|Voivodeship :||Lower Silesia|
|Area :||10.70 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||330 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||57-500 to 57.501|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 74|
|License plate :||DKL|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Wroclaw - Olomouc|
|Rail route :||Wrocław – Międzylesie railway line|
|Next international airport :||Wroclaw|
|Gmina structure:||38 localities|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||56 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0208063|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|Mayoress :||Renata Surma|
ul.Sienkiewicza 6 57-500 Bystrzyca Kłodzka
The city is located in Lower Silesia in the Glatzer Kessel , at the foot of the Habelschwerdter Mountains and on the left bank of the Glatzer Neisse ( Nysa Kłodzka ) at the confluence of the Weistritz ( Bystrzyca ) at an altitude of 330 m above sea level. The distance to the northern district town of Kłodzko (German Glatz ) is 20 kilometers.
The year Habelschwerdt was founded is not known, but it is placed in the second half of the 13th century, as it is believed that the name is derived from Gallus von Lemberg (Czech: Havel z Lemberka ), whom the Glatzer Land came from around the middle of the century and who was married to Zdislava, who was canonized in 1995 . It was founded by German settlers next to the Slavic village of Bystritz (Czech: Bystřice ). The political and ecclesiastical relations of rule in Habelschwerdt are largely identical to the history of the former County of Glatz , to which it belonged , until modern times .
After a city wall had been built under Vogt Jakob Rücker, King John of Bohemia awarded Habelschwerdt the status of a Bohemian royal city in 1319 . The privilege was renewed by Johann's son Charles IV in 1348. In the same year, in his capacity as King of Bohemia, he acquired the hereditary bailiwick, making the later bailiffs royal officials. The Habelschwerdt district , which has existed since then, comprised the south of the Glatzer country.
Due to its location on the old trade route from Breslau via Glatz and Mittelwalde to Vienna, which led diagonally across the Ring, Habelschwerdt gained economic importance. It developed into an artisan town, especially the cloth makers and linen weavers . A fulling mill is documented for 1319 and the guild of drapers for 1397 . In 1381 the Antonius Hospital was founded with a church in front of the Niedertor , and a leper hospital in 1399 in front of the Glatzer Tor .
In the Hussite Wars , the city was largely destroyed in 1429 and sacked in 1469 by the Silesians who fought against the Bohemian King George of Podebrady , who stood on the side of the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus . After a city fire in 1475, the city was rebuilt. During the Reformation , the population turned primarily to the radical Reformation Schwenckfelders and Anabaptists (partly as Gabriels ), after their ban in 1548 to Lutheranism . From 1563 to 1576 the Lutheran preacher Caspar Elogius worked at the parish church. In 1586 the city acquired the royal mill and the imperial customs, and around 1600 additional lands. In the years 1604 to 1617 she had the bailiwick rights and in 1617 the higher judiciary.
During the Thirty Years War the city was sacked by the Swedes. In the course of the Counter Reformation , the population had to return to the Catholic faith in 1628/1629 or to emigrate. In 1646 large parts of the city burned down, another fire in 1703 destroyed almost two thirds of the houses within the walls.
During the Second Silesian War , Hungarian troops and Trenck's Pandours pillaged the city. Immediately in front of the city on February 14, 1745 the Prussians under Johann von Lehwaldt won over the Austrians under General Franz Wenzel Graf von Wallis in the battle near Habelschwerdt . After the Peace of Hubertusburg , Habelschwerdt fell to Prussia in 1763, together with the County of Glatz .
From 1818 Habelschwerdt was the seat of the district of Habelschwerdt , which had been formed from the districts of Habelschwerdt and Landeck . After cloth-making and linen weaving lost their importance in the 19th century, the wood industry developed from 1860 onwards, which led to the establishment of three match factories. Habelschwerdt also gained importance as a school town. From 1766 to 1776 and from 1871 to 1925 it housed the Catholic school teachers' college, for which a neo-renaissance building was built in 1872 . The further economic development was positively influenced from 1875 with the railway connection of the Glatz – Habelschwerdt – Mittelwalde line . At the beginning of the 20th century, Habelschwerdt had two Catholic churches and a district court. In 1930 Habelschwerdt acquired the Grafenort estate with extensive forest holdings.
