|Voivodeship :||Lower Silesia|
|Area :||20.95 km²|
|Geographic location :|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||56-400|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 71|
|License plate :||DOL|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Wroclaw - Warsaw|
|Rail route :||Kreuzburg – Breslau|
|Next international airport :||Wroclaw|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||1774 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0214011|
|Administration (as of 2014)|
|Mayor :||Michał Wincenty Kołaciński|
Oleśnica [ ɔlɛɕˈɲiʦa ] ( German Oels , also Olse ) is a city in the Polish Voivodeship of Lower Silesia . It is the county seat of Powiat Oleśnicki and forms its own municipality. It is also the seat of the rural community of Oleśnica , which includes the surrounding villages. From 1312 it was the residence city of the Duchy of Oels , 1818-1945 county seat of county Oels in district Breslau the Prussian province of Lower Silesia .
The ducal castle of the Piasts of Oleśnica with a trading settlement is mentioned as early as 1189. In 1247 Oleśnica became the seat of a castellany and in 1255, under the government of Duke Henry III of Wroclaw, the town charter that gives it to civitas nostra Olsnicz (“our town of Oleśnica”). The city was located at the fork of important trade routes - from Wroclaw to Kalisz and central Poland, as well as from Wroclaw via Namslau to Krakow and Lublin .
Among the Piasts
Around 1150 Oels owned an Irish abbey, which belonged to the Congregation of Irish Monasteries in Germania and was subordinate to the Abbey of St. Jacob in Regensburg (today: Schottenkirche St. Jakob). After the death of the childless Duke of Poland and Breslau Heinrich IV. Probus in 1293, the Duchy of Oels passed to his nephew, Heinrich V the Fat. The other nephews, sons of Konrad von Glogau , did not agree with this and forced Henry V to cede certain cities, including Oels, to the Glogau line of the Silesian Piasts . After the death of Duke Heinrich "the faithful" of Glogau in 1312, his sons carried out a division of the country, by the Oels into an independent duchy under one of the sons of the Duke, I. Konrad was. Since Conrad I paid homage to the King of Bohemia John of Luxembourg in 1327 , ties to Poland were cut off.
In 1329 the first Jews settled in Oels. Konrad I died on December 22, 1366, and his son Konrad II took over the Duchy of Cosel as a maternal inheritance in addition to Oels . In 1367 he paid homage to Emperor Charles IV in his capacity as King of Bohemia. In the period from around 1367 to 1410, the dukes had five churches built: St. John, St. Mary, St. George, St. Nicholas and St. Laurentius. The town hall with its high tower was built around this time, and the ducal castle was enlarged and embellished. Duke Conrad VII "the old white man" fought in the Battle of Tannenberg in 1410 on the side of the Teutonic Order and was captured by the Polish people. He then supported Poland in its war with the Teutonic Order in 1414.
In 1417 Conrad IV became "Senior" Bishop of Breslau. The first synagogue in Oels was built around 1420. In 1432 the Hussites conquered and sacked the city. In 1489, Groß-Wartenberg was the first area to become a free state rule under Heinrich von Haugwitz and left the Duchy of Oels. With the death of Duke Konrad X. "the young white man" in 1492, the Oels line of the Glogau branch of the Silesian Piasts became extinct . The Duchy of Oels therefore fell to the Crown of Bohemia as a settled fiefdom . In 1492 the border area around Trachenberg was also declared a free class rule under the von Kurzbach family , followed by Militsch in 1494 under Sigismund III. Kurzbach. The three freelance lords had one vote together on the Silesian Princely Day .
Under the Podiebrads
In 1495 King Vladislav II left the Duchy of Oels in exchange for the rule of Podebrady and 5,000 shock groschen to Duke Heinrich the Elder. Ä. von Münsterberg , a son of the Bohemian King George of Podebrady . Around 1500 the Jews opened a printing house in Oels that produced Hebrew scripts. They were expelled from the city around 1530, their synagogue was converted into an arsenal and later into a Protestant church. In 1534 Duke Johann founded the Oelser Gymnasium . In 1535 a great whirlwind devastated the city and killed many people.
