|Voivodeship :||Lower Silesia|
|Area :||20.15 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||420 m npm|
(June 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||57-540|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 74|
|License plate :||DKL|
|Economy and Transport|
|Next international airport :||Wroclaw|
|Gminatype:||Urban and rural municipality|
|Gmina structure:||10 localities|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||70 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0208083|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|Mayor :||Roman Kaczmarczyk|
Lądek-Zdrój [ 'lɔndɛk' zdruɪ̯ ] (German Bad Landeck , before 1935 Landeck i. Silesia ) is a town in the powiat Kłodzki in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in Poland. The spa is one of the oldest in Europe and the oldest in the former County of Glatz .
The city is located on the Biele in the southeast of the Glatzer Kessel at 425-460 m above sea level. NHN , about 18 kilometers southeast of Kłodzko ( Glatz ). To the northeast are the Reichenstein Mountains , southeast the Bielen Mountains and southwest the Glatzer Schneegebirge . The border with the Czech Republic runs four kilometers to the east .
Neighboring towns are Wójtówka ( Voigtsdorf ) and Orłowiec ( Schönau ) in the north, Lutynia ( Leuthen ) in the northeast, Karpno ( Karpenstein ) and the Karpenstein castle ruins in the east, Stójków ( Olbersdorf ) and Stronie Śląskie ( Seitenberg ) in the south, Kąty Bystrzyckie ( Winkeldorf ) in the southwest and Radochów ( Reyersdorf ) and Trzebieszowice ( Kunzendorf ) in the west.
The municipalities of Lądek-Zdrój are:
From the foundation in the 13th century to the 18th century
Landeck was probably founded in the second half of the 13th century by the Bohemian King Ottokar II. Přemysl and is documented as a Bohemian royal town for 1294 . The spelling Landecke is documented for 1325, which corresponds to the geographical location on the southeastern border of the Glatzer country , with which it shared the history of its political and ecclesiastical affiliation. King Wenceslaus IV renewed and confirmed the city's previous privileges in 1392. Until 1443, Landeck belonged to the Karpenstein rule and then to the royal chamber or the respective pledges of the County of Glatz. The city, which had no city wall, was burned down in the Hussite Wars of 1428 and 1431. In the second half of the 15th century it was rebuilt by the sons of the Bohemian king Georg von Podiebrad , the dukes of Münsterberg , who were also Counts of Glatz. Economic development stagnated in the 16th century. During the Thirty Years War , Landeck was severely hit and economically destroyed several times. After the First Silesian War in 1742 and finally with the Hubertusburg Peace in 1763, it came to Prussia together with the County of Glatz . In 1765 a city fire caused great damage.
19th century until after 1945
After the reorganization of Prussia, Landeck belonged to the province of Silesia from 1815 and was initially incorporated into the district of Glatz. From 1818 to 1945 it belonged to the district of Habelschwerdt , which had been founded from the former districts of Landeck and Habelschwerdt.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Landeck experienced an upswing, the economic basis of which was craft businesses and small manufactories such as a wood pulp factory, a glove factory and agriculture. The most important economic factor were five thermal baths and a cold water sanatorium. After the Prussian King Friedrich the Great and members of his family had used the Landeck mineral springs for a spa treatment several times from 1765, the number of bathers and those seeking relaxation increased steadily. With the construction of the branch line Glatz – Landeck – Seitenberg , which reached Landeck in 1897, the economic development of the city and the spa was promoted. In the second half of the 19th century the city hospital, the neo-baroque post office and the stately villas on the street leading to the health resort ( ul. Zdrojowa ) were added. At the beginning of the 20th century, Landeck had a Protestant church, four Catholic churches and chapels, a preparation facility and was the seat of a local court .
Towards the end of the Second World War , Landeck was occupied by the Red Army in the spring of 1945 and after the war, like almost all of Silesia, was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet Union . The German place was renamed Lądek Zdroj . The immigration of Polish migrants began, some of whom came from areas east of the Curzon Line that had fallen to the Soviet Union and where they had belonged to the Polish minority. The German population was largely expelled by the local Polish administrative authority .
