District of Habelschwerdt
The district of Habelschwerdt was a Prussian district in Silesia that existed from 1818 to 1945. Its county seat was the city of Habelschwerdt . Today the territory of the former administrative district, which protrudes into Bohemia like a peninsula , belongs to the Polish powiat Kłodzki in the south-west Polish Voivodeship of Lower Silesia .
The district corresponded roughly to the southeastern half of the former County of Glatz and has a geographical latitude of 50.1 ° - 50.3 ° and longitude 16½ ° - 17 °. Together with the former district of Glatz to the north, it forms the Glatzer Kessel in southwestern Silesia , which is surrounded by low mountain ranges:
- Owl Mountains
- Reichensteiner Mountains
- Glatzer snow mountains
- Bielen Mountains
- Eagle Mountains
- Habelschwerdter Mountains
The Glatzer Neisse rises on the southern border of the district, on the Eschenberg near Thanndorf ( Jodłow ) in the Glatzer Schneegebirge, part of the Sudeten on the border between Poland and the Czech Republic . It flows through the district in a northerly direction towards the city of Glatz and flows into the Oder ( Odra ) near Opole .
On January 24, 1818, the new Habelschwerdt district was formed in the Reichenbach administrative region of the Prussian province of Silesia from the Habelschwerdt and Landeck districts of the Glatz district. With the dissolution of the Reichenbach administrative district, the Habelschwerdt district became part of the Breslau administrative district on May 1, 1820 .
Since July 1, 1867, the district belonged to the North German Confederation and from January 1, 1871 to the German Empire . On November 8, 1919, the province of Silesia was dissolved. The new province of Lower Silesia was formed from the administrative districts of Breslau and Liegnitz . On September 30, 1929, almost all manor districts in the Free State of Prussia were dissolved and assigned to neighboring rural communities.
On October 1, 1932, the rural community of Neu Wilmsdorf was reclassified from the Habelschwerdt district to the Glatz district.
On April 1, 1938, the Prussian provinces of Lower Silesia and Upper Silesia were merged to form the new Province of Silesia. On January 1, 1939, the district of Habelschwerdt was given the designation Landkreis in accordance with the now unified regulation . On January 18, 1941, the province of Silesia was dissolved. The new province of Lower Silesia was formed from the administrative districts of Breslau and Liegnitz.
In the spring of 1945 the district was occupied by the Red Army . In the summer of 1945 it was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying power in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement . Subsequently, the German population, provided they had not fled earlier, largely driven . Some of the newly settled migrants came from areas east of the Curzon Line that had fallen to the Soviet Union.
- 1818–1819 Sinnhold (provisional)
- 1819– Ernst von Pannwitz
- –1850 Wilhelm Moritz von Prittwitz and Gaffron
- 1850 Hermann von Hochberg (interim)
- 1850-1853 Miketta
- 1853–1884 Hermann von Hochberg (second term of office)
- 1884–1918 Friedrich Finck von Finckenstein
- 1918–1922 Achaz von Saldern
- 1922–1932 Paul Beyer
- 1932–1933 Alfred Poppe
- 1933–1944 Richard Chaff
- 1944– Ernst Braeckow (acting)
The district of Habelschwerdt was initially divided into the towns of Habelschwerdt, Landeck and Mittelwalde , in rural communities and in manor districts. With the introduction of the Prussian Municipal Constitutional Act of December 15, 1933, there was a uniform municipal constitution for all Prussian municipalities from January 1, 1934. With the introduction of the German Municipal Code of January 30, 1935, a uniform municipal constitution came into force in the German Reich on April 1, 1935, according to which the previous rural municipalities were now referred to as municipalities . A new district constitution was no longer created; The district regulations for the provinces of East and West Prussia, Brandenburg, Pomerania, Silesia and Saxony from March 19, 1881 continued to apply.
The Bad Landeck ( Lądek Zdrój ) belonging to the district , whose springs have been known for 700 years, is one of the oldest health resorts in Silesia. Spa operations began in 1802 in Bad Langenau ( Długopole Zdrój ), 7 km south of Habelschwerdt , which has three carbonated springs and moor storage facilities. At times, Grafenort was also a health resort with two sourlings and one sulfur spring .
From Wölfelsgrund , which is known as a climatic health resort, an ascent to the Glatzer Schneeberg is possible. The Maria Schnee pilgrimage church on the 850 m high Spitzigen Berg can also be reached from Wölfelsgrund.
The district of Habelschwerdt last comprised three cities and 87 rural communities:
||* Kamnitz ( Kamienica )
The forest districts Reinerz and Schneeberg-Bielengebirge were also located in the district.
- Nieder Thalheim, on June 6, 1922 in Bad Landeck
- Grenzendorf, on April 1, 1929 in Freiwalde
- Old and new Neißbach Neißbach, to the municipality on April 1, 1929 Neißbach together
- Herrnsdorf and Petersdorf , merged on April 1, 1938 to form the Herrnpetersdorf community
The following changes were made to official place names:
- Landeck → Bad Landeck i. Schl.
- Mittelwalde → Mittelwalde (Silesia)
- Erwin Josef Ender (* 1937); emeritus apostolic nuncio
- Paul Hoecker (1854-1910); Painter, professor at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Munich and founding member of the Munich Secession
- Michael Klahr the Elder Ä. (1693-1742); Baroque sculptor
- Michael Klahr the Elder J. (1727-1807); Baroque sculptor
- Joseph Knauer (1764-1844); Grand Dean of the County of Glatz and from 1843 Prince-Bishop of the Archdiocese of Breslau
- Elias of Leuven (1602–1661); Doctor, mathematician and astronomer
- Aloys Schmidt (1866-1939); Wood sculptor
- Wolfgang Vogel (1925-2008); Lawyer
- Franz Volkmer (1846–1930), seminar director and local researcher
- Franz Joseph Wagner (1886–1972), painter and graphic artist
- Gustav Neumann : Geography of the Prussian State. 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, p. 210, paragraph 24.
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The municipalities and manors of the Province of Silesia and their people. Based on the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. Berlin 1874, pp. 156–163 ( facsimile in the Google book search).
- M. Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. (online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006)
- germanvideo.com (trips to Silesia [first quarter of the file])
- Kreis-habelschwerdt.de (Images from the Habelschwerdt district)
- Municipalities and manor districts of the Habelschwerdt district in 1910
- Habelschwerdter district assembly
- Genealogy: Families from the Habelschwerdt district approx. 11,000 people
- Klaus Hübner: The county of Glatzer circles - On the administrative history of the Glatzer country . In: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grafschaft Glatz (Ed.): AGG-MITTEILUNGEN . No. October 15 , 2016, ISSN 1610-1308 ( spata-bonn.de [PDF]).
- Statistisches Bureau zu Berlin (Ed.): Contributions to the statistics of the Prussian state . Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1821, Silesia, p. 89 ( books.google.de ).
- Royal Statistical Bureau (ed.): Mittheilungen des Statistisches Bureau's in Berlin, Volume 2 . Population of the districts. ( books.google.de ).
- The municipalities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population 1871
- Community for the province of Silesia 1885
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. habelschwerdt.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- District of Habelschwerdt administrative history and district list on territorial.de (Rolf Jehke), as of July 26, 2013.