|Area :||8.11 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||38 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||66-600 to 66-603|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 68|
|License plate :||FKR|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Zielona Góra - Berlin|
|Rail route :||Gubin – Zbąszynek|
|Next international airport :||Poznań-Ławica|
|Gminatype:||Urban and rural municipality|
|Gmina structure:||19 school authorities|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||84 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0802063|
|Administration (as of 2011)|
|Mayor :||Marek Cebula|
|Address:||ul. Parkowa 1
66-600 Krosno Odrzańskie
The city is located in Lower Silesia at the confluence of the Bober in the Oder at 39 m above sea level. NHN , about 50 kilometers southeast of the city of Frankfurt (Oder) , 30 kilometers west-northwest of the city of Zielona Góra (Grünberg) and 30 kilometers northeast of Guben .
First mentions 1005 and 1015
The place was first mentioned in the chronicle of Thietmar von Merseburg as castrum Crosno in 1005 , when the Polish Duke Bolesław I was besieged by King Henry II . Boleslaw's son Mieszko II defeated the emperor's Bohemian allies in the Battle of Crossen in 1015 .
Silesian rule in the 12th and 13th centuries
After the reinstatement of the sons of Duke Władyslaw II the expellee in their rights in Silesia in 1159, Crossen came to the Duchy of Wroclaw . Duke Heinrich I the Bearded had the castle expanded, the Marienkirche built and a fortification built. During this time, the Dominican monastery was probably built and the place received city rights. In 1238 Heinrich the Bearded died in Crossen. His body was transferred to Trebnitz and buried in the local monastery church. In 1241 the Trebnitz nuns, among them St. Hedwig and Duchess Anna , wife of Heinrich II , fled to Crossen from the Mongol invasion from Trebnitz and Liegnitz . After Heinrich II's death, he was followed in the government by the eldest son Boleslaw , who in 1251 had to cede the Glogau area to his younger brother Konrad .
Brandenburg pledges from 1277 to 1314
Crossen was pledged to the Brandenburg Ascanians in 1277 and Johann II held the title of Herr von Krossen . In 1314 the Ascanians returned Crossen to the dukes of Glogau in exchange for areas around Züllichau .
Around 1272 a monastery of the Franciscan Order , founded in 1210, was built in Crossen , which belonged to the Saxon Franciscan Province ( Saxonia ). It was abolished as a result of the Reformation around 1540.
1477 to 1482
Brandenburg rule since 1482
With the Peace of Kamenz on September 16, 1482, the Duchy of Crossen initially came to Brandenburg as a pledge. It was agreed that Barbaras waived Glogau and Crossen, while Elector Albrecht took over the Duchy of Crossen with the towns of Crossen, Züllichau , Bobersberg and Sommerfeld as a pledge, for which he was to pay his daughter 50,000 thalers a year.
In 1537 the city and duchy finally came under the electorate of Brandenburg, but still under Bohemian suzerainty. Since then the electors have also called themselves dukes of Silesia and Crossen and included the Silesian eagle in their coat of arms.
Wars in the 17th century
In the Thirty Years' War the city was set on fire by the Swedes in 1631 and destroyed including the castle and St. Mary's Church. The rebuilt city was plundered and destroyed several times between 1634 and 1642 in the battles between the Swedes and the Brandenburgers.
Industrial boom in the 19th century
In 1815, as a result of the Prussian administrative reform, Crossen became a district town in the Frankfurt administrative district . Between 1830 and 1880 there was a hesitant and slow development of industry, especially the wood and meat processing industries. It was not until 1870 that Crossen was connected to the Prussian railway network with the Guben – Bentschen line of the Märkisch-Posen Railway Company. A branch line to Sommerfeld followed later . In 1886 a hurricane raged over the city. The architect Karl Otto Schwatlo built the post office on behalf of the Reich Postal Administration in 1897.
Development until 1945
At the beginning of the 20th century, Crossen had three Protestant churches, a Catholic church, a secondary school, a wine and fruit growing school and was the seat of a local court . After the First World War, the metal industry developed in Crossen, while viticulture, which continued into the 19th century, became a hobby for individuals. In 1939 Crossen had 10,800 inhabitants.
Towards the end of the Second World War there was heavy fighting between the German Wehrmacht and the Red Army in and around Crossen in February 1945 . 499 houses and thus 65 percent of the building fabric of the city were destroyed. The Red Army placed the German areas on the right of the Oder-Neisse border under the administration of the People's Republic of Poland from March / April .
