The Schroda district existed from 1793 to 1807 in the Prussian province of South Prussia and from 1815 to 1919 in the east of the Prussian province of Posen . The former district area is now essentially part of the Powiat Średzki in the Polish Greater Poland Voivodeship .
The Schroda district last had an area of 796 km².
After the Third Partition of Poland from 1793 to 1807, the area around the Greater Poland city of Środa belonged to the Schroda district in the Prussian province of South Prussia. With the Peace of Tilsit the area became part of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 . After the Congress of Vienna , on May 15, 1815, it fell again to the Kingdom of Prussia and became part of the Poznan administrative district of the Poznan Province.
During the Prussian administrative reforms , a district reform was carried out in the Posen administrative region on January 1, 1818, in which the Schroda district was redefined. The area around the town of Pudewitz from the Gnesen district and the area around the towns of Kostschin and Santomischel from the Schrimm district were added to the district . In return, the district gave the area around the city of Miloslaw to the Wreschen district and the area around the city of Neustadt an der Warthe to the Pleschen district . The town of Schroda was the district town and seat of the District Office .
On April 1, 1900, the city of Pudewitz , its police district, the rural communities Paczkowo, Sarbinowo and Sokolniki Gwiazdowskie and the manor districts Gwiazdowo and Puszczykowo moved from the Schroda district to the western neighboring district of Posen-Ost .
On December 27, 1918, the Wielkopolska uprising of the Polish majority against German rule began in the province of Posen , and in January 1919 the district was under Polish control. On February 16, 1919, an armistice ended the Polish-German fighting, and on June 28, 1919, with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles , the German government officially ceded the Schroda district to the newly founded Republic of Poland .
- 1795–1806 Christian von Horn-Rogowski
- 1818–1832 by Stoss
- 1834–1844 by Wimmer
- 1844–1848 Hermann von Schmidt (1811–1873)
- 1852–1869 Hermann glasses
- 1869–1876 Carl Albert Hagen (1839–1910)
- 1876–1877 Wilhelm Rabe
- 1877–1878 Dähner
- 1878–1880 Waldemar Müller
- 1881–1892 Friedrich Tschuschke (1845–1894)
- 1896–1910 Karl von Rose (1863–1945)
- 1910–1918 Rudolf von Spankeren (1875–1930)
The Schroda district together with the Schrimm district formed the Posen 7 constituency of the Reichstag . The constituency was won by the candidates of the Polish parliamentary group in all Reichstag elections between 1871 and 1912 :
- 1871 Napoleon Xaver von Mankowski
- 1874 Eustachius von Rogalinski
- 1877 novel by Komierowski
- 1878 novel by Komierowski
- 1881 novel by Komierowski
- 1884 Ludwig Edler von Graeve
- 1887 Ludwig Edler von Graeve
- 1890 Ludwig Edler von Graeve
- 1893 Karl Kubicki
- 1898 Josef von Glebocki
- 1903 Josef von Glebocki
- 1907 Alfred von Chlapowo Chlapowski (77.6% of the vote in the Schrimm-Schroda constituency)
- 1912 Felicyan von Niegolewski (78% of the vote in the Schrimm-Schroda constituency)
The Schroda district included the towns of Schroda , Kostschin , Santomischel and, until 1900, Pudewitz . The (as of 1908) 104 rural communities and 88 manor districts were initially grouped into (smaller) Woyt districts (Polish “wójt” = German “Vogt”) and later in larger police districts.
At the beginning of the 20th century the following communities belonged to the district:
With a few exceptions, the Polish place names continued to apply after 1815, and several place names were Germanized at the beginning of the 20th century.
- Franz Mertens , mathematician, born on March 20, 1840 in Schroda.
- Arthur Greiser , Reich Governor and Gauleiter, born on January 22, 1897 in Schroda.
Schroda County in occupied Poland (1939–1945)
During the Second World War , the German occupation authorities formed the Schroda district . The annexation of the area by the German Reich on October 26, 1939 , as a unilateral act of violence, was ineffective under international law. The Jewish residents were murdered by the German occupation authorities during World War II . The German occupation ended with the invasion of the Red Army in January 1945 .
Land Commissioner / District Administrator
- 1939–1945: Ludwig Zerbst (* 1906)
During the German occupation in World War II , only Schroda received city rights in 1942 according to the German municipal code of 1935, the other municipalities were grouped together in administrative districts .
Larger municipalities in the Schroda district:
|Polish name||German name (1815-1919)||German name (1939-1945)|
|Murzynowo Leśne||Murzynowo Lesne Hauland
|Nekielka||Nekla Hauland||Nekla Hauland|
- Klaus von Klitzing , physicist and Nobel Prize winner, was born on June 28, 1943 in Schroda
- Gustav Neumann : Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 152-153, paragraph 14.
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The municipalities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population. Edited and compiled from the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. Part IV: The Province of Posen , Berlin 1874, pp. 20–31 ( e-copy, pp. 27-35 ).
- ACA Friedrich: Historical-geographical representation of old and new Poland . Berlin 1839, pp. 581-582.
- Leopold von Zedlitz-Neukirch : The state forces of the Prussian monarchy under Friedrich Wilhelm III . Volume 2, part 1, Berlin 1828, pp. 108-109, item XVI
- M. Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. (online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006)
- Kreis Schroda administrative history and the district administrators on the website territorial.de (Rolf Jehke), as of August 18, 2013.
- Historical, statistical, topographical description of South Prussia, 1798
- Walther Hubatsch (ed.): Outline of German administrative history 1815-1945. Johann Gottfried Herder Institute, Marburg / Lahn; Volume 2, Part 1: Province of Poznan. edited by Dieter Stüttgen, 1975, ISBN 3-87969-109-6
- ACA Friederich: Historical-geographical representation of old and new Poland . Stuhrsche Buchhandlung, Berlin ( digitized version [accessed on August 8, 2018]).
- Royal Statistical Bureau (ed.): Mittheilungen des Statistisches Bureau's in Berlin, Volume 2 . Population of the districts. ( Digitized version ).
- The municipalities and manors of the Poznan Province and their population in 1871
- Rolf Straubel : Biographical manual of the Prussian administrative and judicial officials 1740–1806 / 15 . In: Historical Commission to Berlin (Ed.): Individual publications . 85. KG Saur Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-23229-9 .
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history (dissertation): District of Jarotschin