Duke Johann introduced the Reformation in 1541 and received a copy of his translation of the Bible from Martin Luther with the author's own comments. The later famous ducal library on the castle began to be built, the castle itself was rebuilt in the Renaissance style and enlarged many times. In 1560, Oels, together with the Duchy of Liegnitz-Brieg and the city of Breslau, formed a Protestant counterweight to the Silesian "hereditary lands" who were subordinate to the Catholic Habsburg Emperor. Duke Charles II completed the reconstruction of the palace in 1586 by building two new wings. The architect was Bernhard Niuron , who came from Ticino and belonged to the Italian artists' colony in Brieg . During the Thirty Years' War, Oels was captured and plundered by the Swedes in 1634.
Among the Württemberg and Welfs
The last Podiebrad, Duke Karl Friedrich died in 1647, the duchy passed to his son-in-law Silvius Nimrod , Duke of Württemberg - Oels († 1664), who was enfeoffed with Oels on January 16, 1649, but only as a media principality , so no more while maintaining full sovereignty. In 1649 Silvius Nimrod appointed the last Silesian mystic of the Jakob Böhme School , Johannes Scheffler ( Angelus Silesius ), as his personal physician. Another important Silesian mystic, Count Abraham von Franckenberg , lived in Oels' immediate vicinity, on Gut Ludwigsdorf (now in Polish: Bystre ) . In 1652, Duke Silvius Nimrod donated a house order , the contemplative knightly order of the skull . Duke Christian Ulrich I had a princely crypt chapel built in 1698 as an extension to the palace church. He also built an important art and book collection in the castle. From 1692 to 1707 the eminent scholar Johann Sinapius worked as Pro-Rector at the Oelser Gymnasium.
In 1710 Oels had 3608 inhabitants. The Oelser cloth making flourished - 51 cloth makers worked in the city. In the predominantly German and Protestant city there were also Polish-speaking Catholics, who in 1727 were granted the so-called Josephine Curate . In that year, Imperial Count von Kospoth , owner of the neighboring Briese estate , donated the huge sum of 150,000 guilders for the expansion of the Oels grammar school. A great fire devastated the city in 1730, only the castle, two churches and 17 houses were spared. In 1742 the Duchy of Oels came to Prussia. At that time the city had about 3100 inhabitants. The dukes lost all political importance and were reduced to the level of wealthy landlords. The penultimate duke of the House of Württemberg, deprived of all power by Friedrich II of Prussia, Karl Friedrich II abdicated in 1744 and handed the duchy over to his nephew, Karl Christian Erdmann , the last ruler of the House of Württemberg. In the same year the baroque Trinity Church was built, which belonged to the Catholic community.
After Karl Christian's death in 1792, his son-in-law, Friedrich August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg was enfeoffed with oils. When he died childless in 1805, the duchy fell to his nephew, Prince Friedrich Wilhelm von Braunschweig, the heir of the duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg . 1806 lost Duke Friedrich Wilhelm Braunschweig, which was defeated to the Kingdom of Westphalia . During the administrative reform in Prussia in 1807, Oels was raised to a district town in the administrative district of Breslau. The Duke of Oels was now only titular duke.
In 1809 the duke and 2000 faithful took part in the national survey that followed Austria . After the lost battle at Wagram , he fled to England with his soldiers . In 1813 Friedrich Wilhelm took over the government of Braunschweig again. From then on, Oels remained in personal union with Braunschweig-Lüneburg for 70 years . During the Wars of Liberation from 1813 to 1815, the Duke distinguished himself as the leader of a free corps, the Black Corps. On June 16, 1815, he was killed in the battle of Quatre-Bras . During the minority of the duke's sons, Charles II and Wilhelm , both duchies were under a guardianship government from 1815 to 1823. In 1815 Russia introduced large tariff barriers for the congress Poland , which was under its control and neighboring the Duchy of Oels . The Oelser Tuchmacherei went under, many drapers emigrated to Congress Poland, especially to the nearby Kalisch , where the textile industry was being built up, and became masters in the new factories. From 1820 onwards, new branches of the craft became more and more important, especially the shoemaking and tanning trade. In 1823 a new major fire devastated the city, including the old town hall. A new one was built in the classicism style.
