|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Královéhradecký kraj|
|District :||After that|
|Area :||3334 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||19,979 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||547 01|
|License plate :||H|
|Street:||Jaroměř - Kudowa-Zdrój|
|Railway connection:||Choceň – Meziměstí|
|Mayor :||Jan Birke (as of 2017)|
|Address:||Masarykovo náměstí 40
547 61 Náchod
Náchod (German Nachod ) is a city in northeastern Czech Republic . It belongs to the Hradec Králové region and is the seat of Okres Náchod . Until the abolition of patrimonial rule in 1848 it was the capital of the Nachod rule . The city lies in the valley of the Metuje ( Mettau ) on the European route 67 , where the border crossing to Poland is located in the district Běloves with Słone , a district of Kudowa-Zdrój .
Náchod is located in the Nachoder Upland ( Náchodská vrchovina ), which is formed by the northwestern foothills of the Eagle Mountains ( Podorlická pahorkatina ). This borders in the north on the Braunauer Bergland , in the northeast on the Glatzer Kessel , in the southwest and the Eagle Mountains , in the northwest on the easternmost foothills of the Giant Mountains and in the southwest across an insignificant ridge on the East Bohemian plain ( Východolabská tabule ). To the east of the city center, the Radechovka flows underground through the urban area. The Silnice I / 33 runs through Náchod between Jaroměř and Kudowa-Zdrój, from which the Silnice I / 14 branches off to Trutnov in the city . The city is on the Choceň – Meziměstí railway line .
Neighboring towns are Dolní Radechová , Ikárie and Plhov in the north, Babí and Kašparák in the north-east, Běloves in the east, Polsko and Pod Montací in the south-east, Sídliště Sun and Skalka in the south, Staré Město nad Metují , Branka, Vysokínek and Malá Branka in the south-west , Lhotecký Dvůr and Lhotky in the west and Městska Kramolna, Kramolna and Nový Svět in the northwest.
The Nachod area belonged to the Slavnikid domain . It was first mentioned in the Chronica Boemorum des Cosmas of Prague , who described it as the "gateway to Poland". In order to protect the territory and the old trade route from Prague via Nachod and the Glatzer Kessel, which belongs to Bohemia, to Poland, Hron, a son of Pakoslav from the Načeraticer tribe, had a border castle built in a strategically important place around 1250. Presumably he founded the town of Nachod at the same time, which is mentioned for the first time on August 9, 1254 in a document issued in Politz . With it, the boundaries between the possessions of the Nachod rulership and the Politzer Benedictine monastery were established along the Židovka , which were then known as Stekelnice and flumen Zürbcsca . Contract partners were the Břevnov abbot Martin and Hron, who was first referred to here with the title of Nachod ( Gron de Nachod ). Hron's grandson Ješek had to trade Nachod with the Bohemian King John of Bohemia for Kostelec nad Černými Lesy around 1325 . After several changes of ownership, Boček II of Podebrady followed in 1415 and, after his death in 1417, his son Viktorin of Podebrady . After Viktorin's death in 1427, he was succeeded as heir by his then six-year-old son, the later King of Bohemia , George of Podebrady , who, however, was unable to assert himself against the Taborite general Jan Kolda of Žampach . He had appropriated Nachod in 1437, which he was able to hold for almost twenty years. He renewed the Nachoder Castle, in 1442 he had the oldest Nachoder town book drawn up and appointed a city council, which was composed mainly of like-minded people. On November 20, 1453, King Ladislaus Postumus confirmed to the then provincial administrator Georg von Podiebrad, among other things, the claims to the town and castle of Nachod. Nevertheless, Jan Kolda was able to maintain his position in Nachod. It was not until 1456 that Georg von Podiebrad succeeded in taking the town of Nachod and the East Bohemian possessions held by Jan Kolda. During his lifetime, Georg von Podiebrad transferred Nachod to his sons Boček and Viktorin in 1458 . After Georg's death in 1471 Nachod inherited Georg's eldest son Heinrich d. Ä. In 1497 he was forced to pledge the town and manor Nachod to Jan Špetle von Pruditsch ( Jan Špetle z Prudic a ze Žlebů ). After Heinrich's death in 1498, his sons were unable to redeem the pledge, so they had to sell Nachod to Jan Špetle.
In the 15th century, the subjects received the market rights and the authorization to collect customs and tolls on the bridge over the Metuje river. As a result, the city became an important trading center on the road to the Bohemian Glatzer Land and through the Lower Silesian Plain to Wroclaw due to the growing income . In the second half of the 16th century, Nachod experienced a great cultural boom. Severe fires devastated large parts of the city in 1570 and 1663.
