Small area

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Overview of the Hungarian small areas (gray border lines) within the counties (blue lines)

Small area ( Hungarian kistérség [ ˈkiʃteːrʃeːɡ ], plural kistérségek ) was the name for a regional authority (administrative unit) in Hungary , which corresponds to level “LAU 1” ( Local administrative unit ”[LGE]) in the NUTS system of the EU .

Within the administrative structure of Hungary there was a small area between the municipalities belonging to it and the county to which it belongs. In addition to "small area", the term "small region", which should be understood as a literal translation, is also in use. “Small area”, however, enables a better conceptual differentiation from the historical and spatial equivalents in Hungary and its neighboring countries.

On January 1, 2013, the Kistérségek were abolished and replaced by an approximately equal number of districts (Hungarian Járás ). Administrative units of this name already existed in Hungary (" Transleithanien ") of the Danube Monarchy . They corresponded to Austrian districts .

Historical equivalents

The historical equivalent of the small areas were the "districts" introduced in 1850 in the Austrian Empire (see district administration ), also in the Kingdom of Hungary , which were called járás (plural járások ) in Hungary . These territorial units existed after the end of World War I and Austria-Hungary and also after World War II until December 31, 1983. Before 1918 járás was mostly represented as a chair district , later often also as a circle . In 1945 there were 151 járások , in 1975 there were only 92; at the time of the abolition at the end of 1983 their number was 83.

Preparation and introduction

In 1994, the Central Statistical Office of Hungary divided the country into 138 territorial units, initially known as 'statistical districts' ( statisztikai körzet ) , in order to collect certain statistical data . Their number was increased to 150 on January 1, 1998. With an ordinance of the Hungarian government of December 18, 2003, 168 small areas with the name kistérség were established, to which part of the public tasks of the municipalities were also assigned.

Tasks and status

In terms of size and layout, today's small areas roughly correspond to the earlier administrative units, which were called járások , but can only be partially understood as their successors or reintroduction. B. do not have their responsibilities in administrative tasks and in the judiciary. In addition, the number of small areas exceeds the number of járások at that time , which was gradually reduced in the period after the Second World War.

According to the 1996 Law on Regional Development and Territorial Division, a small area is defined as a subordinate territorial unit. A council made up of representatives of the municipalities acts there as an organ of cross-municipality self-government.

The focus of the tasks of a small area or its council is the coordination of the interests of the communities belonging to it as well as the creation and implementation of joint programs for spatial development. For this purpose, a joint fund will be set up there, the use of which will be decided by the council of the small area as a legally independent body.

Today's equivalents

They roughly correspond to the Austrian districts, but with different competencies. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia meet the okresy , in Poland the Powiaty . In Germany, the NUTS system includes the municipal associations such as B. Offices , joint municipalities and administrative communities at the LAU-1 level.

List of small areas in Hungary

In total there were 174 small areas in Hungary in the seven regions or 19 counties. These are listed below in alphabetical order by region and county.

Western Transdanubia Region (Nyugat-Dunántúl)

The Western Transdanubia region includes Győr-Moson-Sopron , Vas and Zala counties .

Győr-Moson-Sopron county

Vas county

Zala county

Southern Transdanubia Region (Dél-Dunántúl)

The Southern Transdanubia region includes the counties of Baranya , Somogy and Tolna .

Baranya county

Somogy county

Tolna county

Central Transdanubia Region (Közép-Dunántúl)

The Central Transdanubia region includes Fejér , Komárom-Esztergom and Veszprém counties .

Fejér county

Komárom-Esztergom county

Veszprém county

Central Hungary Region (Közép-Magyarország)

The Central Hungary region consists of the capital Budapest and the surrounding Pest county .


Pest county

Northern Hungary Region (Észak-Magyarország)

The Northern Hungary region includes the counties of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén , Heves and Nógrád .

Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county

Heves county

Nógrád county

Northern Great Plain Region (Észak-Alföld)

The Northern Great Plain region includes Hajdú-Bihar , Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties .

Hajdú-Bihar county

Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county

Southern Great Plain Region (Dél-Alföld)

The Southern Great Plain region comprises the counties of Bács-Kiskun , Békés and Csongrád .

Bács-Kiskun county

Békés county

Csongrád county