In 1829 the future writer Gustav Freytag moved to Oels to attend grammar school and spent four years there. He left a loving description of the city in his memories from my life . In 1844, later friends Heinrich Förster and Karl von Holtei met at a festive dinner in Oels. Of the approximately 5,500 inhabitants that the city had in 1845, 350 worked as craftsmen: 77 shoemakers, 23 carpenters and 15 wood turners. Oels received a garrison in 1855, with the 2nd Silesian formed in 1860 . Dragoon Regiment (from 1888 Dragoon Regiment King Friedrich III. (2nd Silesian) No. 8 ) contributed to the upswing of the city. His nominal boss from 1860 until his death in 1888 was the popular Prussian (Crown) Prince Friedrich Wilhelm, most recently King and Emperor. The regiment's barracks are on the main road leading out of town and are used for various civil purposes.
The railway line Breslau – Oels – Kreuzburg was opened in 1868. In 1871–1872, the Oels – Groß-Wartenberg – Kempen line was put into operation, which would later lead to Warsaw . The main line of the Oels-Gnesener Railway was added to the north in 1875 . In 1884, Duke Wilhelm II of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Oels died as the last offspring of the older line of the Guelphs . As the last originally Piast duchy in Silesia, the Duchy of Oels has now been dissolved after 550 years of existence. The private property with the castle and estate Sibyllenort (8410 ha) was passed on to the Saxon royal family by will of Duke Wilhelm, which also received the art collections and the library from the Oels castle. The fief were fed into the Prussian state as completed fief and in a throne Lehen converted, the owner of the respective Prussian Prince should be.
From 1884 to 1945
The oil industry continued to develop after 1884. The old artisanal production was converted to factory production, a shoe factory, a sawmill and a grinding mill were created. After marrying Princess Cecilie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1905, Crown Prince Wilhelm took over the rule of the Oels estate. At that time Oels had 10,944 inhabitants. From 1906 to 1909 the castle church was rebuilt in the old style after a collapse. A railway repair shop was built in 1913, which was of great importance for employment in the city. New residential areas, the so-called Neustadt, emerged. In 1919, the former Crown Princess Cecilie and her children moved from Cecilienhof in Potsdam to Schloss Oels. At the same time, Sibyllenort became the home of the last King of Saxony , Friedrich August III. After long negotiations, the Prussian state in 1926 recognized the former feudal throne Oels as private property of the Crown Prince Wilhelm of ( "Waldgut - rule Oels": 7877 hectares, 4894 hectares of forest, 13 estates ). From 1927 to 1939 the Oels castle was extensively restored and modernized.
In 1940 the Nazi authorities set up a forced labor camp for 2,000 people in Oels. After heavy fighting in and around Oels, the city fell on January 25, 1945. It was 60 to 80 percent destroyed, four churches and the town hall were in ruins, but the castle and the castle church (also known as the “Hofkirche”) remained undamaged. In April 1945 Oels was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet authorities . The castle became a Soviet barracks and the valuable furnishings were transferred to the USSR .
post war period
From 1945 to 1947, following the expulsion of the German population by the local Polish administrative authority, the city was settled by Polish people. The new population consists of four groups: a) Poles from poor areas of central and southern Poland, b) Former members of the Polish ethnic minority in areas east of the Curzon Line that fell to the Soviet Union and who refused to accept another nationality, c) Ukrainians forcibly resettled from the Bieszczady Mountains and d) small remnants of the German population who remained after the war . The industry was slowly starting up again. 1960 to 1962 the town hall was rebuilt. 1963 to 1965 the empty plots in the center were built on with houses in the style of that time. In 1964 the city had 23,000 inhabitants. Between 1970 and 1972 the provost church was rebuilt.
