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Coat of arms of Żmigród
Żmigród (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Lower Silesia
Powiat : Trzebnica
Gmina : Żmigród
Area : 9.49  km²
Geographic location : 51 ° 28 '  N , 16 ° 54'  E Coordinates: 51 ° 28 '8 "  N , 16 ° 54' 23"  E
Residents : 6470 (December 31, 2016)
Postal code : 55-140
Telephone code : (+48) 71
License plate : DTR
Economy and Transport
Street : E261 Wroclaw - Poznan
Rail route : Wroclaw – Poznan
Next international airport : Wroclaw
Website : www.zmigrod.com.pl

Żmigród [ 'ʐmigrut ] ( Eng . Trachenberg ) is a town in the urban and rural municipality of the same name in the district of Trzebnica in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship . It lies at an altitude of 91 meters above sea level in the Kotlina Żmigrodzka (German Trachenberg Basin ) and is traversed by the Barycz (German Bartsch ), a tributary of the Oder . Until 1945 Trachenberg was a town in the Militsch district in the Prussian administrative district of Breslau .

Geographical location

Trachenberg west of Militsch on a map from 1905.
Southern outskirts from a distance.

The city is located in Lower Silesia on the Bartsch on the European route 261 , which leads from Wroclaw to Poznan . Beyond the Bartsch lies the older Żmigródek (Schmiegrode) .

City history table

City church, built in 1599 and 1723.
Evangelical Church, built 1854–1861.
Remnants of the old castle.
Railway station.

The village of the Wroclaw bishops Sunigrod an der Bartsch was mentioned for the first time in 1155. (1228: Smigrod or Schmiegrode ). The village lies on the other bank of the Bartsch across from today's city and exists to this day (until 1945: Schmiegrode , today: Zmigródek ). In order to create a bulwark in the constant border feuds between the duchies of Silesia and Greater Poland, Duke Heinrich III. of Silesia by Tydricus dictus Deysenberc found the city on May 15, 1253 under German city ​​law . The location will be created as a longitudinal space. The place had about 1200 inhabitants in 1287 and appears in a document under the name Trachinburg , the German form of the name of Smigrod . As a result of the division of the Duchy of Breslau in 1290 Trachenberg came to the Duchy of Glogau . The city and its surrounding area became part of the Duchy of Oels in 1312 . Trachenberg was raised in 1492 to a free civil rule by those von Kurzbach .

In 1555 the Reformation took place in Trachenberg. The city becomes 100% Protestant. The city parish church dedicated to the Holy Trinity is also built at this time. The old Trachenberg Castle burned down completely in 1579. 1500 mercenaries and privateers invaded the Trachenberger Land in 1587 and devastated the whole area. The city and its territory went to the well-known Silesian family von Schaffgotsch in 1592 (confirmed by the emperor in 1593). It was around this time that the first Jews in the city can be found who immigrated from the neighboring Polish town of Rawitsch . The last Schaffgotsch on Trachenberg, Hans Ulrich von Schaffgotsch , was executed in 1635 as a supporter of Wallenstein . All of the family's goods are confiscated by the emperor, and it is not until 1680 that they get the goods back in the foothills of the Giant Mountains . Trachenberg, however, will not be returned. The imperial field marshal Melchior Graf von Hatzfeldt received Trachenberg in 1641 as a fiefdom of the emperor and expanded the castle. The Hatzfeldt stay here until 1945. The Swedes under Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson conquered the castle in 1642 and held it for eight years. In 1654 the emperor had the city recatholized by force. The castle was converted into a large baroque residence from 1683 to 1765. The parish church was redesigned from 1706 to 1723 in the spirit of the Baroque , among others by the architect of the University of Breslau , Christoph Hackner . At this time the city had 1,600 inhabitants. Silesia with Trachenberg came to Prussia in 1741 , Frederick the Great raised the Hatzfeldt to prince , in 1748 they were made imperial princes by Emperor Franz I. (Area of ​​the estate in 1937: 15,941 ha). At that time the city had 1,774 inhabitants, two thirds are Protestant.

On July 12, 1813 there was a meeting of the Napoleon opponents Friedrich Wilhelm III. von Prussia, Alexander I of Russia and the later King of Sweden Karl XIV. Johann Bernadotte at Trachenberg Castle, the Trachenberg plan against Napoléon Bonaparte is being worked out. The city flourished from 1815 to 1918. It got a railway connection from three lines, a large sugar factory, secondary and agricultural schools, a new Protestant church was built around 1854, and the Jews also built a synagogue in 1861 . In 1905 Trachenberg had 3361 inhabitants.

King Wilhelm II raised the rule of Trachenberg on January 1st, 1900 to a Prussian duchy in Primogenitur .

In 1945 Trachenberg belonged to the district Militsch in district Breslau the Prussian province of Lower Silesia .

At the end of the Second World War , the population was evacuated to Saxony in January 1945, like all the districts of Lower Silesia east of the Oder . The refugees and displaced persons from the district came to the districts of Grimma and Borna . A return of the evacuated residents to Trachenberg was prevented in the following period. On January 23, 1945, the 10th Panzer Guard Corps of the Red Army captured Trachenberg and in March 1945 placed it under the administration of the People's Republic of Poland . This introduced the place name Żmigród for Trachenberg and settled it with Poland . The Duke of Trachenberg was expropriated.

The Hatzfeldt Castle burned down in 1946. A memorial plaque on the Trachenberg monarch meeting of 1813 was unveiled in 1998 on the castle wall in the presence of the Duke of Trachenberg.