In 1527 Nachod came to Vojtěch von Pernstein , from whom his brother Johann von Pernstein inherited it a year later . In 1544 he sold his property to the powerful and wealthy Smiřický von Smiřice . Since Albrecht Jan Smiřický of Smiřice was involved in the class uprising of 1618 , his possessions were confiscated by the emperor, who in 1621 transferred them to his field marshal Albrecht von Wallenstein as guardian of the mentally weak Jindřich Smiřický of Smiřice (1592–1630).
On his flight to Breslau in 1620, the "Winter King" Friedrich von der Pfalz came through Nachod. In the current paving of the Kamenice ( Steinerne Gasse ), a horseshoe was inserted, which Frederick's horse is said to have lost while fleeing. In the Thirty Years War the city and its population suffered a lot.
In 1623 Nachod came to Maria Magdalena Trčka von Lobkowitz , whose husband Jan Rudolf Trčka von Lípa already owned extensive estates in Eastern Bohemia. Although she remained a Protestant until her death through an imperial patent, the re-Catholicization of the subjects, ordered by the emperor, began during her reign . This was not very successful at first, as most of the subjects refused to convert , which led to long-lasting peasant unrest. Maria Magdalena's son Adam Erdmann Count Trčka , who had acquired Nachod in 1628, initiated the renovation of the city fortifications, the cleaning and irrigation of the moat and the securing of the rule by members of his regiment. After his murder in Eger in 1634 , his possessions were confiscated by the emperor and handed over to the imperial general Octavio Piccolomini . In will they remained with members of the Piccolomini family until 1783 . A subsequent dispute over inheritance was decided in 1786 in favor of Count Joseph Adalbert von Desfours , who was heavily in debt. That is why the Nachod castle and estate were acquired in an auction on September 13, 1792 by Duke Peter von Biron from Courland , who was followed by his daughter Wilhelmine von Sagan in 1800 . Her sister Pauline von Hohenzollern-Hechingen sold the property to Octavio von Lippe-Biesterfeld ; from this castle and rule Nachod passed to Prince Georg Wilhelm zu Schaumburg-Lippe in 1842 .
After the end of patrimonial rule in 1848, the city's magistrate did not succeed in becoming the seat of a political district ( Okres ). On July 1, 1850, it became the seat of the judicial district of Nachod ( okresní soud ) in the political district of Neustadt an der Mettau . Although both the magistrate and the post or large landowner Wilhelm zu Schaumburg-Lippe advocated the establishment of a political district Nachod, Emperor Franz Joseph I only issued the corresponding permit on April 17, 1899. The Nachod Political District consisted of the Nachod and Česká Skalice judicial districts .
In the German War of 1866, the battle of Nachod between the Prussian and Austrian troops took place near the city on June 27, 1866 , in which the Austrian 6th Corps under General Wilhelm Ramming was replaced by the 5th Prussian Corps under General Field Marshal Karl Friedrich von Stonemason was beaten.
In the 19th century, the city experienced an economic boom, largely thanks to the developing textile industry, which was interrupted by the economic crisis of the 1930s and the Second World War. Despite its proximity to the Prussian district of Glatz, the city with its almost purely Czech-speaking residents did not join the German Empire with the Sudetenland in 1938 , but instead became part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in 1939 .
The town of Náchod consists of the districts Babí ( Babe ), Běloves ( Bielowes ), Bražec ( Braschetz ), Dobrošov ( Dobroschau ), Jizbice ( Jisbitz ), Lipí ( Lip ), Malé Poříčí ( Klein Poritsch ), Náchod ( Nachod ), Pavlišov ( Paulisch ) and Staré Město nad Metují ( old town on the Mettau ), which also form cadastral districts. Náchod also includes the settlements of Branka, Ikárie, Kašparák, Na Vyhlidce, Nad Starým Městem, Peklo (partially), Podlesí, Polsko, Sídliště Sun, V Kalhotách and Ve Smrčinách.
The basic settlement units are America, Babí, Babí-východ, Běloves, Bražec, Dobrošov, Hamra, Hamra-jih, Homolka, Jizbice, Kladské Předměstí, Klínek, Lipí, Malé Poříčí, Montace, Montackýšoví, Náchod-podlišově, Novzýšově Plhov ( Pilhof ), Plhov-východ, Pod Rozkoší, Sidliště Plhov, Sídliště U Nemocnice, Skalka, Staré Město nad Metují, U Branky, U Kramolné, U Metuje and U Metuje-jih.
- 1869 6757
- 1880 7057
- 1890 10481
- 1900 15138
- 1910 18302
- 1921 16807
- 1930 18649
- 1950 18562
- 1961 18846
- 1970 19729
- 1980 20713
- 1991 20712
- 2001 21400
- 2014 20417
- 2018 20132
- The Náchod Castle is located on a hill above the market square.
