The Schrimm district existed from 1793 to 1807 in the Prussian province of South Prussia and from 1815 to 1919 in the Prussian province of Posen . The former district area today essentially belongs to the powiat Śremski in the Polish Greater Poland Voivodeship .
The Schrimm district last had an area of 928 km².
After the Third Partition of Poland from 1793 to 1807, the area around the Greater Poland city of Schrimm belonged to the Schrimm district in the Prussian province of South Prussia. With the Peace of Tilsit the area became part of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 . After the Congress of Vienna , on May 15, 1815, it fell again to the Kingdom of Prussia and became part of the Poznan administrative district of the Poznan Province.
During the Prussian administrative reforms , a district reform was carried out in the Posen administrative district on January 1, 1818, in which the Schrimm district was redefined. The area around the city of Moschin was added to the district from the district of Kosten and the area around the city of Jaratsechwo from the district of Krotoschin . In return, the district gave the area around the cities of Kostschin and Santomischel to the Schroda district . The town of Schrimm was the district town and seat of the District Office .
On October 1, 1887, the district gave parts of its territory to two newly formed neighboring districts:
- to the new district of Jarotschin, the city of Jarachevo, the rural communities and manor districts of Chytrowo, Gola, Lowencice and Wojciechowo and the manor districts of Lukaszewo and Niedzwiady,
- to the new district of Gostyn the rural communities Jawory, Strumiany and Wycislowo, the rural communities and manor districts Daleschin, Dusin, Koszkowo and Ostrowo and the manor district Jezewo.
On December 27, 1918, the Wielkopolska uprising of the Polish majority against German rule began in the province of Posen , and in January 1919 the district was under Polish control. On February 16, 1919, an armistice ended the Polish-German fighting, and on June 28, 1919, with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles , the German government officially ceded the Schrimm district to the newly founded Republic of Poland .
- 1793–1795 Carl von Tayler
- 1795–1806 Samuel Gottlieb von Sydow
- 1818–1824 by Zoltowski
- 1824–1831 by Zawadzki
- 1831–1844 by Nosarzewski
- 1844–1848 Karl von Bornstedt
- 1853–1871 Funck
- 1871–1882 Friedrich Böhm
- 1882-1892 Ludwig Burchardt (1853-1892)
- 1893–1898 Richard Spendelin (1859–1898)
- 1898–1918 Martin Kirchhoff (1860–1929)
The Schrimm district together with the Schroda district formed the Posen 7th Reichstag constituency . The constituency was won by the candidates of the Polish parliamentary group in all Reichstag elections between 1871 and 1912 :
- 1871 Napoleon Xaver von Mankowski
- 1874 Eustachius von Rogalinski
- 1877 novel by Komierowski
- 1878 novel by Komierowski
- 1881 novel by Komierowski
- 1884 Ludwig Edler von Graeve
- 1887 Ludwig Edler von Graeve
- 1890 Ludwig Edler von Graeve
- 1893 Karl Kubicki
- 1898 Josef von Glebocki
- 1903 Josef von Glebocki
- 1907 Alfred von Chlapowo Chlapowski (77.6% of the vote in the Schrimm-Schroda constituency)
- 1912 Felicyan von Niegolewski (78% of the vote in the Schrimm-Schroda constituency)
The Schrimm district included the towns of Schrimm , Bnin , Dolzig , Kurnik , Moschin , Xions and, until 1887, Jaratschewo . The (as of 1908) 127 rural communities and 67 manor districts were initially grouped into (smaller) Woyt districts (Polish “wójt” = German “Vogt”) and later in larger police districts.
At the beginning of the 20th century the following communities belonged to the district:
With a few exceptions, the Polish place names continued to apply after 1815, and several place names were Germanized at the beginning of the 20th century.
The Schrimm district in occupied Poland (1939–1945)
During the Second World War , the German occupation authorities formed the district of Schrimm . The annexation of the area by the German Reich on October 26, 1939 , as a unilateral act of violence, was ineffective under international law. The Jewish residents were murdered by the German occupation authorities during World War II . The German occupation ended with the invasion of the Red Army in January 1945 .
- 1939 Alfred Klostermann (1919–1945)
- 1939–1940 Alfred Klostermann
- 1940 Ludwig Zerbst (* 1906) ( substitute )
- 1940–1941 Mittendorf
- 1941–1945 Ludwig Zerbst ( substitute )
During the German occupation, only 1942 Schrimm and 1943 Moschin received city rights according to the German municipal code of 1935, the other municipalities were grouped together in administrative districts .
During the German occupation, the place names valid in 1918 were initially adopted by an unpublished decree of December 29, 1939, but "wild" Germanizations by the local occupation authorities soon followed. On May 18, 1943, all places with a post or train station were given German names, mostly phonetic adjustments, translations or free inventions.
Larger communities in the district of Schrimm:
|Polish name||German name (1815-1919)||German name (1939-1945)|
|Daszewice||Daszewice I||New Steineck|
1943–1945 Kuntal (1939–1945 to the district of Gostingen)
1939–1943 Petzen Hauland
|Puszczykowo||Old Puszczykowo||since 1940 Oberberg (1939–1945 in the Posen District)|
- Gustav Neumann : Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, p. 152, item 13.
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The municipalities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population. Edited and compiled from the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. Part IV: The Province of Posen , Berlin 1874, pp. 30–41 ( e-copy, pp. 37-48 ).
- ACA Friedrich: Historical-geographical representation of old and new Poland . Berlin 1839, pp. 577-578.
- Leopold von Zedlitz-Neukirch : The state forces of the Prussian monarchy under Friedrich Wilhelm III . Volume 2, part 1, Berlin 1828, p. 107-108, item XV
- M. Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. (online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006)
- Kreis Schrimm administrative history and the district administrators on the website territorial.de (Rolf Jehke), as of August 18, 2013.
- Historical, statistical, topographical description of South Prussia, 1798
- Walther Hubatsch (ed.): Outline of German administrative history 1815-1945. Johann Gottfried Herder Institute, Marburg / Lahn; Volume 2, Part 1: Province of Poznan. edited by Dieter Stüttgen, 1975, ISBN 3-87969-109-6
- ACA Friederich: Historical-geographical representation of old and new Poland . Stuhrsche Buchhandlung, Berlin ( digitized version [accessed on August 8, 2018]).
- Royal Statistical Bureau (ed.): Mittheilungen des Statistisches Bureau's in Berlin, Volume 2 . Population of the districts. ( Digitized version ).
- The municipalities and manors of the Poznan Province and their population in 1871
- Historical Society for the Province of Posen (Ed.): Documents and files on the history of the organization of South Prussia . S. 188 ( digitized version ).
- Rolf Straubel : Biographical manual of the Prussian administrative and judicial officials 1740–1806 / 15 . In: Historical Commission to Berlin (Ed.): Individual publications . 85. KG Saur Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-23229-9 .
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history (dissertation): District of Jarotschin