In 1975 it was planned to turn Oleśnica into a satellite town for Wroclaw and to build huge prefabricated building districts, but this did not materialize. Oleśnica remained “the city of many towers”.
|1843||6.093||including 115 active military personnel with family members and servants|
|1890||10.167||of which 8,044 Evangelicals, 1,855 Catholics and 268 Jews|
|1825||14,465||thereof 11,055 Evangelicals, 2,937 Catholics, eleven other Christians and 120 Jews|
|1933||15,729||thereof 12,044 Protestants, 3,041 Catholics, five other Christians and 114 Jews|
|1939||16,456||thereof 12,607 Evangelicals, 3,307 Catholics, 41 other Christians and 18 Jews|
It has a station on the Kalety – Wrocław railway line ( Stahlhammer - Breslau ) and the Oleśnica – Chojnice ( Oels - Konitz ) railway line , previously the Herby – Oleśnica ( Herby - Oels ) railway branched off here.
The city is divided into the districts of Centrum, Serbinów, Lucień, Lucień Osiedle, Wądoły, Rataje (Stare, Nowe) and Zielone Ogrody.
The town of Oleśnica has a well-tended old town, which was restored after the Second World War. Numerous architectural monuments testify to the former importance of the city as the capital of the Duchy of Oels.
- The most important building in the city is the Oels Piast Castle . With the inclusion of older components from the 13th to 15th centuries, it was built in the Renaissance style from 1542 to 1616 - however, elements of Mannerism and Baroque can also be found . Noteworthy are the main gate from 1603, adorned with coat of arms, in front of the castle - the back of which shows a sgraffito copy of the front, the castle tower, which, like the entire building, is plastered with Renaissance sgraffitos, and the gables and arcades of the east wing.
- A memorial column (Kolumna Złotych Godów) by Johann Martin Blacha was erected in front of the palace in 1792 to commemorate the golden wedding anniversary of Duke Karl Christian Erdmann (1791) .
- The Castle Church (Hofkirche) St. Johannes (Bazylika Mniejsza pw św. Jana Apostoła) was built from the 13th to the 15th century as a three-aisled, Gothic basilica . Thanks to donations from the local princes, the palace church received rich Renaissance and Mannerist furnishings, especially in the 15th and 16th centuries: In addition to numerous tombs and epitaphs, the wooden gallery with biblical paintings from 1597-1603, the pulpit from 1605 with the saint Christophorus as atlases, the royal box from 1654, the organ from 1686 and the main altar from 1708, whose altar leaves illustrate the Last Supper, the Entombment, Resurrection and Ascension of Christ. In 1908, renovation work in the church caused the collapse of a large part of the church vault - the choir as well as the south wall and the south aisle remained almost intact and the interior fittings were also preserved except for the northern gallery. In the following period, the church was restored in a neo-Gothic style. Otto Linnemann made glass windows from Frankfurt. According to the catalog raisonné 1914 three choir windows, shown u. a. the twelve year old Jesus in the temple, entry into Jerusalem and a window in the princely chapel. The interior of the church has been extensively restored since 1990. In 1998 the Catholic castle church was raised to the rank of a minor basilica . The connection between the church and the nearby castle is linked to the prince's hat, which crowns the 17th century spire, and the baroque princely crypt of the Württemberg-Oels dynasty from 1698, which is attached to the castle church.
- The former evangelical provost church goes back to two adjacent Gothic churches - St. Georg and St. Marien - which date back to the 14th century and were converted into a church in 1505 by tearing down the partition wall. In 1799 the church received a new spire, modeled on that of the Marienkirche in Berlin . After the Second World War, the church became the Orthodox Church for the Dormition of Mary.
