The Prussian district of Fraustadt (until 1938 Fraustadt district ) existed in different delimitations from 1793 to 1807 in the province of South Prussia , from 1815 to 1920 in the province of Posen , from 1920 to 1938 in the administrative district or the province of Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia , from 1938 to 1941 in the Province of Silesia and from 1941 to 1945 in the Province of Lower Silesia .
The Fraustadt district had areas of
- 1002 km² (1818 to 1887)
- 477 km² (1887 to 1920)
- 262 km² (1920 to 1938).
After the Third Partition of Poland from 1793 to 1807, the area around the Greater Poland cities of Fraustadt and Lissa belonged to the Fraustadt district in the Prussian province of South Prussia. With the Peace of Tilsit , the Fraustadt district became part of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 . After the Congress of Vienna , on May 15, 1815, the district again fell to the Kingdom of Prussia and became part of the Poznan administrative district of the Poznan Province.
During the Prussian administrative reforms , a district reform was carried out in the Posen administrative district on January 1, 1818, in which the Fraustadt district gave the area around the town of Schmiegel to the Kosten district and the area around Priment to the Bomst district . The district town and seat of the district office was Fraustadt.
As part of the Posen Province , the Fraustadt district became part of the newly founded German Empire on January 18, 1871 , against which the Polish MPs protested in the new Reichstag on April 1, 1871.
- the cities of Lissa, Reisen , Schwetzkau , Storchnest and Zaborowo
- the police district Lissa with the exception of the rural community Neu Laube and
- the Storchnest Police District.
On December 27, 1918, the Greater Poland uprising of the Polish majority against German rule began in the province of Posen , but the Fraustadt district, which is predominantly inhabited by Germans, remained under German control. On February 16, 1919, an armistice ended the Polish-German fighting, and on June 28, 1919, with the signing of the Versailles Treaty , the German government ceded the north-eastern third of the Fraustadt district (215 km²) to newly founded Poland . On November 25, 1919, Germany and Poland concluded an agreement on the evacuation and surrender of the areas to be ceded, which was ratified on January 10, 1920. The evacuation and handover to Poland took place between January 17 and February 4, 1920. The area ceded to Poland became part of the Powiat Leszno . From November 20, 1919, the Fraustadt district was administered from Schneidemühl and belonged to the newly formed Prussian province Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia in 1922 .
On October 1, 1938, the Grenzmark Province of Posen-West Prussia was dissolved and the Fraustadt district was assigned to the Liegnitz district of the Silesia Province . The community of Lache was given to the neighboring district of Grünberg . From January 1, 1939, the Fraustadt district was given the name Landkreis in accordance with the now unified rule . On January 18, 1941, the province of Silesia was divided; the Fraustadt district now belonged to the new province of Lower Silesia . At the end of January 1945 the Red Army occupied the Fraustadt district, which as Powiat Wschowski has belonged to Poland since then.
In 1905, 73% of the inhabitants of the district were Germans and 27% Poles. The majority of the German residents left the area after 1919. In 1925 the population was 10,956 Protestants, 8,940 Catholics and 157 Jews.
