Heinrich I. (Münsterberg-Oels)

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Heinrich the Elder of Münsterberg (also: Heinrich I. von Münsterberg; Heinrich I. von Oels ; Czech: Jindřich starší z Minstrberka ; Jindřich starší z Poděbrad ; *  1448 , † 1498 in Glatz ) was an imperial count and count of Glatz . He was also duke of the Silesian duchies of Münsterberg and Oels and 1465–1472 duke of Troppau . He was also the landlord of the Nachod rule from 1472–1498 . At times he served as governor and governor of Bohemia .

Origin and family

Heinrich Herzog zu Munsterberg

Heinrich came from the Poděbrad family branch of the Lords of Kunstadt . His parents were the Bohemian King Georg von Podiebrad and Kunigunde von Sternberg . In the order of the siblings Heinrich was the third son after the older brothers Boček and Viktorin .

In 1467 Heinrich married Ursula von Brandenburg (1450–1508), a daughter of Margrave Albrecht Achilles in Eger . The marriage had eight children:

  • Albrecht (1468-1511)
  • Georg (1470–1502)
  • Johann (June 23, 1472 - August 7, 1472)
  • Margarethe (1473-1530)
  • Karl (1476–1536)
  • Ludwig (* / † June 21, 1479)
  • Magdalena (January 25, 1482 - April 11, 1513)
  • Sidonie / Zdeňka (born June 3, 1483; † 1522), married Ulrich von Hardegg in 1515

The surviving sons Albrecht, Georg and Karl were married in 1487 and 1488 through Heinrich's mediation with three daughters of Duke Johann II of Sagan and Großglogau . As Duke of Münsterberg, Heinrich founded the Silesian branch of the Lords of Podebrady .

With the marriage of his sister Ludmilla to Friedrich I of Liegnitz on September 7, 1474, Heinrich was able to establish a family relationship with the Piasts .

Heinrich and his wife Ursula were generous supporters of monasteries. In 1475 they founded the St. Georg Franciscan Monastery in Glatz, which became their family's monastery. In 1494 they donated half of the village of Heyde to the Augustinian canons of Glatzer. He died in 1498 and was buried in the church of the Franciscan monastery he founded. In 1558 he and eight other members of the family who were also buried there were reburied in the parish church of Glatz.


Heinrich was initially planned by his father Georg von Podiebrad as his successor. As early as 1459, Emperor Friedrich III appointed Heinrich's older brother Viktorin became an imperial count. On December 7, 1462, the Emperor also appointed Heinrich and his younger brother Heinrich the Elder of the same name . J. to imperial counts. At the same time, the emperor confirmed the appointment made by King George in 1459 of Viktorins, Heinrichs the Elder. Ä. and Heinrichs d. J. to dukes of Münsterberg and counts of Glatz. After her father had also acquired the Duchy of Opava in 1464, he passed it on to his sons Heinrich the Elder in 1465. Ä., Viktorin and Heinrich d. J. Although Henry and his brothers known to the Catholic faith, the Pope, recognizing their princely title refused because the imposed over George of Podebrady ban should also apply to his sons.

After King George's death on March 22, 1471, Heinrich was appointed supreme governor of the Kingdom of Bohemia until the arrival of the new king. In this position he received the newly elected Bohemian King Vladislav II in Glatz on August 10, 1471 , who was on his way from Kraków to the coronation in Prague. Later Heinrich d. Ä. appointed governor for the time of the king's absence .

King George's possessions were divided among his sons according to an inheritance plan in 1472. Heinrich d. Ä. received the County of Glatz, the Silesian Duchy of Münsterberg including Frankenstein , as well as the East Bohemian dominions Náchod , Hummel , Wiesenburg , Kunětická Hora and the property of the monasteries Opatowitz and Sezemice, which were lost in the Hussite Wars . King Vladislav confirmed the possessions on April 3, 1472 and April 29, 1472. After the emperor had confirmed the privileges for the fiefdom of the County of Glatz, he asked the Glatz subjects to do feudal services for Duke Heinrich. The Grafschafter estates then paid homage to their duke at the Glatzer Castle.