- The baroque Church of the Holy Trinity (kościół Świętej Trójcy) was the only Catholic church in the Evangelical Oels for a long time and was built from 1739 to 1744. It hides a baroque interior with an illusionistically painted altar.
- The town hall (ratusz) was built in its current classical form in 1826 or 1892, but its building history dates back to the 14th century. The south wing of the town hall building was completely destroyed in the Second World War, which is why this part was rebuilt in modern forms in the course of the restoration work in the 1960s.
- In front of the town hall is the Victory Column from 1873, which commemorates the Franco-German War of 1870/71.
- Near the city wall is a Gothic building from the 15th century, which was the synagogue of Oels until the local Jews were expelled in 1553 . In 1695 it was redesigned to the Protestant St. Salvatorkirche and rebuilt in 1734 after a fire. Today the church is used by the Pentecostal movement as a place of worship.
- The Gothic Wrocław Gate Tower (Brama Wrocławska) from the 14th century is the most important part of the preserved city fortifications and the only one of the four city gates that has been preserved.
coat of arms
The city coat of arms of Oleśnica shows a silver eagle with a golden halo and raised wings, in the red field, on a golden banner with the words S + IOEVAN (St. John). The eagle is the symbol of John the Evangelist , the patron of the castle church.
- Chrudim , Czech Republic
- Warendorf , Germany
- Hechingen in Baden-Wuerttemberg , after the Second World War sponsored city for the city and the district of Oels
- Jaunay clan , France
The industry in Oleśnica continues the traditions. The largest employer in the city is the railway repair shop, a shoe factory, as well as textile, wood and milling industries and a brick factory. The Belgian upholstered furniture manufacturer ROM has its subsidiary XOFA produce seating furniture for the European market. Some of the residents work in nearby Wroclaw.
sons and daughters of the town
- 1384, Konrad von Oels , † August 9, 1447 in Jeltsch, Duke of Oels and Bernstadt, Prince-Bishop of Breslau and first governor of Silesia
- 1503, January 18, Joachim von Münsterberg , † December 27, 1562 in Breslau, Duke of Münsterberg and Duke of Oels
- 1508, 10/12 June, Hedwig von Münsterberg-Oels , † November 28, 1531 in Liegnitz, Duchess of Münsterberg and Oels as well as Countess von Glatz and Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach
- 1509, November 4, Johann von Münsterberg , † February 28, 1565 in Oels, Duke of Münsterberg, Duke of Oels and Duke of Bernstadt
- 1512, April 30, Georg II. Von Münsterberg , † January 13, 1553 in Oels, Duke of Münsterberg and Duke of Oels
- 1542, April 29, Heinrich III. von Münsterberg-Oels , † April 10, 1587 in Oels, Duke of Münsterberg and Duke of Bernstadt
- 1545, April 15, Karl II. Von Münsterberg , † January 28, 1617 in Oels, Duke of Oels and Duke of Bernstadt
- 1545, May 22, Karl Christoph von Münsterberg , † March 17, 1569 in Oels, Duke of Münsterberg
- 1592, October 7, Heinrich Wenzel von Oels and Bernstadt , † August 21, 1639 presumably in Bernstadt, Duke of Bernstadt
- 1593, June 24th, Abraham von Franckenberg , b. in Ludwigsdorf near Oels, † June 25, 1652 there, Silesian mystic
- 1593, October 18, Karl Friedrich I. von Oels , † May 31, 1647 in Oels, Duke of Oels and Duke of Bernstadt
- 1625, May 11, Elisabeth Marie von Münsterberg-Oels , † March 17, 1686 in Oels, Duchess of Oels
- 1628, January 17, Karl Ortlob , † August 17, 1678 in Breslau, Protestant clergyman and hymn poet