Since the end of the Second World War in May 1945
After the end of the war, the local population began to be expelled and Poles settled . A year later the number of Poles had grown to around 2,000. Crossen was renamed Krosno Odrzańskie . From 1955 onwards, the city began to develop slowly.
|1801||3279||including two Jewish families with twelve individuals|
|1840||6300||in 662 residential buildings.|
|1859||6546||including 199 Catholics and 116 Jews|
|1864||6515||in 696 residential buildings|
|1867||7084||on December 3rd|
|1871||6977||on December 1st, including 6,471 Evangelicals, 312 Catholics, one other Christian, 193 Jews|
|1890||6657||including 327 Catholics and 148 Jews|
|1895||7910||including 518 Catholics and 135 Israelites|
|1900||7369||with the garrison (an infantry battalion No. 52), including 401 Catholics and 112 Jews|
|1910||7595||on December 1st|
|1939||8633||of which 7863 Protestants, 532 Catholics, 72 other Christians and 21 Jews|
There was a Jewish population group in Crossen. In 1851 a synagogue was built, which was destroyed in 1938.
The population in the area of the city was Slavic or Polish in the early Middle Ages. Since the 13th century, this mixed with German immigrants and assimilated. It is known from 1525 and 1605 that a Slavic chaplain worked in the city.
Until the early 18th century, especially in the villages around Crossen, some residents spoke an Eastern Lower Sorbian dialect .
The urban and rural community ( gmina miejsko-wiejska ) Krosno Odrzańskie includes the localities ( German names officially until 1945 ) with Schulzenamt ( sołectwo ) :
- Bielów ( Bielow )
- Brzózka ( Braschen )
- Chojna ( Friedrichswalde )
- Chyże ( dog's bark )
- Czarnowo ( Neuendorf )
- Czetowice ( Zettitz )
- Gostchorze ( Goskar )
- Kamień ( combing )
- Łochowice ( Lochwitz )
- Marcinowice ( Merzdorf )
- Nowy Raduszec ( New Rehfeld )
- Osiecznica ( Güntersberg )
- Radnica ( Rädnitz )
- Retno ( worry )
- Sarbia ( Münchsdorf )
- Strumienno ( Pfeiffer Hahn )
- Szklarka Radnicka ( Rädnitzer Hüttenwerke )
- Stary Raduszec ( Alt Rehfeld )
- Wężyska ( Merzwiese )
There are also the following localities without a Schulzenamt: Morsko ( Murzig ) and Sarnie Łęgi ( Rehlang ).
- The parish church of the Virgin Mary from 1450 was rebuilt in 1705–1707 in baroque style. It served as a Protestant church until 1945.
- Ruins of the Piast Castle Crossen, built by Heinrich the Bearded and destroyed in 1945 .
- St. Andrew's Church was built in the 19th century according to plans by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neo-Gothic style.
- In 2012 the city erected a bronze monument to the German poet Klabund on Poznańska Street.
sons and daughters of the town
- Martin Benckendorf (1545–1621), jurist and university professor from Brandenburg
- Christoph Benckendorf (1548–1605), jurist, politician and diplomat from Brandenburg
- Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (1699–1753), German architect
- Alexander von Knobelsdorff (1723–1799), Prussian field marshal
- Johann Friedrich Schönemann (1704–1782), German theater director
- Karl Philipp von Unruh (1731–1805), Prussian lieutenant general
- Johann Gottfried Kletschke (1748–1806), Prussian field provost
- Johann Christian Gottfried Dressel (1751–1824), pastor and chronicler in Charlottenburg
- Johann Gottfried Bobertag (1770–1830), German Protestant clergyman, from 1829 General Superintendent for Silesia in Breslau
- Christiane Becker-Neumann (1778–1797), German actress
- August Ludwig Leopold von Fritsche (1780–1855), German district president
- Wilhelm Meydam (1821–1907), Mayor of Landsberg an der Warthe
- Albert Serlo (1824–1898), German politician
- Emil Krabler (1839–1909), German mining engineer
- Eduard Seler (1849–1922), German old American and old Mexicanist
- Oscar Wagner (1851-1916), German playwright
- David Holde (1864–1938), German chemist
- Carl Gottlob Hermann Scherpe (1869–1930), German chemist, director of the Düren Food Inspection Office
- Margarete Gebhardt (1870 – after 1940), German author and teacher
- Karl Georg Zschaetzsch (1870 – unknown), German Nazi family researcher
- Rudolf Pannwitz (1881–1969), German writer
- Arthur Berkun (1888–1954), German writer
- Alfred Henschke ps. Klabund (1890–1928), German writer
- Hans Egidi (1890–1970), former President of the Federal Administrative Court
- Gerhard Gloege (1901–1970), German Protestant theologian
- Alfred Birnschein (1908–1990), German painter and graphic artist
- Siegfried Müller (1920–1983), German mercenary, known as the Congo Müller
- Hans Weber (1937–1987), German writer
- Tomasz Kuszczak (* 1982), Polish football player
Personalities associated with the city
- Heinrich I of Silesia († 1238), Senior Duke of Poland, died in Crossen
- Mrotsek († after 1263), Castellan von Crossen
- Conrad II of Silesia († 1273), Duke of Crossen since 1251
- Johann Gottlieb Schulze (around 1805–1870), organ builder
- Heinrich Berghaus : Land book of the Mark Brandenburg and the Markgrafthum Nieder-Lausitz , Volume 3, Brandenburg 1856, pp. 734-740 ( online ).
