The district of Strehlen was a Prussian district in Silesia , which existed from 1742 to 1945. The district office was in the city of Strehlen . The former district area is now in the Polish Lower Silesian Voivodeship .
Kingdom of Prussia
After the conquest of most of Silesia by Prussia in 1741, the royal cabinet order of November 25, 1741 introduced the Prussian administrative structures in Lower Silesia . This included the establishment of two war and domain chambers in Breslau and Glogau as well as their subdivision into districts and the appointment of district administrators on January 1, 1742.
In the Principality of Brieg , one of the Silesian sub-principalities, the five Prussian districts Strehlen, Brieg , Kreuzburg , Ohlau and Nimptsch were formed from old Silesian soft images . George Friedrich von Kittlitz was appointed as the first district administrator in the Strehlen district. The Strehlen district was under the Wroclaw War and Domain Chamber and was assigned to the Breslau administrative district of the province of Silesia in the course of the Stein-Hardenberg reforms in 1815 .
During the district reform of January 1, 1818 in the district of Breslau, the villages of Baumgarten, Bohrau , Deutschlauden, Grosburg , Jelline, Jexau, Klein Bresa, Krentsch, Kurtsch, Michelwitz, Neidchen, Ottwitz, Petrikau, Schönfeld, Schweinbraten and Wäldchen became part of the district of Breslau reclassified to the district of Strehlen.
North German Confederation / German Empire
Since July 1, 1867, the district belonged to the North German Confederation and from January 1, 1871 to the German Empire . On November 8, 1919, the province of Silesia was dissolved and the new province of Lower Silesia was formed from the administrative districts of Breslau and Liegnitz . As of September 30, 1929, in the Strehlen district, as in the rest of the Free State of Prussia, all manor districts were dissolved and assigned to neighboring rural communities. On October 1, 1932, the district area was considerably enlarged. New came to the district of Strehlen
- the rural communities of Algersdorf, Berzdorf, Deutsch Neudorf, Dobrischau, Haltauf , Kunern , Korschwitz, Kraßwitz, Kummelwitz, Münchhof, Neobschütz, Neu Karlsdorf, Pleßguth, Schildberg, Schönjohnsdorf and Waldneudorf from the dissolved Münsterberg district
- the rural communities Dürr Brockuth, Dürr Hartau, Glofenau, Gollschau, Gorkau, Grögersdorf, Grün Hartau, Jakobsdorf, Kaltenhaus, Karschau, Karzen, Klein Johnsdorf, Kurtwitz, Leipitz-Sadewitz, Mallschau, Manze, Naß Brockuth, Plottnitz, Prauß, Pudigau, Reichau , Reisau, Roßwitz, Roth Neudorf, Rothschloß, Schmitzdorf, Siegroth, Silbitz, Stachau, Strachau b. Nimptsch, Tiefensee and Wonnwitz from the dissolved Nimptsch district as well
- the city of Wansen and the rural communities of Alt Wansen, Brosewitz, Hermsdorf, Johnwitz, Knischwitz, Köchendorf, Marienau and Spurwitz from the Ohlau district .
On April 1, 1938, the provinces of Lower Silesia and Upper Silesia were merged to form the new Province of Silesia. On January 1, 1939, the district of Strehlen was given the name Landkreis in accordance with the now unified regulation . On January 18, 1941, the province of Silesia was dissolved again and the new province of Lower Silesia was formed from the administrative districts of Breslau and Liegnitz.
In the spring of 1945 the district was occupied by the Red Army . In the summer of 1945, the district was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying power in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement . The influx of Polish civilians began in the district, some of whom came from the areas east of the Curzon Line that fell to the Soviet Union . In the period that followed, most of the German population was expelled from the district .
- 1742–1759 George Friedrich von Kittlitz
- 1761–1779 Hans Ernst von Wentzky-Petersheyde
- 1779–1790 George Friedrich von Wentzky-Petersheyde
- 1790–1798 Gabriel Ludwig Henckel von Donnersmarck
- 1798–1826 Carl Julius Wilhelm von Prittwitz-Gaffron
- 1831-1836 by Lemke
- 1838–1850 from Koschembahr
- 1850–1872 Otto von Lieres and Wilkau
- 1872–1882 Max von Saurma-Ruppersdorf
- 1882–1905 Hugo von Lieres and Wilkau
- 1905–1919 Eberhard von Lücken (1864–1925)
- 1919–1920 from Kirchbach
- 1920–1932 Berthold Weese (1879–1969)
- 1932-1945 Maximilian Sell
Since the 19th century, the district of Strehlen was initially divided into the town of Strehlen, into rural communities and manor districts . In 1932, Wansen became a second city. With the introduction of the Prussian Municipal Constitutional Act of December 15, 1933, there was a uniform municipal constitution for all Prussian municipalities from January 1, 1934. With the introduction of the German Municipal Code of January 30, 1935, a uniform municipal constitution came into force in the German Reich on April 1, 1935, according to which the previous rural municipalities were now referred to as municipalities . A new district constitution was no longer created; The district regulations for the provinces of East and West Prussia, Brandenburg, Pomerania, Silesia and Saxony from March 19, 1881 continued to apply.