- 1641, January, Gottfried Ferdinand von Buckisch and Löwenfels , † February 19, 1699 in Mainz, legal scholar and historian
- 1644, March 18, Gottfried Wegner , † June 14, 1709 in Königsberg, Lutheran theologian
- 1651, February 21, Sylvius II. Friedrich von Württemberg-Oels , † June 3, 1697 in Oels, Duke of Württemberg-Oels
- 1652, April 9, Christian Ulrich I of Württemberg-Oels , † April 5, 1704 in Oels, Duke of Württemberg-Oels
- 1653, August 18, Julius Siegmund of Württemberg-Juliusburg , † October 15, 1684 in Juliusburg, Duke of Württemberg-Juliusburg
- 1661, August 2, Johann Friedrich Ortlob , † December 12, 1700 in Leipzig, Silesian medic
- ≈1680, Johann Caspar Engelleder , † September 7, 1730 in Hamburg, doctor and alchemist
- 1689, February 3, Christoph Pfeiffer , † December 23, 1758 in Stolz bei Frankenstein, Protestant theologian and hymn poet
- 1729/30, Ernst Sylvius von Prittwitz , † July 6, 1800 in Rathenow near Berlin, royal Prussian lieutenant general, adjutant general and general re-assembly inspector of the cavalry
- 1755, July 16, Johann Ernst Fabri , † May 30, 1825 in Erlangen, writer, geographer, statistician and university professor
- 1788, January 8, Eugen von Württemberg , † September 16, 1857 in Carlsruhe, Imperial Russian General of the Infantry
- 1790, October 11, Karl Friedrich Chlebus , † October 28, 1862 in Berlin, Prussian lieutenant general and commander of the 14th division
- 1792, May 5, Carl Heinrich Zöllner , † July 2, 1836 in Wandsbek, pianist, organist and composer
- 1796, March 20, Louis von Mutius , † August 2, 1866 in Austerlitz, Prussian general
1801 to 1900
- 1806, January 27, Julius Huebner , † November 7, 1882 in Loschwitz near Dresden, painter and gallery director
- 1812, January 26, Albrecht Mann , † 1868, judge and parliamentarian
- 1815, April 22, Otto Knappe von Knappstädt , † February 16, 1906 in Neubrandenburg, Prussian general of the infantry
- 1815, November 14, Adolf Schimmelpfennig , † September 2, 1887 in Breslau, pastor and librarian
- 1817, March 17, Robert von Zimmermann , † January 10, 1878 in Wiesbaden, Prussian major general
- 1819, May 2, Gustav Eduard Becker , † September 17, 1885 in Berchtesgaden, watchmaker and founder of the Gustav Becker watch brand
- 1821, April 3, Rudolf Pringsheim , † October 19, 1906 in Berlin, railway and mining entrepreneur in Upper Silesia
- 1830, January 28, Ferdinand von Massow , † November 19, 1878 in Posen, Prussian major general
- 1831, June 18, Edwin Oppler , † September 6, 1880 in Hanover, architect of the neo-Gothic Hanover School
- 1832, November 23, Valerius von Rothkirch and Panthen , † September 30, 1883 at Panthenau Castle, manor owner and politician
- 1839, September 23, Paul Kleinert , † July 29, 1920 in Berlin, theologian, 1885/86 rector of Berlin University
- 1846, July 7, Hugo Alexander-Katz , † January 5, 1928 in Berlin, lawyer and writer
- 1847, Ludwig Cohnstaedt , † 1934 in Frankfurt am Main, journalist and editor
- 1847, March 25, Theodor Thalheim , † February 4, 1921 in Breslau, classical philologist and legal historian
- 1849, May 4, Felix Lindner , † July 31, 1917 in Rostock, English studies and grammar school teacher
- 1859, April 10, Paul Fritsch , † April 11, 1913 in Marburg / Lahn, chemist
- 1867, December 2, Hermann Kapler , † May 2, 1941 in Berlin, lawyer and Protestant church politician
- 1872, March 17th, Adolf Abicht , † after 1919, Prussian administrative lawyer and district administrator
- 1873 January 5, Paul Brann , † September 1955 in Oxford, puppeteer, writer and actor
- 1877, January 15, Karl Abicht , † February 2, 1962 in Zurich, administrative officer, district administrator and member of parliament