- 1793–1804 Johann Balthasar von Schlichting
- 1804–1806 Andreas von Pottworowski
- 1818–1824 by Bronikowski
- 1824–1831 by Nosarzewski
- 1831–1833 from Hohberg
- 1833–1868 Ernst von Heynitz (1799–1871)
- 1873–1878 Friedrich Wilhelm von Massenbach
- 1878–1878 by Lucke
- 1878–1886 Paul von Rheinbaben (1844–1921)
- 1886–1892 Georg von Guenther (1858–1942)
- 1892–1898 Richard von Doemming
- 1898–1904 Bruno Alsen (1861–1913)
- 1904–1915 Theodor von Heppe (1870–1954)
- 1915–1918 Karl Hayessen (1865–1947)
- 1922–1930 Volkening
- 1930–1933 Heinrich
- 1933–1935 Albert Mellin (* 1901)
- 1938–1942 Reinfried von Baumbach (1898–1989)
- 1943–1945 Friedrich Stucke
- 1871 Maximilian von Puttkamer , National Liberal Party
- 1874 Maximilian von Puttkamer, National Liberal Party
- 1877 Maximilian von Puttkamer, National Liberal Party
- 1878 Maximilian von Puttkamer, National Liberal Party
- 1881 Stanislaus von Chlapowski , Polish parliamentary group
- 1884 Paul von Rheinbaben , Free Conservative Party
- 1887 Paul von Rheinbaben, Free Conservative Party
- 1890 Hans von Hellmann , Free Conservative Party
- 1893 Stanislaus von Chlapowski , Polish parliamentary group
- 1898 Anton Tasch , Center Party
- 1903 Karl Schmidt , Free Conservative Party
- 1907 Max Kolbe , Free Conservative Party
- 1912 Hans Georg von Oppersdorff , Center Party
Since 1818 seven municipalities belonged to the Fraustadt district, the remaining rural municipalities and manor districts were combined in police districts. The five eastern cities came to the newly formed Lissa district in 1887 .
On January 1, 1908, the two cities of Fraustadt and Schlichtingsheim , 40 rural communities and 29 manor districts belonged to the district.
In 1929 the manor districts were dissolved in the Free State of Prussia . In 1945, the Fraustadt district last consisted of the two cities of Fraustadt and Schlichtingsheim and 20 other communities.
The following communities have belonged to the district since 1887:
The Polish names behind the dash are partly current, partly from the 18th century.
- Gustav Neumann : Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 145-146, paragraph 4.
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The municipalities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population. Edited and compiled from the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. Part IV: The Province of Posen , Berlin 1874, pp. 102–111 ( e-copy, pp . 109-118 ).
- ACA Friedrich: Historical-geographical representation of old and new Poland . Berlin 1839, pp. 575-576.
- Leopold von Zedlitz-Neukirch : The state forces of the Prussian monarchy under Friedrich Wilhelm III .. Volume 2, part 1, Berlin 1828, p. 95, item V.
- M. Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. (online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006)
- Martin Sprungala : The history of the Poznan districts and independent cities. Bad Bevensen 2007.
- Martin Sprungala: Historical Directory of the Province of Poznan and the Poznań Voivodeship (Poznan). Bad Bevensen 2007.
- Fraustadt administrative history and the district administrators on the website territorial.de (Rolf Jehke), as of August 13, 2013.
- Historical, statistical, topographical description of South Prussia, 1798
- Walther Hubatsch (ed.): Outline of German administrative history 1815-1945. Johann Gottfried Herder Institute, Marburg / Lahn; Volume 2, Part 1: Province of Poznan. edited by Dieter Stüttgen, 1975, ISBN 3-87969-109-6
- ACA Friederich: Historical-geographical representation of old and new Poland . Stuhrsche Buchhandlung, Berlin ( digitized version [accessed on August 8, 2018]).
- Royal Statistical Bureau (ed.): Mittheilungen des Statistisches Bureau's in Berlin, Volume 2 . Population of the districts. ( Digitized version ).
- The municipalities and manors of the Poznan Province and their population in 1871
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Fraustadt district. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- The Big Brockhaus . 15th edition, sixteenth volume, Leipzig 1933, p. 745.
- Rolf Straubel : Biographical manual of the Prussian administrative and judicial officials 1740–1806 / 15 . In: Historical Commission to Berlin (Ed.): Individual publications . 85. KG Saur Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-23229-9 .
- Horst Romeyk : The leading state and municipal administrative officials of the Rhine Province 1816–1945 (= publications of the Society for Rhenish History . Volume 69 ). Droste, Düsseldorf 1994, ISBN 3-7700-7585-4 , p. 417 .
- Historical-statistical-topographical description of South Prussia and New East Prussia or the royal Prussian possessions of Poland, Leipzig 1798 (google books - E-book free)