At the end of the Second World War , the Red Army captured Habelschwerdt in 1945 . In March 1945 the Soviet Union , like almost all of Silesia, placed it under the administration of the People's Republic of Poland . Habelschwerdt received the Polish place name Bystrzyca Kłodzka . The inhabitants were expelled and replaced by Poles , some of whom had belonged to the Polish minority in the areas east of the Curzon Line that had fallen to the Soviet Union .
From 1975 to 1998 Bystrzyca Kłodzka belonged to the Wałbrzych Voivodeship ( Waldenburg ).
Population development until 1945
|1787||1674||without the garrison|
|1816||1845||including 22 Evangelicals and 1,823 Catholics (no Jews)|
|1825||1968||including 52 Evangelicals and eight Jews|
|1840||2729||including 2,525 Catholics, 192 Protestants and twelve Jews|
|1871||4378||including 300 Evangelicals|
|1890||5586||including 328 Evangelicals and 23 Jews|
|1900||6041||mostly Catholic residents|
The city was used by the Polish director Kazimierz Kutz as a filming location, including for his film Nikt nie woła , German Nobody calls (1960).
- The Roman Catholic parish church of St. Michael ( Kościół Św. Michała Archanioła ) was first mentioned in documents in 1336, but the vault of the choir dates from the second half of the 13th century. The bell tower was originally included in the city fortifications. The church was rebuilt several times over the centuries and expanded in 1914 according to plans by the Berlin architect Oskar Hoßfeld and furnished in the neo-Gothic style. The wood-carved figure of Our Lady with Child comes from the 15th century. The figures of hll. Franz Xaver and Johannes von Nepomuk created Michael Klahr the Elder. J.
- The baroque Trinity column on the ring was created by Anton Jörg from Kamenz in 1737 . The lower balustrade shows the hll. Johannes von Nepomuk, Florian and Franz Xaver. About it the hll. Michael, Anna, Joachim and Joseph as well as Maria Immaculata. In the crown, the Holy Trinity.
- The town hall from 1451 was rebuilt several times, most recently in 1852–1854. It was modeled after a Florentine Renaissance palace. The diamond cuboid sgraffito was reconstructed in 1996–1998.
- The Staupsäule ( Pranger ) on the Neumarkt ( Maly Rynek ) dates from the 1556th
- The Hospital Church of St. John Nepomuk ( Kościół szpitalny św. Jana Nepomucena ), which stands below the Niedertor beyond the Hospital Bridge ( Pl. Szpitalny ) not far from the confluence of the Weistritz and the Neisse, is a branch church of the Archangel Michael Church. The building (1827/1833) occupies the location of the St. Antonius Hospital Church, which was destroyed by the town fire in 1823, including the Antonius Hospital, the history of which can be traced back to its foundation in 1381. It was previously under the patronage of the Apostles Peter and Paul (1560, 1631), before that apparently under that of the Virgin Mary (papal bull of April 5, 1400). In the west, the facade tower crowned with a pyramid roof serves as a bell tower. The tower clock attached in 1840 is no longer there. The arched windows of the two-bay nave and the semicircular apse facing south-east are provided with artistic grilles. An annex on the north facade serves as a sacristy. The interior contains an altar and altarpiece consecrated to the patron saint of the church and an organ donated by Grand Dean Joseph Knauer , which was created thanks to additional donations from the Habelschwerdter Magistrate and private donors by Albert Vogel , master organ builder in Frankenstein ( Ząbkowice Śląskie ) and inaugurated in 1844.
- The city wall from the 14th century was torn down after 1840 and the moat was filled in. In the northern and eastern sections, the remains of the wall were uncovered between 1960 and 1962. Of the three gates, the Niedertor with its ogival gate passage and crenellated top has been preserved, as well as the Glatzer Tower and the Knight Tower , which was converted into the bell tower of the Protestant church in 1843 .
- The Vogtei building at Niedertor, which consisted of a residential tower with a moat, was converted into a residential building in 1767. From the original building from the 14th century, the loopholes on the ground floor and a pointed arch portal at the cellar entrance have been preserved.
- A match museum ( Muzeum Filumenistyczne ) has been housed in the former Protestant church from 1822 since 1964 .
