Reign of Hummel

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The rule Hummel (Czech Panství Homole , also Homolsko ) is a historical landscape in the western part of the Kłodzko Land and from 1459 the County of Kłodzko . At the end of the 16th century, the Hummel rule was dissolved.

Cone of the Hummelberg ( view from the west from Pavlišov )

The Hummelschloss

Hummelschloss around 1825

The center of the Hummel rule was the castle, initially called "Landfried" or "Landfrede", on a cone hill above the river area of ​​the Reinerzer Weistritz . It was about three kilometers west of Reinerz . Due to its geographical location, it secured the important trade and military route, which was also known as the “Poland” or “Royal Route”. It ran from Prague over the Hummel Pass to Glatz , left the Glatzer Land near Wartha and continued on to Breslau .

In 1427 the Hummel Castle was conquered by the Hussites , who made raids into the Kłodzko region and Silesia from here . During this time, Landfried Castle was given the Czech name "Hrad Homole". After 1560 the castle was uninhabited and fell into disrepair. On his journey from Neuburg / Danube to Krakow in 1536, Count Palatine Ottheinrich also had Hummel Castle sketched. This is the only surviving, realistic representation of the not yet destroyed facility.

History of the reign of Hummel

Ruins of Hummel Castle

In the 10th century, the Hummel domain belonged to the Bohemian prince Slavník and in 995 it passed to the Přemyslids . In its early days, the rule only comprised the eastern half of what was later to become the Hummel District , i.e. the river area of ​​the Reinerzer Weistritz with the town of Reinerz and a number of villages ( Rückers , Roms , Utschendorf , Hartau , Friedersdorf , Hermsdorf , Keulendorf , Tschischney ), which were previously Parish of St. Peter and Paul in Reinerz belonged. From the beginning, this area belonged to the church dean's office in Glatz in the diocese of Prague . The natural border between the Glatzer Kessel and the old Bohemian Königgrätzer Kreis , which also forms the watershed between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea , ran on the Hummel over the ridges of the Habelschwerdter and the Heuscheuergebirge . The Hummel Pass, which opens the area to Bohemia , runs below the Hummel Castle .

The first known owner of the Hummel estate was Titzko ( Thyczko ) von Pannwitz in 1346 , who is documented as a co-owner of Rengersdorf for 1327 and in 1341 was named Burgrave of Glatz . After his death in 1359 he was followed by his sons, who sold the Hummel estate to Dietrich von Janowitz ( Dětrich z Janovic ) in 1392 . He united them with his neighboring reign of Nachod . In 1412 it came to Heinrich von Lazan , who exchanged the reigns of Nachod and Hummel in 1414 with the chief land clerk Boček II of Podiebrad († 1417) for the town and reign of Bechin in southern Bohemia. Boček's son Viktorin , who was a staunch Utraquist , died in 1427. Although his only seven-year-old son, who later became King George of Podebrady , was the legal heir, the Taborites conquered the Hummel Castle, from where they made raids into the Glatzer country and Silesia . The rule Hummel was administered jointly by the captains Jan Holý, called Holec, Lord of Nemošice ( panoš z Nemošic ) and Nikolaus Trčka of Lípa ( Mikuláš Trčka z Lípy , † 1453). In 1440 it was conquered by the Taborite and robber baron Jan Kolda of Žampach . 1444–1454 it belonged to Hynek Kruschina von Lichtenburg , who was also a pledge holder of the Glatzer country. Only after his death in 1454 did the gentlemen Hummel and Nachod come to the rightful owner Georg von Podiebrad, who was now the sovereign of Bohemia. The possession of the rule Hummel had already been confirmed to him on July 29, 1453 by the Bohemian King Ladislaus Postumus . Georg of Podebrady appointed Václav Holý as burgrave. After his rise to King of Bohemia , Georg von Podiebrad transferred the reigns of Nachod and Hummel to his sons Boček and Viktorin in 1458 . After George's death in 1471, his possessions were divided up in 1472 according to an inheritance plan. The Lords of Hummel and Nachod as well as the County of Glatz came to Georg's third-born son Heinrich d. Ä. Václav ( Wenceslaus ) Holub z Provuzy is documented as burgrave for 1470.

