|Voivodeship :||Lower Silesia|
|Area :||27.30 km²|
|Geographic location :||50 ° 57 ′ N , 17 ° 18 ′ E|
|Height :||133 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||55-200|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 71|
|License plate :||DOA|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Brzeg - Wroclaw|
|Rail route :||Brzeg – Wroclaw|
|Next international airport :||Wroclaw|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||1210 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0215011|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|Mayor :||Tomasz Frischmann|
|Address:||pl. Zamkowy 15
Oława [ ɔˈwava ] (German Ohlau ) is a city in the Polish Lower Silesian Voivodeship . It is the seat of the Powiat Oławski ( Oława district ), forms its own municipality and is also the seat of the Gmina Oława , a rural municipality that includes the surrounding villages. Since 1348/1349 the city was the residence of the Duchy of Ohlau , which was ruled by the Silesian Piasts until 1675 .
The city is located in Lower Silesia between the rivers Ohle ( Oława ) and Oder , about 35 kilometers southeast of Wroclaw .
The first mention of Ohlaw is for the year 1149. It can be found in a document that confirms the donation of the Old Slavic settlement of Olava to the Abbey of St. Vincent in Wroclaw . In 1206, Ohlau came to Duke Heinrich I of Silesia in exchange for Hundsfeld , who settled the city in the course of the German settlement in the east and gave it city rights in 1234 . In 1241 Ohlau was destroyed by the Mongols . After it was rebuilt, it was the seat of a castellany from 1282 . The characteristic rooster as a heraldic animal is said to go back to Walloon weavers who had settled in the area at that time.
Together with the Duchy of Brieg , to which it belonged at that time, Ohlau came to the Crown of Bohemia as a fief in 1327 , which was confirmed in the Treaty of Trenčín in 1335 . In 1338 Ohlau acquired the privilege of selling salt and collecting salt, and in 1361 the guilds of weavers, bakers, shoemakers and butchers are documented. In 1362 the city bought the hereditary bailiwick, in 1364 market rights. In 1370 she obtained the right to build further junk shops, a cloth shop and a weighing house and at the end of the 14th century it was granted higher jurisdiction. In 1448 Ohlau was destroyed by the Hussites . The Reformation , which was supported by the ruling dukes, was able to spread since 1534 . In 1544 the first bridge was built over the Oder, and in 1588 a plague epidemic swept large parts of the population. In the 16th and 17th centuries Ohlau experienced an economic boom, which was interrupted by the Thirty Years War . After the imperial general Hans Ulrich von Schaffgotsch had fled to Ohlau in November 1633 before the persecution by Sweden and Saxony and was arrested on February 24, 1634, his successor had Ohlau set on fire as the enemy approached. Unless the population had fled before, they withdrew to the castle.
With the death of Duke Georg Wilhelm I , with whom the Silesian Piast dynasty became extinct in 1675, Ohlau and the Duchy of Ohlau fell back to the Crown of Bohemia, which had been owned by the Habsburgs since 1526 . In 1691, Emperor Leopold I, in his capacity as King of Bohemia, pledged the town and rule of Ohlau to his brother-in-law Jakob Ludwig Sobieski , who was married to Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia von Pfalz-Neuburg . At his instigation, the Catholic Rochus Chapel was built in front of the Brieger Tor in 1706. After his death in 1737 Ohlau again fell to the Bohemian sovereign.
After the First Silesian War , the city fell to Prussia in 1742 . The fortifications damaged in the Silesian Wars were later removed. 1816 Oława county seat was the district Oława in district Breslau . A garrison of hussars was housed in Ohlau . In the 18th and 19th centuries Ohlau experienced an economic boom and became a center of tobacco cultivation . In 1842 the first railway in Silesia ( and thus today's Poland ) was opened between Oława and Wrocław .