- The St. Florian Chapel ( Kaplica Św. Floriana ) was built from 1725 to 1727 to commemorate the city fire of 1703 on the right bank of the Neisse on the Hopfenberg (also Hoppenberg), the later Floriansberg (today Polish Góra Parkowa ). The chapel replaced a previous wooden building. At the request of the donors, Michael Gruber (1688-1753), a native of Habelschwerdter and superior of the Royal Polish and Electoral Saxon Chapel in Dresden, campaigned for the titular queen of Poland to help his compatriots to obtain a relic of St. Florian . The Queen made them a present of the saint's thumb joint, which she had preciously set, as well as a relic of St. John of Nepomuk . The Florian's relic burned in the house of the church father Kolbe during the great city fire in 1823. The ceiling painting of the St. Florians Chapel shows the town fire of 1703 and the extinguishing St. Florian. The baroque interior with sculptures was created by Michael Klahr the Elder. Ä. The painting on the right side altar is a copy of the Rosary Madonna of Brno . Michael Klahr the Elder created the right side altar of Our Lady of Sorrows . J. The Marian column in front of the chapel is also attributed to this.
The following districts belong to the urban and rural community of Bystrzyca Kłodzka:
Długopole Dolne ( low Langenau ) Długopole-Zdrój ( Długopole ) Gorzanów ( Grafenort ) Huta ( Hüttenguth ) Idzików (Kieslingswalde) Kamienna ( Stone Ground ) Marcinków ( Martin Berg ), Lasowka ( Kaiserswalde ) Marianówka ( Mariendorf ) Mielnik ( Melling ) Międzygórze ( Miedzygorze ) Młoty ( hammer ), Mostowice ( Langenbrück ), Nova Bystrzyca ( Neuweistritz ), Nova Łomnica ( Neulomnitz ) Nowy Waliszów ( Neuwaltersdorf ) Paszków ( Pohl village ), Piaskowice ( Friedrichsgrund ) Piotrowice ( Mr Petersdorf ) Pławnica ( Plomnitz ) Pokrzywno ( Nesselgrund ) Poniatów ( Peucker ) Ponikwa ( Verlorenwasser ) Poręba ( light Walde ) Rudawa ( chair Seiffen ) Spalona ( Brand ), Stara Bystrzyca ( Altweistritz ) Stara Łomnica ( Altlomnitz ), Stary Waliszów ( Altwaltersdorf ) Starkówek ( Neubatzdorf ) Szczawina ( Neubrunnenplatz ) Szklarka ( Glasdorf ) Szklary ( Glasegrund ) Topolice ( Aspenau ) Wilkanow ( Wölfel village ), Wójtowice ( Voigt village ), Wyszki ( Hohndorf ) Zabłocie ( Kr otenpfuhl ), Zalesie ( Spatenwalde ).
- Alcañiz , Spain
- Amberg , Germany
- Kaźmierz Wielkopolski , Poland
- Laissey , France
- Massa Martana , Italy
- Ústí nad Orlicí , Czech Republic
sons and daughters of the town
in chronological order of their dates of birth:
- Georg Gloger (1603–1631), poet
- Johann Bock (1638–1688), scholar and clergyman
- Johann Christoph Welak (≈1659–?), Catholic clergyman, prior of the Benedictine order and chronicle writer; left a chronicle of Habelschwerdt
- Johannes Kuben (1697–1770), a Jesuit artist who worked as a fresco and painter
- Joseph Thamm (1804–1865), illustrator, painter and author; Editor of a history of the city of Habelschwerdt (1841)
- Ferdinand Hauck (1805–1871), piano maker
- Titus Ullrich (1813–1891), poet and art critic
- Robert Brauner (1816–1854), preacher and theologian of the German Catholic movement
- Theodor von Mörner (1817–1874), historian and archivist
- Rudolf Bial (1834–1881), composer and theater director
- Albrecht Thamm (1839–1882), sculptor
- Franz Hirschwälder (1843–1886), theologian of the Old Catholic Movement and professor at the Catholic theological faculty in Bern
- Paul von Bolko (1850 - after 1918), manor owner and member of the Prussian manor house
- Hermann Stehr (1864–1940), poet
- Paul Mittmann (1868–1920), church musician and composer
- Joseph Klapper (1880–1967), educator, cultural historian, folklore researcher and Germanist
- Hansom Milde-Meißner (1899–1983), composer
- Ursula Raurin-Kutzner (* 1927), politician
- Andreas Hönisch (1930–2008), priest and founder of an order
- Georg Katzer (1935–2019), composer
- Eckhard Keßler (1938–2018), history of philosophy and university professor
- Heinrich Dilly (1941–2019), art historian
- Klaus Neumann (* 1942), athlete
- Tadeusz Trziszka (* 1948), agricultural scientist
- Małgorzata Ruchniewicz (* 1970), historian
- Marcin Marciniszyn (* 1982), athlete
- Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, towns, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia . 2nd edition, Breslau 1845, p. 834.
