Krotoschin district

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The Krotoschin district in South Prussia
The Krotoschin district within the boundaries from 1818 to 1887
Kreis Adelnau Kreis Birnbaum Kreis Bomst Landkreis Bromberg Kreis Czarnikau Kreis Filehne Kreis Fraustadt Kreis Gnesen Kreis Gostyn Kreis Grätz Kreis Hohensalza Kreis Jarotschin Kreis Kempen Kreis Kolmar in Posen Kreis Koschmin Kreis Kosten Kreis Krotoschin Kreis Lissa Kreis Meseritz Kreis Mogilno Kreis Neutomischel Kreis Obornik Kreis Ostrowo Kreis Pleschen Kreis Posen-Ost Kreis Posen-West Kreis Rawitsch Kreis Samter Kreis Schildberg Kreis Schmiegel Kreis Schrimm Kreis Schroda Kreis Schubin Kreis Strelno Kreis Schwerin an der Warthe Kreis Wirsitz Kreis Witkowo Kreis Wongrowitz Kreis Wreschen Kreis Znin Schneidemühl Bydgoszcz Posen
Administrative division of the Province of Posen (as of 1899) District Bydgoszcz District Posen

The Krotoschin district within the boundaries from 1887 to 1919

The Krotoschin district existed from 1793 to 1807 in the Prussian province of South Prussia and from 1815 to 1919 in the Prussian province of Posen .

The district of Krotoschin was also a German administrative unit in occupied Poland (1939–1945) during the Second World War .


The Krotoschin district last had an area of ​​498 km².


After the Third Partition of Poland from 1793 to 1807, the area around the Greater Poland city ​​of Krotoschin belonged to the Krotoschin district in the Prussian province of South Prussia. With the Peace of Tilsit the area became part of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 . After the Congress of Vienna , on May 15, 1815, it fell again to the Kingdom of Prussia and became part of the Poznan administrative district of the Poznan Province.

During the Prussian administrative reforms , a district reform was carried out in the Posen administrative region on January 1, 1818, during which the Krotoschin district was reduced in size. The area around the city of Jutroschin moved to the Kröben district , the area around the city of Jaratschewo to the Schrimm district and the area around the city of Jarotschin to the Pleschen district . The town of Krotoschin was the district town and seat of the district administration .

As part of the province of Poznan, the Krotoschin district became part of the newly founded German Empire on January 18, 1871 , against which the Polish deputies protested in the new Reichstag on April 1, 1871.

On October 1, 1887, the new Koschmin District was formed from the north-western half of the Krotoschin District .

On December 27, 1918, the Wielkopolska uprising of the Polish majority against German rule began in the province of Posen , and with the exception of the southern edge around the city of Zduny , the district came under Polish control within a few days. On February 16, 1919, an armistice ended the Polish-German fighting, and on June 28, 1919, the German government officially ceded the Krotoschin district to the newly founded Poland with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles . On November 25, 1919, Germany and Poland concluded an agreement on the evacuation and surrender of the areas to be ceded, which was ratified on January 10, 1920. The evacuation of the remaining area under German control including the city of Zduny and handover to Poland took place between January 17 and February 4, 1920.

Population development

year Residents source
1818 52,857
1846 62,066
1871 65,885
1890 42,971
1900 45.281
1910 46,874

In 1890 about 70% of the inhabitants of the district were Poles and 30% German . A large part of the German residents left the area after 1919.


District administrators


The Krotoschin District was part of the Posen 8th Reichstag constituency . The constituency was won by the candidates of the Polish parliamentary group in all Reichstag elections between 1871 and 1912 :

Municipal structure

The last four cities of Krotoschin , Dobrzyca , Kobylin and Zduny belonged to the Krotoschin district . The (as of 1908) 50 rural communities and 33 manor districts were initially grouped into (smaller) Woyt districts (Polish “wójt” = German “Vogt”) and later in larger police districts.


At the beginning of the 20th century the following communities belonged to the district:

  • Old Krotoschin
  • Bashkov
  • Benice
  • Bestwin
  • Biadki
  • Bozacin
  • Brzoza
  • Budy
  • German Koschmin
  • Dlugolenka
  • Dobrzyca , city
  • Dombrowo
  • Durzyn
  • Dzielice
  • Glogowo
  • Gorzupia
  • Grembow
  • Haugfeld
  • Heinrichsfeld
  • Hellefeld
  • Izbiczno
  • Jankow zalesny I
  • Klonowo
  • Kobierno
  • Kobylin , city
  • Kochalle
  • Konarzewo
  • Koryta
  • Korytnica
  • Krotoschin , city
  • Ligota
  • Lutogniewo
  • Lutynia
  • Maciejewo
  • Neudorf
  • Neuvorwerk
  • Orpischewo
  • Osusch
  • Perzyce
  • Rembichow
  • Roshki
  • Rose field
  • Rozdrazewko
  • Rozdrazewo
  • Ruda
  • Smoszew
  • Sosnica
  • Sosnica Hauland
  • Steinicksheim
  • Strzyzewo
  • Swinkow
  • Tomnice
  • Trzemeszno
  • Wolenice
  • Wruzew
  • Zduny , town

With a few exceptions, the Polish place names continued to apply after 1815, and several place names were Germanized at the beginning of the 20th century.