After the Second World War , Ohlau was about half destroyed. The city was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying forces . The German city was given the Polish name of Oława . The native German population was almost completely expelled by the local Polish administrative authority . It was not until the mid-1960s that the pre-war population was reached again. Most of the resettlers from areas east of the Curzon Line who had belonged to Polish minorities in these so-called Kresy areas that fell to the Soviet Union were settled in the city . In 1950, the area had the highest proportion of Polish resettlers from the Kresy areas of the total population in Silesia, at 68.4%. This was followed by strong growth in the city and the construction of new (prefabricated) housing developments. Until 1992, Oława was the location of a garrison of the Soviet armed forces .
|1840||5,315||without garrison 4,706|
|1890||8,632||including 5,611 Evangelicals, 2,872 Catholics and 146 Jews|
|1925||11,412||7,628 Protestants, 3,568 Catholics, seven other Christians, 53 Jews|
|1933||12,267||thereof 8,342 Evangelicals, 3,633 Catholics, no other Christian, 38 Jews|
|1939||12,414||thereof 8,426 Evangelicals, 3,679 Catholics, twelve other Christians, 18 Jews|
coat of arms
The coat of arms of the city of Ohlau shows a silver rooster turned to the left on a red shield. This representation appears for the first time in 1334 in a city seal.
The city of Oława has partnerships with the following cities:
- Zolochiv , Ukraine
- Oberasbach , Bavaria
- Česká Třebová , Czech Republic
- Sighetu Marmației , Romania
Despite the damage of Ohlaus in the Second World War, the expedient reconstruction of Oława after the war with apartment blocks in the socialist style and the later decline of the city, some of the historical buildings could be preserved. Today, especially on the north-east and west side of the ring and on ul. Wrocławska, there are historic town houses that are worth seeing, such as the baroque building of the pharmacy, which today houses the registry office.
The oldest preserved part of the town hall is the tower, which was built between 1637 and 1668, with its characteristic spire. On the tower there is a valuable clock from 1728, there is the death of Ohlau , a scythe-wielding skeleton figure. Other moving figures are the ruler of time and a rooster chasing a hen. There is also a moon clock there. The town hall itself is late Classicist and was built from 1823 to 1830 according to plans by the Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel .
City parish church
The parish church was first mentioned in 1201. The Gothic choir was completed around 1300 and vaulted with a star vault in the 15th century, the nave was built from 1587 to 1589 as a three-aisled pseudo - basilica . Overall, the church extends over five bays in the nave and two bays in the lower choir and is 50 m long and 30 m wide. After severe destruction in the Thirty Years' War in 1634, the church was rebuilt in 1691 and 1692. The church tower suffered severe damage as a result of a lightning strike in 1881, and the baroque spire was destroyed in the process. In 1886 the tower was raised in the neo-Gothic style to a height of 62 m. Despite the turbulent history a remarkable interior could get in the church: In addition to some Renaissance - epitaphs deserve the Renaissance pulpit and the Baroque organ attention, the main altar is neo-Gothic. From 1534 to 1699 and 1707 to 1945 the church was Protestant (parish church St. Blasius and Speratus), since 1945 it has been Catholic again after the escape and expulsion of the German population (city parish church Maria Trost).
The Castle Oława on Palace Square was built in the 14th century by Duke Ludwig II. († 1436) of Legnica-Brieg as a substitute for the Hussite Wars erected ruined castle on the other side of town. Today's palace consists only of the Luisenbau, which was built under Duke Joachim Friedrich and later his wife Luise von Anhalt from 1659 to 1680 by the architect Carlo Rossi in the Baroque style. Their coats of arms were preserved on the building. The rest of the palace area was redesigned again in the 18th century by the then pledgee Jakob Louis Heinrich Sobieski , but fell into disrepair after his death and was partially demolished in the 19th century. After the Second World War, the Luisenbau was renovated and housed the city administration.
St. Peter and Paul
The Catholic parish church of St. Peter and Paul is right next to the castle . It was built from 1833 to 1835 in place of the ruined Christian building of the palace according to Schinkel's plans. After a fire, it was rebuilt in modern forms in 1927.