- Friedrich Gottlob Leonhardi : Earth Description of the Prussian Monarchy , Volume 3, Part 1, Halle 1792, pp. 214-216 .
- Dehio Handbook of Art Monuments in Poland. Silesia. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich et al. 2005, ISBN 3-422-03109-X , pp. 197-200.
- Peter Güttler: The Glatzer Land. A travel guide to the landscape, art and culture of the Kłodzko Mountains / Ziemia Kłodzka in Silesia. Aktion West-Ost eV, Düsseldorf 1995, ISBN 3-928508-03-2 , pp. 49-51.
- Arno Herzig , Małgorzata Ruchniewicz : History of the Glatzer Land. DOBU-Verlag et al., Hamburg et al. 2006, ISBN 3-934632-12-2 .
- Franz route: City of Habelschwerdt and the surrounding area. From around the year 1000 to autumn 1945. Selected dates and facts. An overview. 2nd expanded and supplemented edition. Central Office Grafschaft Glatz / Schlesien eV, Lüdenscheid 1993 ( On the history of our homeland (Silesia) ).
- Joseph Thamm : History of the city of Habelschwerdt, together with an appendix about the forts of the Habelschwerdter district. WE Schmidt, Habelschwerdt 1841, with views and site plan.
- Franz Volkmer : History of the city of Habelschwerdt. Franke, Habelschwerdt 1897.
- Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , pp. 172-176.
- Bystrzyca Kłodzka website
- History of the Kłodzko Land (cz: Kladsko)
- Website of the Match Museum (Polish)
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- City website (BIP), Burmistrz Bystrzycy Kłodzkiej , accessed on February 16, 2015
- Eduard Ludwig Wedekind : History of the county of Glatz. Chronicle of the cities, towns, villages, colonies, castles etc. of this sovereign county from the earliest past to the present . Neurode 1855, p. 115 ff.
- Wilhelm Wiswedel: Silesia . In: Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 8, Leipzig and Vienna 1907, p. 584.
- Friedrich Gottlob Leonhardi : Earth Description of the Prussian Monarchy , Volume 3, Part 1, Halle 1792, pp. 214-216 .
- Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 5: T – Z , Halle 1823, pp. 290–291, item 239.
- Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, towns and other places of the royal family. Prussia. Province of Silesia, including the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia, which now belongs entirely to the province, and the County of Glatz; together with the attached evidence of the division of the country into the various branches of civil administration . Breslau 1830, p. 937.
- Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia . 2nd edition, Breslau 1845, p. 834.
- Kraatz: Topographical-statistical manual of the Prussian state . Berlin 1856, p. 215.
- Gustav Neumann : Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, p. 210, paragraph 24.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. habelschwerdt.html # ew39hablhabelsc. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Eduard Ludwig Wedekind: History of the county of Glatz. Chronicle of the cities, towns, villages & this sovereign county ... , Fischer, 1857, p. 115ff ( online )
- Wording of the address given after the inauguration of the organ and following the high mass in December 1844 in the Hospital Church of St. Johannes-Nepomuk, in Dr. Joseph Sauer (Ed.): Schlesisches Kirchenblatt , Volume 11, Verlag Georg Philipp Aderholz, Breslau, 1845, p. 32 ( online )
- Johann Adam Valentin Weigel: Geographical, natural historical and technological description of the sovereign Duchy of Silesia , Part 4, Die Graffschaft Glatz , by Christian Friedrich Himburg, Berlin, 1801, p. 71 ( online )