- The deanery church of St. Laurentius ( Kostel sváteho Vavřince ) was built at the beginning of the 14th century and redesigned in the Renaissance style in 1570–1578 .
- The Baroque Trinity Column in front of the church dates from 1695.
- The baroque old town hall was built by Carlo Lurago in 1637–1659 . In the middle of the 19th century it was rebuilt in a late Classicist style.
- The New Town Hall was built in the neo-Renaissance style between 1902 and 1904 and decorated with sgraffiti by Mikoláš Aleš .
- The City Theater and the Beránek Hotel were built in 1914 in Art Nouveau style according to plans by the architect Alois Čenský .
- The oldest attraction is the cemetery church of St. John the Baptist in the Staré Město district. It dates from the 13th century.
- On the north side of the palace, an avenue of lime trees leads to a small cemetery. A cross was erected in 1762 to commemorate the soldiers who died in Náchod in the Seven Years' War . In the war of 1866 soldiers who died in the Náchod hospital were buried there. From 1902 the complex was also the resting place for deceased members of the Schaumburg-Lippe family.
- The Dobrošov Fortress from World War II is located a few kilometers from the city.
See also: List of stumbling blocks in Náchod
- David Antonín Nývlt (1696–1772), chief administrator ( ředitel panství ) of the Nachod estate, chronicler and local writer
- Jan Karel Killar (1745–1800), author and patriot
- Antonín Strnad (1746–1799), mathematician, astronomer and meteorologist and director of the observatory and the Mathematical Museum of the Prague Clementinum
- Josef Franz Hurdálek (1747–1833), Bishop of Leitmeritz
- Jan Müller (1773–1861), rent master of the Nachod estate
- Josef Myslimír Ludvík (1796–1856), Czech patriotically minded writer and Roman Catholic priest
- Jonas Julius Wiesner (1814–1889), rabbi and author of writings on Judaism
- Isaac Mautner (1824–1901), textile industrialist
- Moritz Jakob Oberländer (1831–1905), textile industrialist
- Josef Bartoň-Dobenín (1838–1920), textile entrepreneur
- Herman S. Doctor (1820–1897), textile industrialist, honorary citizen of Náchod
- Isidor Mautner (1852–1930), textile industrialist
- Alfred Oberländer (1857–1906), opera singer
- Moritz Schur (1860–1933), textile industrialist
- Josef Bartoň-Dobenín (1862–1951), textile entrepreneur and patron
- Cyril Bartoň-Dobenín (1863–1953), textile entrepreneur and patron
- Stanislav Souček (1870–1935), Slavist, bohemist and literary historian
- Emma Löwenstamm (1879–1941), graphic artist and painter
- Jan Letzel (1880–1925), architect in Egypt and Japan
- Hanuš Goldschmid (1891–1966), textile entrepreneur
- Bohuslav Všetička (1893–1942), Czechoslovak general and leading member of the Obrana národa resistance group
- Adolf Erben (1904–1987), architect
- Václav Černý (1905–1987), literary scholar and translator
- Josef Týfa (1913–2007), type designer
- Luba Skořepová (1923–2016), actress
- Josef Škvorecký (1924–2012), writer, translator and publisher
- Miroslav Raichl (1930–1998), composer and music teacher
- Václav Erben (1930–2003), writer
- Josef Tošovský (* 1950), politician
- Robert Balzar (* 1962), jazz bassist and composer
- Vratislav Lokvenc (* 1973), football player
- Pavel Burdych (* 1978), violinist
- Miroslav Duch (* 1979), ski mountaineer
- Jan Karel Hraše: Dějiny Náchoda . After 1895
- Jan Karel Hraše: Dějiny Náchoda 1620–1740 . Náchod 1994, ISBN 80-900041-8-0
- Lydia Baštecká, Ivana Ebelová: Náchod . Náchod 2004, ISBN 80-7106-674-5
- Joachim Bahlcke , Winfried Eberhard, Miloslav Polívka (eds.): Handbook of historical places . Volume: Bohemia and Moravia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 329). Kröner, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-520-32901-8 , p. 386f.
- Ulrike Seeger: Decoration designs by Carlo Lurago for Náchod Castle under Prince Ottavio Piccolomini . In: Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte , vol. 70, issue 1 (2007), pp. 89–112.
- Hans-Ulrich Engel: Castles and palaces in Bohemia . Frankfurt am Main, 2nd edition 1978, ISBN 3-8035-8013-7 , p. 39 ff., Ill. P. 169.
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- Wenzel Wladiwoj Tomek : Oldest news about the dominions Braunau and Politz . Prague 1857, p. 30.
- WIESNER, Jonas Julius, Dr. Retrieved December 13, 2019 .