Raschīd ad-Dīn ( Persian رشيد الدين, DMG Rašīd ad-Dīn ; alsoرشيد الدولة الهمذاني, DMG Rašīd ad-Daula al-Hamaḏānī ), with full nameفضل الله بن أبي الخير بن علي الهمذاني, DMG Faḍl Allāh b. Abī ʾl-Ḫair b. ʿAlī al-Hamaḏānī (* 1247 in Hamadan , Persia ; † 9 Ramadan 718 / November 4, 1318 in Tabriz ) was a Persian vizier of the Ilkhan in Tabriz.
Rashīd al-Dīn was born into a Jewish family in Hamadan. His father was a perfume and spice dealer. At first he was a doctor and historian. At the age of 30 he converted to Islam in 1277 , thus escaping the pogrom of 1291 and gaining access to the court of the Mongol rulers of Persia. Ghazan Ilchan's conversion to Islam in 1295 may have been influenced by Rashīd. Mahmud Ghazan made him a financial advisor, and finally a vizier, and gave him extensive lands in Transcaucasia and Asia Minor . Tabriz became a center of science under the patron Raschīd.
His own greatest work is Dschami 'at-tawarich , a world history written on behalf of the Ilkhan, which has only survived in fragments. In the section on the Mongols, the genealogy of Genghis Khan is traced back to Adam . In universal history , as part of the history of the Mongols and Ilkhan, from Adam to the patriarchs to Mohammed and the caliphs, he continued the old tradition of the annalistic historiography of the Arabs. This part of the work has been lost. According to the reports of Arab biographers, he processed both Old Testament and philosophical elements in his commentary on the Koran. He also dealt with logic and philosophy.
Even under Ghazan's brother Öldscheitü , Rasheed ad- Din remained a vizier. When Öldscheitü, who had adopted Shiite Islam instead of Sunni Islam, was murdered, Rashīd al-Dīn got into Mongolian-Shiite power struggles at court, was charged with murder in 1316 and executed two years later - along with his son.
- AZV Togan : The composition of the History of the Mongols by Rashīd al-Dīn . In: Central Asian Journal. (CAJ) Volume 7, 1962.
- John Andrew Boyle : The successors of Genghis Khan . Columbia University Press, New York a. a. 1971, ISBN 0-231-03351-6 (multi-volume edition of the original text: Rašīd-ad-Dīn Faḍlallāh, Äbdülkärim Äli-oġlu Älizadä: Džāmiʻ at-tavārīch. Izdat. Nauka, Moskva → here especially volume 2, part 1, Izdat. Nauka, Moscow 1980; Volume 3: The Ilkhane. Izdat. Akademii Nauk Azerbaidžanskoj SSR, Baku 1957 [with Russian translation]).
- Encyclopaedia Judaica . Volume 13, Jerusalem 1971, p. 1365.
- Literature by and about Raschīd ad-Dīn in the catalog of the German National Library
- Digitized version of the Dschami 'at-tawarich in the British Library, accessed on March 17, 2016
- David Morgan: Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Ṭabīb . In: Encyclopaedia of Islam , 2nd ed., Vol. 8. Brill, Leiden 1994, ISBN 90-04-09834-8 , pp. 145-148, here p. 145.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Rašīd ad-Daula al-Hamadānī ', Faḍl Allāh b. Abī ʾl-Ḫair b.ʿAlī al-Hamaḏānī|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Persian vizier|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1247|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Hamadan , Persia|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 4, 1318|
|Place of death||Tabriz|