The district of Strehlen last comprised two cities and 113 rural communities:
- Incorporation until 1938
In the interwar period , several municipalities in the Strehlen district were renamed:
- Hussinetz → Friedrichstein (1937)
- Jelline → Hirschwaldau (1937)
- Krentsch → Lindenbrunn (1937)
- Mehltheuer-Podiebrad → Mehltheuer (1937)
- Neobschütz → Kaltwassertal (1937)
- Polish Jägel → Altjägel (1922)
- Polish Tschammendorf → Altschammendorf (1922)
- Tschanschwitz → Ohletal (1937)
- Warkotsch → Friedfelde (1937)
In the 18th century, in the course of the Silesian Wars between Prussia and Austria, there was a larger, orderly exodus from Bohemia from the mostly border area to Silesia, secured by Prussian soldiers. They saw themselves as traditional believers in the faith of the reformer Jan Hus and wanted to escape the religious pressure of the Catholic Church (cuius regio eius religio) since the Thirty Years' War in Bohemia. From 1749 onwards, largely closed Hussite communities (Friedrichsgrätz, Hussinetz) were founded in Lower Silesia .
Hussinetz near Strehlen became the largest settlement of the descendants of the Bohemian brothers , later the land for the communities of Upper, Middle and Lower Podebrady was acquired in the immediate vicinity. Other larger neighboring communities with a high proportion of Czech-speaking settlers were Töppendorf and Pentsch.
- Paul Ehrlich , Nobel Prize Laureate in Medicine, was born on March 14, 1854 in Strehlen.
- Utz Richter , German actor, was born on June 23, 1927 in Olbendorf.
- Gustav Neumann : Geography of the Prussian State. 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 204–205, item 18.
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The municipalities and manors of the Province of Silesia and their people. Based on the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. Berlin 1874, pp. 104-109 ( facsimile in the Google book search).
- M. Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. (online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006)
- genealogienetz.de: District Strehlen
- Peter Tscherny: Literature on the district Strehlen
- Description of the Strehlen district from 1792
- ^ Roland Gehrke: State Parliament and the Public: Provincial Parliamentarism in Silesia 1825-1845 . Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-412-20413-6 , pp. 45 ( partially digitized ).
- ^ Monuments of the Prussian State Administration in the 18th century . Files from May 31, 1740 to the end of 1745. In: Royal Academy of Sciences (Ed.): Acta Borussica . tape 6.2 . Paul Parey, Berlin 1901, Royal Order for the appointment of district administrators in Lower Silesia , p. 259 ( digitized version ).
- ^ WFC Starke: Contributions to the knowledge of the existing court system and the latest results of the administration of justice in the Prussian state . Carl Heymann, Berlin 1839, District division of the Prussian Duchy of Silesia in the 18th century, p. 290 ( digitized version ).
- ↑ a b c d e f Rolf Straubel : Biographical handbook of the Prussian administrative and judicial officials 1740–1806 / 15 . In: Historical Commission to Berlin (Ed.): Individual publications . 85. KG Saur Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-598-23229-9 .
- ^ Ordinance on the division of the Prussian state according to its new delimitation . 1815 ( digitized ).
- ↑ a b c Territorial changes in Germany
- ^ Official Journal of the Royal Government of Breslau 1817, No. XLV . New division and demarcation of the circles in the Breslau government department of October 31, 1817. Breslau, p. 476 ff . ( Digitized version ).
- ^ Ordinance on the reorganization of districts from August 1, 1932 . In: Prussian State Ministry (Hrsg.): Preußische Gesetzessammlung . Berlin 1932, district reform 1932, p. 256 ( digitized version ).
- ↑ Walther Hubatsch (ed.): Outline of German administrative history 1815-1945. Row A: Prussia. Volume 4: Dieter Stüttgen: Silesia. Johann Gottfried Harder Institute, Marburg / Lahn 1976, ISBN 3-87969-116-9 .
- ↑ Georg Hassel: Statistical outline of all European states . The statistical view and special statistics of Central Europe. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1805, p. 36 ( digitized version ).
- ^ Statistisches Bureau zu Berlin (Ed.): Contributions to the statistics of the Prussian state . Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1821, Silesia, p. 87 ( digitized version ).
- ↑ Royal Statistical Bureau (ed.): Mittheilungen des Statistisches Bureau's in Berlin, Volume 2 . Population of the districts. ( Digitized version ).
- ^ The municipalities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population 1871
- ^ Community encyclopedia for the province of Silesia 1885
- ↑ a b www.gemeindeververzeichnis.de
- ^ A b c d Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. strehlen.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).