Heinrich was the first Count von Glatz to reside with his family at the castle there, where his court was also housed. Hans von Warnsdorf, still appointed by Georg von Podiebrad, initially served as governor . He was followed in 1474–1477 by Hans von Bernstein and then by Hans Pannwitz on Rengersdorf . Although Heinrich had a good command of the German language, most of the documents from his office were written in Czech. Jan Horušovsky von Roztok, Jan Fulstein von Slavkov and Zbyněk von Buchov acted as court marshal. Hofmeister was Georg von Bischofsheim, court chancellor Klemens von Jackschönau.

At the request of Abbot Peter from Braunau, Heinrich d. Ä. On April 24, 1472, without a fight, the city of Braunau , which had been occupied in 1469 by the field captain of the Bohemian rival king Matthias Corvinus , Franz von Hag, and whose Hungarian mercenaries were still in the city. As a result, the Braunauer Land came under the rule of Henry until 1483, who incorporated it into his county Glatz with the consent of King Vladislav II. At Heinrich's instruction, Hans von Warnsdorf continued to raid Silesia. Because of the associated threats, individual Silesian cities made voluntary and in some cases also agreed war funds and contributions to Duke Heinrich.

On January 9, 1473, the Pope lifted the interdict imposed on Georg von Podiebrad and his sons and granted them absolution. In the same year Heinrich and his brothers Viktorin and Heinrich d. J. to resolve the dispute over the Wenceslas Crown. They invited representatives from Bohemia, Poland, Silesia and Lusatia to negotiations in Opava , which was owned by Viktorin. Although the negotiations were unsuccessful, King Vladislav promised the brothers Heinrich d. Ä. and Heinrich d. J. the repayment of their debts. A separate state tax should be levied for this purpose. In a dispute in 1473 between the Grafschafter Freirichtern and the towns of Glatz, Habelschwerdt , Wünschelburg and Landeck over brewing rights , Heinrich decided in favor of the towns.

In 1477 Heinrich expanded the County of Glatz to include the Hummel dominion, which had previously belonged to the Königgrätzer Kreis , and which he also enlarged to include the villages of the so-called Bohemian side with the parishes of Lewin and Tscherbeey and the villages of Schlaney and Brzesowie . On November 13 of the same year, Vladislav II confirmed the further validity of Henry's possessions of the Kunětická Hora castle and the former monastery properties Opatowitz and Sezemice; For three days he prescribed Frankenstein to him as a hereditary fief.

Together with the governor of Königgrätzer Wilhelm Kruschina von Lichtenburg , Peter Kdulinec von Ostroměř and Christoph von Talkenberg auf Talkenstein as well as Hans von Warnsdorf, Heinrich took part in 1477 as representative of Vladislav II in the peace negotiations between Bohemia and the Silesians in Braunau , which however did not lead to a lasting peace led. On July 3, 1479, he welcomed the opposing king Matthias Corvinus in Olomouc on behalf of Vladislav .

Before 1491 Heinrich d. Ä. from his eldest brother Boček the lordship of Litice . In 1492 there were disputes between Heinrich and the king Vladislav over the dominions Podiebrad and Kostomlat , which the king after the death of Heinrich d. J. claimed for himself, although she was in will for Heinrich the Elder. Ä. were intended. An agreement came only after the extinction of the Piast Oelser 1495. Henry had to abandon Podiebrad and received with one in on April 28, 1495 Bautzen concluded agreement, which was also true for Henry sons as a hereditary fief, the Duchy of Oels , which, however, already 1492 by which the free class lords Militsch , Trachenberg and Groß Wartenberg had been reduced. In the same year he had to sell the lordship Litice and other lands in Eastern Bohemia to the highest court master of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Wilhelm II of Pernstein , in order to pay off the debts of his participation in the wars against Matthias Corvinus. In previous years Heinrich was forced to sell most of the former monastery villages because of debt. Finally, in 1497 he was forced to pledge the great Nachod estate to Jan Špetle z Prudic a ze Žlebů. After Heinrich's death only a year later, his sons did not manage to redeem the pledge, so they had to sell Náchod to Jan Špetle. After they sold the county of Glatz in 1501, Heinrich's descendants only owned the Silesian possessions.


Individual evidence

  1. Laur. Wintera: The general peace of Braunau in 1477 . In: Communications of the Association for the History of Germans in Böhmen 37 (1899), p. 194