The district of Krotoschin in occupied Poland (1939–1945)


Administrative districts and counties in the Reichsgau Wartheland

In World War II , the German occupation authorities formed the district Krotoschin in the government district of Posen . The annexation of the area by the German Reich on October 26, 1939 , as a unilateral act of violence, was ineffective under international law. The Jewish residents were murdered by the German occupation authorities during World War II . The German occupation ended with the invasion of the Red Army in January 1945 .

District administrators

1942–1945 00Wellmann
1945 Peter Orlowski (substitute)0000000

Municipal structure

During the German occupation in World War II, only Krotoschin in 1942 and Koschmin in 1943 received city rights according to the German municipal code of 1935, the other municipalities were grouped together in administrative districts .

Place names

With a few exceptions, the Polish place names continued to apply after 1815, and several place names were Germanized at the beginning of the 20th century. During the German occupation in World War II , the place names valid from 1918 were initially adopted by an unpublished decree of December 29, 1939, but "wild" Germanizations by the local occupation authorities soon followed. On May 18, 1943, all places with a post or train station were given German names, mostly phonetic adjustments, translations or free inventions.

Larger communities in Krotoschin County:

Polish name German name (1815-1919) German name (1939-1945) Population (1910)
Baszków Bashkov 1939–1943
Baschkow 1943–1945 Baschau
Benice Benice Benitz 619
Biadki Biadki Battken 742
Bożacin Bozacin 1939–1943 Bosatschin
1943–1945 Bosenstein
Dąbrowa Dombrowo 1939–1945 Dombrowo
1943–1945 Krotteichen
Dobrzyca Dobrzyca Dobberschütz 1279
Gorzupia Gorzupia Franzensfeld 644
Grębów Grembow 661
Kobierno Kobierno Köbern 602
Kobylin Kobylin 1939–1943 Kobylin
1943–1945 Koppelstädt
Konarzew Konarzewo
1908-1919 Hahnau
Konradshof 558
Korytnica Korytnica Korytnitza 664
Koźminiec German Koschmin Hauland
1905–1919 German Koschmin
1939–1943 German Koschmin
1943–1945 Horlebrunn
Krotoszyn Krotoschin Krotoschin 13064
Ligota Ligota Unterambach 1364
Lutogniev Lutogniewo
1907-1919 Margarethendorf
Margaretendorf 690
Nowa Wieś Neudorf 1939–1943 Neudorf
1943–1945 Budenneudorf
Orpiszew Orpischewo Sonnenfeld 789
Roszki Roshki Roshken 810
Rozdrażew Rozdrazewo 1939–1943 Albertshof
1943–1945 Brigidau
Zduny Zduny 1939–1943 Zduny
1943–1945 Treustädt


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d
  2. Historical, statistical, topographical description of South Prussia, 1798
  3. Walther Hubatsch (ed.): Outline of German administrative history 1815-1945. Johann Gottfried Herder Institute, Marburg / Lahn; Volume 2, Part 1: Province of Poznan. edited by Dieter Stüttgen, 1975, ISBN 3-87969-109-6
  4. , accessed on January 1, 2010
  5. ACA Friederich: Historical-geographical representation of old and new Poland . Stuhrsche Buchhandlung, Berlin ( digitized version [accessed on August 8, 2018]).
  6. Royal Statistical Bureau (ed.): Mittheilungen des Statistisches Bureau's in Berlin, Volume 2 . Population of the districts. ( Digitized version ).
  7. ^ The municipalities and manors of the Poznan Province and their population in 1871
  8. Handbook on the Royal Prussian Court and State for the year 1798 (digitized version)
  9. ^ Rolf Straubel : Biographical manual of the Prussian administrative and judicial officials 1740–1806 / 15 . In: Historical Commission to Berlin (Ed.): Individual publications . 85. KG Saur Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-23229-9 .
  10. Ordinance sheet of the Reichsstatthalters in Warthegau , pdf, accessed on April 7, 2013
  11. Krotoschin district, accessed on April 7, 2013