On March 15, 1991, the two-plus-four treaty came into force with which Żmigród's factual affiliation to Poland was also confirmed under international law.

Population development

year Residents Remarks
1875 3,073
1880 3,192
1890 3,374 of which 1,990 Protestants, 1,295 Catholics and 79 Jews
1905 3,361 1,382 Catholics and 60 Jews
1933 4.263
1939 4,573

Free lords of Trachenberg (from 1492)

Barons of Kurzbach

  • Sigismund III., Until 1513
  • Heinrich I, until 1533, son of the previous one
  • Wilhelm I, until 1567, son of the previous one
  • Heinrich III., Until 1592, son of the previous one

Free lords of Trachenberg (from 1592)

Barons of Schaffgotsch

From 1635 to 1641 the rule was an imperial domain.

Freelance lords of Trachenberg (since 1641)

Imperial Count of Hatzfeldt (Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg-Crottorf line).

  • Melchior, until 1658, died unmarried
  • Hermann, until 1676, brother of the previous one
  • Heinrich, until 1683, son of the previous one
  • Franz, until 1738, son of the previous one.

Princes and Imperial Princes von Hatzfeldt (from 1741 and 1748)

  • Franz Philipp Adrian, until 1779, son of the previous one,
  • Franz Friedrich Cajetan, until 1794, son of the previous one, last member of the Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg-Crottorf line.

Princes of Hatzfeldt zu Trachenberg (since 1803, Hatzfeldt-Werther-Schönstein line)

  • Franz Ludwig, 1794–1827
  • Hermann Anton , * 1808, until 1874, son of the previous one
  • Hermann , Duke of Trachenberg since 1900 , until 1933, son of the previous one
  • Hermann Ludwig, until 1945, son of the previous one

City arms

The city coat of arms of Żmigród shows a gray defense tower in a red field, which is crowned with a golden cross. A green dragon winds around the tower .

The name of the city is derived from the old Polish word "żmij" (dragon) and "gród" (castle) .

Old forms:

1155 - Zunigrod
1228 - Smigrod,
1245 - Zmigrod
1287 - Trachinburg



  • Maria Trauburg residential tower , 13th century, rebuilt by the Kurzbach around 1560
  • Ruins of the Hatzfeldtschloss by Christoph Hackner and Carl Gotthard Langhans with some interesting baroque details, 17th – 18th centuries. century
  • Castle park, 18. – 19. century
  • Orangery in the castle park, classicism , Langhans building
  • City Parish Church of the Holy Trinity, 16. – 18. Century, choir 1868–1870 by Alexis Langer


Barkowo (German: Groß Bargen ):

  • Baroque parish church of St. Martin, 1787;
  • Former Protestant church, today the parish church of St. Anthony, classicism , 1829.

Korzeńsko (German: Korsenz ):

  • Baroque parish church for the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, 1722;
  • Remains of an early medieval castle.

Niezgoda (German: Nesigode ):

Radziądz (German: Radungen ):

  • "Militscher Teiche" (Stawy Milickie) , nature reserve with many rare water birds.

Zmigródek (German: Schmiegrode )

  • Remains of a medieval castle.

local community


The Żmigród long-distance train station is located on the Wrocław – Poznań railway line and was once the start of the Żmigród – Wąsosz railway line . The Trachenberg-Militscher Kreisbahn also began in the city.

Twin cities

Science and education

Railway test ring

A few kilometers west of the village is the railway test site from the Instytut Kolejnictwa . It was formerly operated by the Polish State Railways (Polish: Polskie Koleje Państwowe , PKP) and, in addition to the track systems, includes a research center and a branch of the Research Institute for Highways and Bridges from Warsaw . On the proving ground that u. a. contains a railway ring, for example, from 1997 to 2001, trials of the Safetrain project were carried out.

Schools and kindergartens

Żmigród has the following schools:

  • an agricultural college at high school level
  • a grammar school (Polish grammar school: 7th to 9th grade)
  • a primary school
  • a special primary school for the disabled
  • a kindergarten


A large part of the population lives from agriculture and forestry (large hunting areas in the surrounding forests). The largest employer in the city is the steel construction company "Energomontaż". 800 private companies, many of them one-man companies, are also registered in the city.


The following people were born in Żmigród ( Trachenberg ).


  • Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , pp. 541f.
  • Almanac de Gotha. Annuaire Genealogique Diplomatique et Statistique. Justus Perthes, Gotha 1931.
  • Izabella Gawin, Dieter Schulze, Reinhold Vetter: Silesia. German and Polish cultural traditions in a European border region. DuMont, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-7701-4418-X , p. 117 (DuMont art travel guide).
  • Władysław Jan Grabski: 200 miast wróciło do Polski. Wydawnictwo Zachodnie, Poznań 1949.
  • Traud Gravenhorst: Silesia. Experiences of a country. Korn, Breslau 1938.
  • Max Wilberg: regent tables. P. Beholtz, Frankfurt / Oder 1906.

Web links

Commons : Żmigród  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. The flight of the Silesian population . Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims (Ed.): Documentation of the expulsion of Germans from East Central Europe . Volume I / 1
  2. Flight, displacement, integration . Information on a special exhibition in the Grimma District Museum from December 20, 2012 to August 4, 2013, accessed on April 10, 2020.
  3. a b c d e Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. militsch.html # ew39militrache. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  4. ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 19, Leipzig / Vienna 1909, p. 653.
  5. Joachim Lukas: Landeskunde Notes from Silesia - residential towers in Silesia [1] (accessed on November 16, 2016)