From 1975 to 1998 Lądek-Zdrój belonged to the Wałbrzych Voivodeship ( Waldenburg ).
|1787||1014||204 houses, including 78 in the city, 103 in the suburbs and 23 public buildings|
|1816||1167||According to other information, 1152 inhabitants, including 26 Evangelicals and 1126 Catholics (no Jews)|
|1825||1298||including 48 Evangelicals|
|1840||1500||60 Protestants and 1,440 Catholics|
|1867||2165||on December 3rd,|
|1871||2360||including 240 Evangelicals; According to other data, 2359 inhabitants (on December 1), of whom 221 were Protestants, 2124 Catholics, four other Christians and ten Jews|
|1890||2683||including 242 Evangelicals and 13 Jews|
|1900||3526||mostly Catholic residents|
Buildings and monuments
- The center of the city is the 96 × 56 m large ring ( Rynek ) with partly baroque house gables on three sides. The houses on the north side of the ring are provided with arcades . Some of them were left to decay after the Second World War, but they were faithfully rebuilt in the 1990s. At the southwest corner of the ring stands the house of the most famous citizen, Michael Klahr the Elder. Ä . It is adorned with a protective cloak Madonna from his workshop.
- The town hall in the neo-renaissance style was built in 1872.
- The damming column on the east side of the town hall originally stood in Heinzendorf ( Skrzynka ).
- The Trinity Column was donated by Anton Reichel and by Michael Klahr the Elder. Ä. Made of stone around 1739. It has a triangular floor plan. The name of the founder is on the base: the hll. Anthony , Luke and John the Baptist . On the upper corner pedestals are the hll. Joseph , Joachim and Anna depicted, in between increased Maria Immaculata . The column is crowned by the Trinity and a towering cross.
- To the west of the ring is the Parish Church of the Birth of the Virgin Mary ( Kościół Narodzenia NMP ) with a side tower and a Baroque dome. The church was first mentioned in a document in 1336. The current hall was built in 1690–1701 by the master builder Lorenz Weiss from Glatz and decorated with stucco and ceiling paintings at the beginning of the 18th century . The wall paintings were created by the Landeck artist Wilhelm Reinsch at the beginning of the 20th century.
- By Michael Klahr the Elder Ä. come the wall cross opposite the pulpit and the figures of hll. Anna, Johannes, Ignatius , Franz , Philippus and Franz Xaver .
- Michael Klahr the Elder J. created the pulpit with the figure of Christ on the sound cover , the organ prospectus , the confessionals and the statues of hll. Mary and Joseph and the nativity scene that is set up at Christmas time. The current high altar was created in 1901 by the Landeck sculptor August Klein as a copy of the original high altar by Michael Klahr the Elder. J., who was taken to a museum in Wroclaw.
- The statue at the western end of the village is from 1806 and represents St. Mary with braids.
- East of the ring is the Evangelical Salvator Church from 1848.
- The Johannesbrücke over the Biele was built in 1565 and in 1709 was decorated with a sculpture of the Bohemian saint Johannes von Nepomuk , whose head is surrounded by five stars.
History of the bath
The Landecker Bad, the oldest in the former County of Glatz and one of the oldest health resorts in Europe, developed in the Ober-Thalheim district. It lies east of the city and is climatically protected by the Reichenstein Mountains to the north and east. Little is known about the discovery of the springs. They were probably used from the 13th century. In 1428 the bathing facilities were destroyed by the Hussites and in 1470 by a flood. Based on a source investigation by the Viennese doctor Konrad von Berge, the co-owner of the County of Glatz, Georg I von Münsterberg , ordered the construction of a bathhouse ( Georgenbad ), next to it a residential house and a Georg chapel at the end of the 15th century . In 1501 he issued the first bathing regulations. In 1572 the city of Landeck acquired the Georgenbad, but left the newly discovered springs in private ownership due to lack of funds. In 1604 the first bathing brochure was published. Johann Sigismund Hoffmann von Leuchtenstern, who had acquired the property, built a second bathhouse ( Marienbad ) and several houses for spa guests in 1678 over the sulfur spring mentioned in 1625, and in 1688 the Marienkapelle. His grandson Leopold Graf von Hoffmann sold Marienbad in 1736 together with the villages of Ober-Thalheim, Leuthen , Voigtsdorf , Karpenstein and Heidelberg to the city of Landeck.
