After the end of the Khazar Empire, the way to the west was clear for the Oghuz. Around 1054 a group of the Oghuz (called "Uzoi" i.e. Uzen by the Byzantines) moved to the Balkans as the forerunners of the Kyptschaks , where they were destroyed in 1065.
The Oghuz, who traded with Muslims in the border towns, gradually began to embrace Islam, which apparently led to social upheavals and the decline of the rule of the Yabghu. The 10th century saw the rise of the Seljuks . The progenitor was a mercenary leader with the name Duqaq with the surname Temür-yalig (Iron Bow), who had become famous in the Khazar Empire . His son Seljuk was Sübaşı (military leader) and at first a confidante of the Yabghu until he fell out with him. Around the year 1000 Seljuk fled to Cend, converted to Islam and established his own rule. After the battle of Dandanqan in 1040, his grandchildren secured rulership over Khorasan and won control of the countries of the caliphate. These conquests triggered an influx from the Oghuz to the south, where the often only superficially Islamized nomads got into constant quarrels with the settled residents and locally became a plague against which the Seljuks and their army then went to the field.
The rule of the Yabghu fell and disappeared from history.
- Milan Adamovic: The old Oghuz . In: Materialia Turcica , 7/8, 1981/1982, 1983 pp. 26-50
- Peter B. Golden : The migrations of the Oğuz . In: Archivum Ottomanicum , 4, 1972, pp. 45-84
- J.R. Hamilton: Toquz-Oγuz et On-Uyγur . In: Journal Asiatique , 250, 1962, pp. 23-63
- Karl Reichl: Turkmen fairy tales: with translation, glossary and notes ( Materialia Turcica , Volume 4). Bochum 1982, ISBN 3-88339-265-0
- Hanspeter-Achmed Schmiede : Dede Korkut's book: The national epic of the Oghusen . Translation from oghus-Turkish. Hückelhoven 1995, ISBN 3-86121-034-7
- ↑ Claude Cahen, G. Deverdun, P. M. Holt, article Ghuzz in Encyclopaedia of Islam - […] GHUZZ, form generally used by Arabic authors for the name of the Turkish Oghuz people. [...]
- ↑ Peter B. Golden An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East , 1992, p. 205
- ↑ a b c Edith G. Ambros / PA Andrews / Çiğdem Balim / L. Bazin / J. Cler / Peter B. Golden / Altan Gökalp / Barbara Flemming / G. Hazai / AT Karamustafa / Sigrid Kleinmichel / P. Zieme / Erik Jan Zürcher, article Turks , in Encyclopaedia of Islam , Brill, digital edition, section 1.2 The tribal history of the Central Asian Turks .
- ^ Barbara Kellner-Heinkele: Türkmen. In: Peri J. Bearman et al. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Islam . Brill, Leiden 1960-2004, Volume X, pp. 682-685
- ↑ "The Arabic sources now speak of Turkmens and my Islamized Ogus." : Professor Dr. Klaus Kreiser : From the Great Wall of China via Transoxania to Anatolia . In: A Little History of Turkey, p. 22
- ↑ Encyclopaedia of Islam , Volume X. Brill, Leiden 2000, ISBN 90-04-11211-1 , p. 682, article Türkmen
- ↑ Halil İnalcık : Devlet-i ʿAliyye . 2009, p. 3 ff. Section Anadolu'ya Oğuz / Türkmen Göçleri, Anadolu Selçuklu Sultanlığı
- ↑ Milan Adamovic: The old Oghusen . In: Materialia Turcica , 7/8, p. 45
- ↑ Peter B. Golden An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East , p. 96
- ^ A b Peter B. Golden An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East , 1992, p. 206
- ^ Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East . 1992, p. 207
- ↑ Milan Adamović: The old Oghusen. In: Materialia Turcica. 7/8 1981/82, pp. 26-50, p. 31
- ↑ Milan Adamović: The old Oghusen. In: Materialia Turcica , 7/8 1981/82, pp. 26-50, pp. 39/40
- ^ Peter Benjamin Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1992, ISBN 3-447-03274-X , p. 311
- ↑ Milan Adamović: The old Oghusen. In: Materialia Turcica , 7/8 1981/82, pp. 26-50, p. 34
- ↑ Milan Adamović: The old Oghusen. In: Materialia Turcica , 7/8 1981/82, pp. 26-50, p. 42