Duchy of Crossen

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The Duchy of Crossen (also Fürstentum Crossen , Herrschaft Crossen , Land Crossen , Latin Ducatus Crosnensis ) was a rulership on the central Oder from 1251 to 1815. It was ruled by Silesian dukes until 1482 and then by the Electors of Brandenburg . The place of residence was the city of Crossen .


The area around Crossen came from Poland to the Duchy of Silesia after 1150 . In 1249, after the division of the duchy , Duke Boleslaw II tried to sell the Crossener Land to the Margraves of Brandenburg . Since the Crossen citizens and the knighthood protested against the sale and turned to Duke Konrad II for help , Crossen was incorporated into his Duchy of Glogau . From 1249/51 he called himself Herzog von Glogau and from 1251 also Herzog von Crossen . After his death in 1273/74, Crossen was first given to the Archdiocese of Magdeburg , from 1277 to 1314 it was in pledge possession of the Margraves of Brandenburg .

1329 came the area with the Duchy of Sagan under Bohemian suzerainty . After the death of Duke Henry VIII "Sperling" in 1397, his four sons divided the ducal half of the Duchy of Glogau in 1418: Crossen and Schwiebus fell to the youngest brother Wenzel , who died in 1430/31. The older brother Heinrich IX inherited the property . von Glogau , from whom it was given to his son Heinrich XI in 1467 . fell. With this in 1476 the direct Glogau line of the Silesian Piasts expired. In a will, Heinrich XI. his widow Barbara von Brandenburg, who was only twelve years old, became the heir to the ducal Glogau and Crossen.

This was followed by the Glogau succession dispute, which led to armed conflicts between Barbara's father, the Elector of Brandenburg Albrecht Achilles and the Sagan Duke Johann II . The Duchy of Crossen was given to Albrecht Achilles as a pledge by the Bohemian-Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus in 1482, with Crossen, Bobersberg, Sommerfeld and Züllichau, without Schwiebus.

Remnants of the castle in Crossen

In 1535 the area with the office and town of Crossen, the towns of Sommerfeld and Rothenburg and the office and town of Züllichau were made a Neumark by Johannes von Küstrin . In 1537 it finally came to Brandenburg after the dukes Heinrich , Johann , Georg and Joachim von Münsterberg-Oels had renounced their inheritance claims to the land. However, it remained a Bohemian fiefdom.

After the First Silesian War in 1742, the Duchy of Crossen and most of Silesia finally fell to Brandenburg-Prussia . Bohemian sovereignty ended. Since then, the Prussian kings have also called themselves dukes of Silesia zu Crossen . The area of ​​the duchy continued in the districts of Crossen and Züllichau .

See also


Individual evidence

  1. ^ Documents from the city of Crossen, Secret State Archives, Prussian Cultural Heritage, Berlin
  2. Documents from 1537 Secret State Archives Prussian Cultural Heritage
  3. Lorenz Friedrich Beck, Frank Göse: Brandenburg and his landscapes . Center and region from the late Middle Ages to 1800. In: Volume 1 of writings of the State Historical Association for the Mark Brandenburg . Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-86732-068-9 , pp. 139 ( digitized version ).