Extension from 1477

In 1477 the rule of Hummel was taken over by Heinrich d. Ä. to the west of the mountain ridge located parishes Lewin ( Lewiner Ländchen , Czech Levínsko ) and Tscherbeey and the two villages Schlaney and Brzesowie , which belonged to the parish of St. Laurentius in Náchod , expanded. This area, which lies outside the Glatzer Kessel, belongs geomorphologically and orographically to the Bohemian Basin . From the earliest times it had belonged to the East Bohemian dean's office Dobruška , with which it remained connected. Until the union with the Hummel rule in 1477 it belonged to the Nachod rule in the old Bohemian Königgrätzer Kreis. By joining the Hummel rule, the border between the Glatzer Land and Bohemia was shifted to the west. With the expansion of his county, Duke Heinrich d. To increase his influence and his reputation as Count von Glatz.

After the reunification of Hummel with the County of Glatz, Duke Heinrich d. Ä. In the same year (1477) the rule of Hummel as a fiefdom to the Saxon nobleman Hildebrand von Kauffungen , a son of Kunz von Kauffungen .

These areas, which were newly connected to the Hummel rule, were hereinafter referred to as the “Bohemian side” of the Hummel district. Only then was the original, eastern part of the rule, which consisted of the Reinerz parish and the associated villages, defined as the "German side" of the Hummel district. Since the country was largely depopulated due to the Hussite Wars , the villages on the “Bohemian side” of the Hummel rule were now increasingly populated with Germans.

After the Landfried Castle had become a robber baron nest under Sigismund von Kauffung , the Hummel lordship came in 1513 to Ulrich von Hardegg, the then pledgee of the County of Glatz and in 1541 to Johann von Pernstein , from whom his son Vratislav von Pernstein inherited in 1548 .

In 1549, the Wittelsbacher Ernst von Bayern became pledger of the County of Glatz , who at the same time acquired the Hummel rule, which was awarded separately. On December 10, 1549 he gave this to his son Eustach, who was ennobled by Emperor Charles V in 1547 as "Eustach von Landfried" and in 1550 by Pope Julius III. was legitimized as a noble descendant of Duke Ernst. After his death in 1560, Eustach sold the Hummelherrschaft to Ernst Gelhorn von und zu Alten Greckau and Roge . In 1561 the rule of Hummel fell as a settled fiefdom to the Bohemian sovereign. From this it was pledged in 1590 to Rudolf von Stubenberg in Neustadt and in 1595 to the city of Reinerz.

Dissolution of rule

Map of the county of Glatz in the 18th century with the districts HD ( Humblischer D. ), WD ( Wünschelburger D. ), ND ( Neuroder D. ), GD ( Glatzer D. ), HD ( Habelschwerdter D. ) and LD ( Landecker D. ) . )

After the Hummel rule was dissolved, Rudolf von Stubenberg acquired the property belonging to the castle in 1598. Most of the villages and localities belonging to the rule were assigned to the Bohemian Chamber and thus subjected to the Bohemian sovereign. In 1601 he sold the villages of Passendorf with the Brunnkress colony and Nauseney to the town of Wünschelburg . In the same year, the city of Náchod acquired the village of Schlaney with part of the neighboring village of Brzesowie. To finance the Turkish Wars , Emperor Leopold I sold the chamber villages of Gellenau , Tanz , Sackisch , Tassau , Järker , Kleingeorgsdorf and Großgeorgsdorf to Kaspar Josef von Alten, who previously owned the Freirichtergut in Gellenau. This made them subject to the newly formed Gellenau manor district. The villages of Keulendorf , Dörnikau with the colony of Kessel , Hallatsch , Jauernig , Löschney , Nerbotin , Tschischney were acquired by Johann Isaias von Hartig , who incorporated them into his reign of Rücker . On December 20, 1684, the city of Reinerz acquired the chamber villages of Hermsdorf and Rome. On the same day Krzischney and Kuttel were sold to the city of Lewin.

As early as the middle of the 16th century, the villages of Deutsch-Tscherbeey , Strausseney , Jakobowitz as well as the later Bad Kudowa , which later formed the "rule Tscherbeey", had been separated from the rule Hummel. This emerges from a recently found document in Breslau , with which on December 1, 1551, Emperor Ferdinand I, in his capacity as King of Bohemia, confirmed that Johann von Pernstein, who died in 1548, was pledged to Heinrich Přepyšsky von Richemberg ( Jindřich Přepyšský z Rychemberka ) gave these villages as a gift.

After the First Silesian War in 1742 and finally after the Peace of Hubertusburg in 1763, the area of ​​the former rule of Hummel, which was now called the "Humblischer District", came together with the County of Glatz to Prussia . It was not until the middle of the 19th century that those villages that lay directly on the now Prussian-Bohemian border were referred to as the Bohemian angle .