- W. Riehl and J. Scheu (eds.): Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg with the Margrafenthum Nieder-Lausitz . Berlin 1861, pp. 527-533 ( online ).
- Eduard Ludwig Wedekind : History of the city and the Duchy of Crossen. With a lithographed view and a plan of the city . Crossen 1839 ( e-copy ).
- Gustav Adolph Matthias: Chronica of the city and the former Duchy of Crossen. From the earliest past to the year 1848. Written in the light of our times . Crossen 1853 ( e-copy ).
- Petermann: Contribution to the history of the school in Crossen . In: Annual report on the higher community school in Crossen. Crossen 1852, pp. 3-16.
- Karl August Müller: Patriotic images, or history and description of all castles and knight palaces in Silesia and the county of Glatz. Second edition, Glogau 1844, pp. 210-214.
- Siegismund Justus Ehrhardt : Presbyterology of Evangelical Silesia . Part II, 1st main section: City and Principality of Brieg , Liegnitz 1782, pp. 618–654.
- Crossener Tageblatt ( Crossener Wochenblatt ). Cross a. O .: 1826 ff.
- Erich Blunck (ed.): The art monuments of the district of Crossen. Voss, Berlin 1921 ( The Art Monuments of the Province of Brandenburg. Vol. 6, Part 6), (New edition. Andreas Peter, Guben 2011, ISBN 978-3-935881-77-7 ).
- Karl Metzdorf: The Germanization of the Ostmark in the Middle Ages . Beltz, Langensalza 1925 ( Grenzmark booklets for school and home from all areas of Grenzmark life 3, ).
- Karl von Obstfelder: Chronicle of the city of Crossen. From the earliest times up to 1845 in excerpt, independently edited from 1845 to 1925. 2nd Edition. Zeidler, Crossen a. O. 1925.
- Karl Metzdorf: Home book of the district of Crossen (Oder). Zeidler, Crossen a. O. 1927.
- 400 years of the Crossen high school on the Oder. Zeidler, Crossen a. O. 1927
- Jan Muszýnski: Krosno Odrzańskie. Lubuskie Towarzystwo Naukowe. Przeszłość i teraźniejszość. PWN, Warszawa 1972 (The city of Crossen ad Oder. Past and present).
- Beata Halicka: Krosno Odrzańskie. 1005-2005. Wspólne dziedzictwo kultury. = Crossing on the Oder. The common cultural heritage. 1005-2005. Wydawnictwo Instytutowe, Skórzyn 2005, ISBN 83-922273-0-1
- Home map of the district of Crossen. Designed and drawn by Knorr. Baron, Liegnitz o. J. (3rd edition), reprint. Niederlausitzer Verlag, Guben 2005, ISBN 3-935881-23-1 (before 1945, multicolored, 53 × 63 cm, 1: 100,000).
- The art monuments of the province of Brandenburg, 1907, part 6, Crossen digitalisat
- Krosno Odrzańskie's website
- Website of the home district of Crossen / Oder
- Map of Germania, Brandenburg, Crossen an der Oder south of Frankfurt (1616)
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 8, Leipzig / Vienna 1907, p. 741 ( online ).
- W. Riehl and J. Scheu (eds.): Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg with the Margrafenthum Nieder-Lausitz . Berlin 1861, pp. 527-533.
- Heinrich Gottfried Philipp Gengler: Regesta and documents on the constitutional and legal history of German cities in the Middle Ages , Erlangen 1863, p. 676 .
- Dieter Berg (Ed.): Traces of Franciscan History. Werl 1999, p. 65.285.
- Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexikon . 14th edition, Volume 4, Berlin and Vienna 1898, p. 605.
- Friedrich Wilhelm August Bratring : Description of the entire Mark Brandenburg . Volume 3: Die Neumark Brandenburg , Berlin 1809, p. 299 ( online ).
- Topographical-statistical overview of the government district of Frankfurt ad O. Gustav Harnecker's bookstore, Frankfurt a. O. 1844, p. 47, No. 2 ( online ).
- Topographical-statistical manual of the government district of Frankfurt a. O. Verlag von Gustav Harnecker u. Co., 1867, p. 50, No. 2 (on- line ).
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The communities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population . Part II: Province of Brandenburg , Berlin 1873, pp. 118–119, No. 18 ( online ).
- M. Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006)
- www.gemeindeververzeichnis.de .
- Heinrich Berghaus : Landbuch der Mark Brandenburg und des Markgrafthums Nieder-Lausitz , Volume 3, Brandenburg 1856, p. 735 ( online ).
- Frido Mětšk : Serbsko-pólska rěčna hranica w 16. a 17. lětstotku [The Sorbian-Polish language border in the 16th and 17th centuries]. In: Lětopis , Series B, Volume III (1958), Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina, Budyšin 1958, pp. 4–25.
- Information in the authors' lexicon Literaturport , historical authors, "G"