The number of bathers increased significantly after members of the Prussian royal family and other high-ranking personalities came to the bath for healing purposes. Minister of State Karl Georg von Hoym , who himself stayed in Landeck as a spa guest in 1782, took particular care of his development. In the 19th century, the baths and bathing facilities were expanded according to plan. In 1842, in the presence of Prince Albrecht of Prussia , his wife Marianne of the Netherlands and her family, the grand inauguration of the foyer located on the so-called morning promenade and named after Prince Albrechtshalle took place. This event gave the occasion to name the healing spring Mariannenbrunnen, connected to the hall by a corridor and covered with a glazed pavilion . In the German War of 1866, hotels and bathing facilities were used as hospitals for wounded soldiers. 1912 was radium -Emanatorium opened and Landeck to Radium Spa appointed. During the Second World War, the spa operations were partially restricted and the large hotels were again used as hospitals. The Kurhaus Marienbad also served as a maternal convalescent home around 1943/1944 , where German women from other places or large cities were brought to give birth.
The radium-containing sulfur springs are 16.5 to 29.6 degrees warm, the extremely strong spring discovered in 1972/73 even 43.9 degrees. They are used for drinking cures and baths and are prescribed in particular against rheumatism, gout, joint and gynecological problems as well as age disorders.
Important buildings in the bathing district
- The Marienbad (today Wojciech ) was first established in 1678th It was rebuilt from 1778–1780 based on a design by the Breslau architect Hermann Völker. It is a central building with a dome in the neo-renaissance style and contains a water basin on the ground floor of the rotunda, above the drinking hall and in the wings the baths for the spa guests. It was renovated in 1984–1998. The neo-renaissance decoration of the pump room and the redoubt hall has been preserved .
- The Georgenbad , first built at the end of the 14th century, was rebuilt in 1917.
- The Friedrichsbad with thermal swimming pool was built in 1936.
- The Wandelhalle ( Albrechtshalle ) was built in 1842.
- The Georgskapelle ( Kaplica św. Jerzego ), located on a hill, was built at the end of the 15th century based on a design by Duke Georg von Münsterberg. It was rebuilt in 1637 as a foundation by the Governor of Glatz, Johann Georg von Götzen , and inaugurated in 1665 by the Prague Archbishop of Harrach , who was in Landeck for a cure. It is an octagonal central building with a curved roof and a lantern. The dome frescoes with scenes from the life of St. George and St. Trinity was created by the Breslau painter Johann Jacob Eybelwieser in 1720 .
- The baroque chapel of St. Maria Einsiedel ( Kaplica NMP Na pustkowiu, ul. Lipowa ) is a foundation of Johann Sigismund Hoffmann von Leuchtenstern from 1678. It was expanded in 1690 and 1801. In the gables are figures of Maria Immaculata and St. Anna and Joseph. The main altar - with a statue of Mary from 1672 - is from the second half of the 18th century. The neo-baroque altars are from 1926. There is a Marian column in front of the chapel.
City forest and surroundings
The city forest, in which over 35 kilometers of hiking trails have been laid out, is directly adjacent to the bathing district. They lead, among other things, to the forest temple built in 1786 and demolished in 1960 , in which King Friedrich Wilhelm III. and Tsar Alexander met, and to the Dreieckerfels ( Trojak ) lookout point and the Karpenstein castle ruins .
A center of church art
After Michael Klahr the Elder Ä. In 1724 he founded a large sculpture workshop in Landeck, which was run by his son Michael Klahr the Elder. J. was continued, Landeck developed into an important center of church art. The most famous carvers from Landeck as well as church and art painters include August Klein, Franz Thamm and his sons Franz, Paul and Adolf, Aloys Schmidt as well as Wilhelm Reinsch and Leo Richter.