  • Vladimír Wolf (Ed.): Český koutek v Kladsku ; Kladský sborník 5. Supplementum, Hradec Králové 2008, ISBN 978-80-903509-8-4
  • František Musil: Východní Čechy v raném a vrcholném středověku . In: Ondřej Felcman et al: Ůzemí východních Čech od středověku po raný novověk . Hradec Králové 2011, ISBN 978-80-7422-106-4 , pp. 17–36.
  • František Musil: Kladsko v Době vlády Lucemburků . In: 550 let Hrabství Kladského . Kladský sborník, supplementum 6, Trutnov 2009, ISBN 978-80-903741-3-3 , pp. 41-75.
  • Franz Albert: The history of the Hummel rule and its neighboring areas. First part: The rule of Hummel up to the year 1477. Self-published, Münster 1932.
  • Ladislav Hladký: Poděbradská větev Pánů z Kunštatu a východní Čechy . In: 550 let Hrabství Kladského 1459–2009 . Trutnov 2009, ISBN 978-80-903741-3-3 , pp. 117-133.
  • Arno Herzig , Małgorzata Ruchniewicz : History of the Glatzer Land. DOBU-Verlag et al., Hamburg et al. 2006, ISBN 3-934632-12-2 , pp. 66-70.
  • Joseph Kögler : The chronicles of the county Glatz. Revised and edited by Dieter Pohl . Volume 1: The town and parish chronicles of Lewin - Mittelwalde - Wünschelburg - Neurode - Wilhelmsthal. Pohl, Cologne 1992, ISBN 3-927830-06-2 , pp. 257-259 ( historical sources of the Grafschaft Glatz. Series A: Ortsgeschichte. NF 1).
  • Lydia Baštecká, Ivana Ebelová: Náchod. ( Dějiny českých měst ), Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, Praha 2004, ISBN 80-7106-674-5 , pp. 38, 46, 51f., 55f., 58f., 63 and 121.
  • Angelika Pabel (Ed.): Journey, Rest and Moment. Central European cityscapes from the 16th century. Röll, Dettelbach 2002, ISBN 3-89754-201-3 . ( with representation of the Hummelburg )
  • Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , p. 280f.
  • Karl August Müller: Patriotic images, in a history and description of the old castle festivals and knight castles of Prussia. Glogau 1837, pp. 101-113.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Burg Hummel in the travel album of Count Palatine Ottheinrich 1536/37
  2. ^ Angelika Marsch : The travel pictures Pfalzgraf Ottheinrichs from the years 1536/37. From his ride from Neuburg on the Danube via Prague to Krakow and back via Breslau, Berlin, Wittenberg and Leipzig to Neuburg. 2 volumes, Anton H. Konrad, Weißenhorn 2000, ISBN 3-87437-440-8
  3. Hildebrand von Kauffung grew up at the Bohemian royal court and died around 1497/98. Hildebrand von Kauffung in the Saxon biography
  4. Jaroslav Šůla: Jména obyvatel homolského panství v XVI. a XVII. století jako doklad etnicity obyvatel regionu . In: Český koutek v Kladsku . Kladský sbornik, supplementum 5, Hradec Králové 2008, pp. 153–208, here p. 170.
  5. Ladislav Hladký: Dějiny Malé Čermné - Obce na Česko-Kladských hranicích - do roku 1850 . Hronov 2010, ISBN 978-80-254-7442-2 , p. 7.
  6. Ladislav Hladký: Svědectví zhostních listů a dalších archiválií o změnách v pravním postaveni panství Homole v Kladském hrabství před Bílou horou . In: Sborník prací východočeskýych archivů. Issue 10, 2005, p. 149
  7. ^ [1] Acquisition by Johann von Pernstein.
  8. Hans Kammermayer: Duke Ernst of Bavaria (1500-1560). Spiritual prince in the bishopric of Passau, Archbishopric Salzburg and the County of Glatz (series of publications on Bavarian regional history 167), Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-406-10782-5 , pp. 356f.
  9. Jaroslav Šůla: Jména obyvatel Homolského panství v XVI. a XVII. století jako doklad etnicity obyvatel regionu . In: Český koutek v Kladsku ; Kladský sborník 5. Supplementum, Hradec Králové 2008, ISBN 978-80-903509-8-4 , p. 209.
  10. Jaroslav Šůla: Jména obyvatel Homolského panství v XVI. a XVII. století jako doklad etnicity obyvatel regionu . In: Český koutek v Kladsku ; Kladský sborník 5th Supplementum, Hradec Králové 2008, ISBN 978-80-903509-8-4 , p. 173.