The Princely Congress of Vienna , also known by historians as the First Congress of Vienna , was a politically groundbreaking meeting of European rulers in 1515 .
Important participants were Maximilian I (Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire ) from the Habsburg dynasty , as well as the brothers Vladislaw II (King of Bohemia and Hungary ) and Sigismund I (King of Poland-Lithuania ) from the Jagiellonian dynasty .
The political situation in Europe was shaped by the following events:
- The Ottoman Empire (the "Turks") threatened Hungary and Austria with successful campaigns in the Balkans and southern Europe .
- Spain , Italy , France , England and the Holy Roman Empire fought in alternating alliances for supremacy in Europe; The dispute concerned not only secular powers but also the Catholic Church.
Consequences for Hungary and Austria
In addition to the political agreements, Maximilian and Vladislaw made an inheritance contract and arranged a double wedding between their two mansions. So there was a marriage contract between Vladislav's son Ludwig and Maximilian's granddaughter Maria , as well as between Maximilian's grandson Ferdinand and Vladislav's daughter Anna .
Ludwig II, who succeeded his father in Hungary and Bohemia in 1516, lost his life in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, which resulted in the inheritance that had been regulated eleven years earlier: Ferdinand was formally the new ruler of Hungary. However, the Ottomans, who had conquered large parts of the country, proclaimed Ludwig's uncle Johann Zápolya to be king, which meant a de facto division of the country that was to last for almost 200 years. Nevertheless, through these weddings and the resulting claim to rule of the Habsburgs over Hungary, the foundation stone of the later “ Danube Monarchy ” was laid, which developed into a major European power from the end of the 17th century.
Consequences for Poland
King Sigismund received written assurance from Maximilian for his efforts to achieve the double wedding that he would work in the empire for recognition of the Polish demands against the Teutonic Order . Maximilian further assured an end to the support of the Muscovites directed against Poland .
The humanist, poet and diplomat in the Habsburg service Johannes Cuspinianus played a key role in the preparation and implementation of the First Congress of Vienna . He wrote the lively, short and truthful account of the Congressus ac celeberrimi conventus caesaris Maximiliani et trium regum Hungariae, Boemiae et Poloniae in Vienna Pannoniae facti brevis ac verissima descriptio , which went to print in 1515 and found numerous readers.
- Johannes Sachslehner : Places of Destiny Austria , Vienna 2009, ISBN 978-3-222-13278-0 , pp. 71-77.
- Johannes Cuspinianus , Congressus ac celeberrimi conventus caesaris Maximiliani et trium regum Hungariae, Boemiae et Poloniae in Vienna Pannoniae facti brevis ac verissima descriptio. , Vienna 1515