Personalities from Bad Landeck
- Vitus Seipel (1650–1711), auxiliary bishop in Prague
- Michael Klahr the Elder (1693–1742), German baroque sculptor
- Michael Klahr the Younger (1727–1807), German baroque sculptor
- Hans Graf von Bülow (1774-1825), Prussian Finance Minister
- Franz Thamm (1831–1902), German sculptor
- Frank E. Washburn's friend (born 1878), art critic
- Margarethe Siems (1879–1952), German opera singer
- Georg Hartmann (1887–1954), teacher, composer, choir director and dialect poet in Bad Landeck
- Richard Wolf (1900–1995), German writer
- Peter Reinelt (1939–2010), German politician
- Joachim Heider (* 1944), German pop singer
- Günter Hoffmann (* 1944), German actor and sound assistant
- Carl-Wolfgang Holzapfel (* 1944), German politician, activist against the former Berlin Wall
- Regina Ogorek (* 1944), German lawyer
- Edda Schönherz (* 1944), German TV announcer
- Jürgen Danielowski (* 1945), German politician
- Martin Stenzel (* 1946), German track cyclist
- Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, towns, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia . 2nd edition, Breslau 1845, pp. 849-851.
- Friedrich Gottlob Leonhardi : Earth description of the Prussian monarchy , Volume 3, Part 1, Halle 1792, pp. 216-218 .
- Bogusław Czechowicz, Andrzej Koziel: Johann Jacob Eybelwieser w Lądku Zdroju. O malarskiej decoracji lądeckiej kaplicy św. Jerzego. In: Kladský sborník 6, 2005, , pp. 239-258.
- Dehio Handbook of Art Monuments in Poland. Silesia. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich et al. 2005, ISBN 3-422-03109-X , pp. 517-518.
- Peter Güttler: The Glatzer Land. A travel guide to the landscape, art and culture of the Kłodzko Mountains / Ziemia Kłodzka in Silesia. Aktion West-Ost eV, Düsseldorf 1995, ISBN 3-928508-03-2 , pp. 65-67.
- Otto Langner: Bad Landeck. A handbook for spa guests and tourists. Hirschbergs Buchhandlung, Glatz 1868.
- Paul Preis: Music and theater life in the city and district of Glatz. A review. Published by the city of Lüdenscheid. 2nd part: Glatz district. Grafschafter Bote, Lüdenscheid 1969.
- Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , pp. 11-12.
- City website
- Historical views of Bad Landeck (Lądek-Zdrój)
- Historical and current views of Bad Landeck (Lądek-Zdrój)
- Master builder Gehlig (processing): Historical city map Bad Landeck, 1939
- Joachim Lukas: Regional history notes from Silesia - Bad Landeck (accessed on November 16, 2016)
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Website of the city, Burmistrz Lądka-Zdroju , accessed on February 21, 2015
- City of Bad Landeck i. Schl. on www.territorial.de
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 12, Leipzig and Vienna 1908, pp. 96-97
- Friedrich Gottlob Leonhardi : Earth Description of the Prussian Monarchy , Volume 3, Part 1, Halle 1792, pp. 216-218 .
- Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 5: T – Z , Halle 1823, pp. 312–319, item 359.
- Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 3: Kr – O , Halle 1822, p. 59, item 266.
- Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, towns and other places of the royal family. Prussia. Province of Silesia, including the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia, which now belongs entirely to the province, and the County of Glatz; together with the attached evidence of the division of the country into the various branches of civil administration . Breslau 1830, pp. 952-954.
- Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia . 2nd edition, Breslau 1845, pp. 849-851.
- Kraatz: Topographical-statistical manual of the Prussian state . Berlin 1856, p. 396.
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The municipalities and manor districts of the province of Silesia and their population. Based on the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. Berlin 1874, pp. 156–157, item 2.
- Gustav Neumann : Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, p. 210, item 24 .;
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. habelschwerdt.html # ew39hablhabelsc. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Richard Hauck: Bad Landeck / Schlesien , Leimen 1973, p. 289
- Advertising brochure of the municipal bathing administration from 1911. online at goerlitzer-bahn.de.