- 1877, February 26, Willy Hellpach , † July 6, 1955 in Heidelberg, physician, psychologist and politician (DDP), MdR
- 1881, June 11, Alexander Zweig , † July 1, 1934 at Hirschberg, doctor and medical writer as well as one of those killed in the "Röhm Putsch"
- 1882, May 31, Antoni Cieszyński , † July 4, 1941 in Lwów, Polish doctor, dentist and surgeon
- 1885, 23 August, Helene Nathan , † 23 October 1940 in Berlin, librarian, library manager and namesake of the Helene Nathan Library in Berlin-Neukölln
- 1886, April 19, Wolf-Dietrich von Witzleben , † January 11, 1970, entrepreneur
- 1892, February 3, Gert von Klass , † 1971 in Schleswig, business journalist, writer and screenwriter
- 1895, January 11, Fred Malige , † December 21, 1985 in Leipzig, violinist and composer
- 1924, March 15, Herbert Krolikowski , † November 28, 2012 in Berlin, diplomat, GDR ambassador to the ČSSR (1969–73), deputy Foreign Minister of the GDR (1975-90)
- 1924, April 3, Werner Schattmann , † October 31, 2014 in Munich, lawyer and diplomat
- 1924, April 8, Ewald Hanstein , † September 4, 2009 in Bremen, Sinto and survivor of the Holocaust
- 1926, May 13, Ernst-Wilhelm Stojan , † July 19, 2018, politician (SPD)
- 1928, March 12, Werner Krolikowski , politician (SED), deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the GDR
- 1931, May 20, Johannes Polke , † August 7, 2013 in Bad Kreuznach, theologian and local researcher
- 1932, July 30, Wilfrid Polke , † July 21, 2014 in Düsseldorf, painter and sculptor
- 1935, May 30, Dietrich Kittner , † February 15, 2013 in Bad Radkersburg (Austria), cabaret artist
- 1938, April 23, Dietmar N. Schmidt , † August 14, 2007 in Wuppertal, cultural manager, theater critic, author and director
- 1941, February 13, Sigmar Polke , † June 11, 2010 in Cologne, painter and photographer
- 1941, April 2, Klaus Sommerkorn , † July 31, 2010 in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, politician (SPD)
- 1943, Hubertus Gojowczyk , object and concept artist
- 1943, June 5, Miriam Frances , † April 1, 2014 in Düsseldorf, lyricist and poet
- 1943, December 12th, Falco Kapuste , ballet dancer, trainer and choreographer
- 1944, July 14, Walter Mende , † August 11, 2018 in Leverkusen, politician (SPD), Lord Mayor of Leverkusen
- 1967, December 2nd, Wojciech Bartnik , boxer
- 1970, Wojciech Jan Browarny , literary historian, literary critic and politician
- 1973, June 15, Anna Jadowska , film director and screenwriter
- 1977, October 12, Kasia Glowicka , composer
- 1981, June 19, Martin Abadir , handball player with Austrian citizenship
- City website (Polish, English)
- History of Oleśnica (Polish)
- Old postcards Oels (Polish)
- Oil . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 12, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, pp. 382–383.
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Michael Sachs: 'Prince Bishop and Vagabond'. The story of a friendship between the Prince-Bishop of Breslau Heinrich Förster (1799–1881) and the writer and actor Karl von Holtei (1798–1880). Edited textually based on the original Holteis manuscript. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 35, 2016 (2018), pp. 223–291 and 282.
- Website of the city, Historia miasta ( Memento of the original from July 26, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed August 7, 2012
- W. Dieterich (Ed.): The statistical tables of the Prussian state after the official recording of 1843 . Berlin 1845, p. 207 .
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. oels.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- See http://olesnica.nienaltowski.net/BazylikaMniejsza.htm