The Oława long-distance train station is on the Bytom – Wrocław railway line . The former Ohlauer Kleinbahn is no longer in operation.
- Johann Christian von Liegnitz-Brieg (1591–1639), Duke of Brieg, Liegnitz, Wohlau and Ohlau
- Christian von Liegnitz-Brieg (1618–1672), Duke of Brieg, Liegnitz, Wohlau and Ohlau
- Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702–1735), Polish princess
- Ernst Gottlob Jäkel (1788–1840), German educator and philologist
- Ernst Heinrich Leopold Richter (1805–1876), composer and music teacher
- Johann Baptist Alzog (1808–1878), Catholic theologian and church historian
- Alexis Langer (1825–1904), German neo-Gothic master builder
- Alfred Pringsheim (1850–1941), mathematician and art collector, father-in-law of Thomas Mann
- Otto Fiebach (1851–1937), organist, composer and music director in Königsberg
- Hermann Eberhard (1852–1908), adventurer and captain
- Max Kolde (1854–1889), architect and university professor
- Carl Herlitz (1867–1939), founder of the family company Herlitz
- Georg Dettmar (1871–1950), engineer and university professor
- Bernhard Lichtenberg (1875–1943), Catholic priest in the resistance against National Socialism
- Richard Peter (1895–1977), photographer
- Leopold Lichtwitz (1876–1943), doctor
- Alfred Gellhorn (1885–1972), German-Jewish architect
- Conrad Prange (1887–1946), District Administrator in the Free State of Prussia
- Egon Brosig (1889–1961), actor and singer
- Konrad Hahm (1892–1943), German folklorist
- Bernd Eistert (1902–1978), chemist
- Peter Graf Yorck von Wartenburg (1904–1944), resistance fighter against National Socialism
- Heinz-Andreas Ehm (1920–1985), actor and director
- Lothar Wenzel (1924–1983), diplomat, from 1972 to 1975 first ambassador of the GDR to Bangladesh
- Tom Witkowski (* 1937), German actor, director and lecturer
- Hans Kloss (1938–2018), painter and graphic artist
- Hans-Georg Specht (* 1940), Lord Mayor of Mülheim an der Ruhr
- Roman Kaczor (* 1956), politician
- Tadeusz Wolsza (* 1956), historian
- Adam Wójcik (1970–2017), basketball player
- Paweł Mykietyn (* 1971), composer
- Grzegorz Kleszcz (* 1977), weightlifter
- Szymon Kołecki (* 1981), weightlifter
- Maciej Bodnar (* 1985), cyclist
- Konrad Forenc (* 1992), soccer player
- Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , pp. 373-378.
- Website of the City of Oława (German)
- Oława City Council Information Page (Polish)
- Historical and current recordings as well as geographical location
- ↑ a b population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- ↑ City website (BIP), Władze Miasta , accessed on January 27, 2015
- ↑ a b cf. Johann Georg Knie: Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, towns, cities and other places of the royal family. Preuss. Province of Silesia. Wroclaw 1845
- ↑ Notation according to Handb. Hist. Stätten, p. 373.
- ↑ cf. um.olawa.pl ab . on September 26, 2008
- ↑ See um.olawa.pl ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. down. on September 26, 2008
- ↑ http://www.sbc.org.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=808&from=pubstats
- ↑ http://www.zeno.org/Herder-1854/A/Ohlau?hl=ohlau
- ↑ a b c d e f Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. ohlau.html # ew39ohlaohlau. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- ↑ http://www.retrobibliothek.de/retrobib/seite.html?id=112104
- ↑ http://www.zeno.org/Meyers-1905/A/Ohlau+%5B2%5D?hl=ohlau
- ↑ http://www.gemeindeververzeichnis.de/gem1900/gem1900.htm?schlesien/ohlau.htm
- ↑ http://www.um.olawa.pl/index.php?n=olawa45 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b c GUS ( Memento of the original from February 16, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.